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THE 



FILM & VIDEO MONTHLY 



MARCH 1982 



INDEPENDENT 




CHICAGO '82 MARKET 



FOR NEW • • • • • 

INDEPENDENTLY-MADE 
FILMS & VIDEOTAPES* 



From April 28 to May 2, the National Alliance of Media Arts Centers will conduct a conference 
in Chicago. A prime objective of the conference will be the screening, for scores of attending 
programmers from media centers all around the United States, of new independently-made 
films and videotapes released during the past two years. All films and tapes submitted to this 
MARKET will be listed in a catalog to be published in conjunction with the conference. There will 
be no entry fee, and in most cases film and videomakers will not have to pay any shipping 
charges. Makers are limited to no more than three films or tapes, and/or no more than two 
hours (total) of films/tapes. All submitted films must be 16mm; all tapes must be 3 /4-inch 
cassette— all release prints. Films will be projected at the request of the attending program- 
mers, and will be handled with care. All films must be delivered to stipulated sites by April 10, 
and will be available for pickup at those same sites on May 10. If you wish to enter this market, 
write immediately to NAMAC MARKET, 80 Wooster Street, New York, NY 10012, and instructions 
will be sent to you. Or call (212) 226-0010, and ask for Robert Haller. 



NATIONAL ALLIANCE OF MEDIA ARTS CENTERS 

80 WOOSTER STREET • NEW YORK, NY 10012 • (212) 226-0010 



CINETUDES FILM PRODUCTIONS, LTD 

295 W. 4th Street, New York City 10014 • 966-4600 

EDITING & POST-PRODUCTION FACILITIES 

16mm & 35mm 



ATELIER CINEMA VIDEO STAGES 

295 W. 4th Street, New York City 10014 • 243-3550 



THE INDEPENDENT 



THE 



INDEPENDENT 

MARCH 1982 • VOLUME 5, NUMBER 1 



Publisher: Lawrence Sapadin 

Editor: Kathleen Hulser 
Assistant Editor: Fran Piatt 

Contributing Editors: Mitchell W. Block, 

Suyapa Odessa Flores, John Greyson, 

David Leitner, Wendy Lidell, Susan Linfield 

Contributors: Ralph Arlyck, Thomas 

Arnold, Sian Evans, Richard Miller, Ken 

Stier, Bernard Timberg, Michael Toms, 

Barton Weiss 

Designer: Deborah Thomas 

Art Director: John Greyson 

Advertising Director: Michelle Slater 

Staff Photographer: Sol Rubin 

Typesetting: Compositype Studio 

Printing: Red Ink 

• 

THE INDEPENDENT is published 10 
times yearly by the Foundation for Indepen- 
dent Video and Film, Inc. (FIVF), 625 Broad- 
way, 9th Floor, New York, NY 10012, a non- 
profit, tax-exempt service organization 
dedicated to the promotion of independent 
video and film. Publication of THE IN- 
DEPENDENT is made possible, in part, with 
public funds from the New York State Council 
on the Arts and the National Endowment for 
the Arts, a Federal agency. 

Subscription is included with membership in 
the Association of Independent Video and 
Filmmakers, Inc. (AIVF), the trade associa- 
tion sister of FIVF. AIVF is a national 
association of independent producers, direc- 
tors, technicians and supporters of indepen- 
dent video and film. Together, FIVF and 
AIVF provide a broad range of educational 
and professional services and advocacy for in- 
dependents and the general public. 

Articles in The Independent are contributed 
by our members and supporters. If you have 
an idea for, or wish to contribute an article to, 
The Independent, contact the Editor at the 
above address. 

The viewpoints expressed herein are not in- 
tended to reflect the opinion of the Board of 
Directors— they are as diverse as our member, 
staff and reader contributors. 



AIVF/FIVF Staff Members: Lawrence Sapadin, 
Executive Director; Wendy Lidell, Assistant Director; 
John Oreyson, Media Coordinator; Sol Horwitz, 
Short Film Showcase Project Administrator; Susan 
Linfield, Short Film Showcase Administrative Assis- 
tant; Fran Piatt, Membership Developer; Suyapa 
Odessa Flores, Administrative Assistant. 

AIVF/FIVF Board of Directors: Jane Morrison, 
President; Marc Weiss, Vice President; Kathy Kline, 
Secretary; Matt Clarke, Treasurer (FIVF Board); 
Richard Schmiechen, Chair; Eric Breitbart, Pablo 
Figueroa, Jessie Maple, Kitty Morgan, Judy Irola, 
Manny Kirchheimer, Robert Richter; Lawrence 
Sapadin (Ex Officio). 



A PUBLICATION OF 

THE FOUNDATION FOR 

INDEPENDENT VIDEO & FILM 



CONTENTS 



Columns 

CPB Attempts to Gut Program Fund. . .and other stories 4 

Media Clips • John Greyson 

Latin Cultures Connect at Cuba Fest 5 

Festivals • Odessa Flores 

On Union Biz: Nabet Woos Indies 6 

Labor • Richard Miller 

In Praise of Color Negative 8 

In Focus • David Leitner 

Muzzled Again? South Africa's Free Speech 16 

AIVF Forum • Also, Patco Plaint 

Notices & More Festivals 19 

Editors • Odessa Flores & Wendy Lidell 

Features 

Tangled Tactics: Big Apple Cable Franchise 9 

Part One: History & Fate of Access • Kenneth Stier 

Voices From The Hinterlands: Part Four 13 

Interviews • Bernard Timberg & Thomas Arnold 

The Sound & The Fury: Audio Independents Speak Out 15 

Independent Radio • Michael Toms 

Cover Photo: Kenneth Stier (I.) and Julio Worcman (camera) conducting interview out- 
side City Hall for NYC's government/community cable access Channel L . . . See page 9 



CORRESPONDENCE 



HEROIC EFFORTS FAIL 

Dear AIVF: 

In the December issue of the Independent, 
Howard Petrick writes of the political con- 
siderations that he thinks are preventing his 
film, The Case of the Legless Veteran: 
James Kutcher, from being broadcast on 
PBS. I read of this with great interest 
because I have been faced with similar disap- 
pointments during the past year. While cir- 
culating my own half-hour documentary en- 
titled Hobie's Heroes, I've found it perplex- 
ing to have it highly praised by many sources 
and then so coldly turned down by others. 
One never knows quite what to make of a 
rejection. It is certainly an affront to the ego 
and this can blur one's assessment of the 
situation. However, there are times when 
one must question the politics of the person 
or organization involved in rejecting the 
film. 

An example of my experience was the day 
I brought my fim in to be considered for 
screening by AIVF. For five years, as a 
member, I had been inspired by fellow- 



members' films at AIVF screenings. I was 
looking forward to having people from 
AIVF see my work, as many had not. AIVF 
and the monthly Independent were instru- 
mental in the making of Hobie's Heroes. 
They provided me with valuable production 
information and encouragement as I worked 
for two years to finish the film. Articles by 
Mitchell Block assisted me in dealing with 
confusing legal questions and in choosing 
between four non-theatrical distributors who 
wanted to handle the film. Upon comple- 
tion, notices in the Independent were 
responsible for directing the film towards 
these successes: 

1. Awards in several major film festivals. 

2. A screening at The Museum of Modern 



Art. 



Continued on page 18 



The Independent welcomes letters to the 
editor. Send them to The Independent, 
FIVF, 625 Broadway, 9th floor, New York 
NY 10012. Letters may be edited for length 
and clarity. 



MARCH 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



MEDIA CLIPS 



CPB CONSIDERS 
GUTTING PROGRAM FUND 



JOHN GREY SON 

At the Corporation for Public Broad- 
casting (CPB)'s January 7 Board meeting, 
President Edward Pfister delivered a one- 
two combination to the independent produc- 
ing community with the elan of a top-flight 
contender. The first blow was contained 
within a thirty-six page appraisal of CPB's 
Program Fund, formed in 1979 to select and 
fund public television programs at the na- 
tional level. Pfister's proposed options for 
the Fund's future include rerouting the 
grants to outside "entities"— presumably sta- 
tion consortia — instead of going directly to 
independent producers. While this would 
seem to contradict directly the 1978 Con- 
gressonal mandate that "a substantial 
amount" of Program Fund monies be 
reserved for independent producers, with 
special attention to small independents, no 
Board member raised this issue. The vital 
distinction between a PTV station subcon- 
tracting an independent to produce a show 
for a PBS series and an independent produc- 
ing his or her own program was conveniently 
overlooked. 

Pfister's below-the-belt clincher took the 
o form of a handout: he announced that the 
£ Program Fund is giving $5 million to 
§ WGBH in Boston, with a consortium of 
| four other public TV stations, to produce a 
° twenty-six week documentary series for 
PTV. David Fanning of WGBH's World 
series will serve as executive producer, inte- 
grating eight World co-productions with 
Britain's fourth channel into the new pack- 
age. This blatant illustration of how the 
Fund's new system could work happens to 
constitute the largest single program produc- 
tion grant ever awarded to anybody. In a let- 
ter to Pfister, AIVF's Lawrence Sapadin 
protested: "A producer who is hired by a 
public television station to film or tape a 
subject developed by an editorial board and 
controlled by an executive producer is not 
independent in any meaningful sense of the 
word." 

This is especially true in this case. Less 
than four years ago, when World was just 
getting started, Fanning cancelled the screen- 
ing of one of the programs in the series to 
"frame it" (his words) for US audiences. The 
show, Blacks Britannica, an analysis of 
race/class relations and brutal police repres- 
sion in Britain, was finally aired three weeks 
later. Four minutes had been eliminated (in- 
cluding a scene where police take target 
practice at life-size black cut-outs), and 



numerous scenes had been rearranged and 
reedited to make it, in producer David 
Koff's eyes, a completely different version. 
With that sort of track record, Fanning's 
talk of creating an "identity" for this new 
series sounds decidedly dangerous— but 
Pfister's proposed plan would guarantee that 
sort of executive control. 

The impetus behind this two-part attack 
on the Program Fund's autonomous role in 
developing independent programming comes 
from several fronts: 1) CPB desires, in 




Board member Geoffrey Cowan's words, "a 
blockbuster like Sesame Street." Obviously, 
they feel Crisis to Crisis and Matters of Life 
and Death, the two Program Fund series 
produced almost entirely by independents 
will not command such acclaim when they 
air this spring, and don't feel they have the 
time to wait and see. 2) Further cutbacks in 
federal funding which makes combining 
Program Fund money with station funds 
superficially cost-efficient. 3) Finally, CPB's 
frustration at having been unable to get its 
programs on PBS' core schedule. 

The Board is meeting again on March 3 
and 4 to vote on Pfister's proposals, ones 
that he made without consulting the inde- 
pendent community first, even though this 
community (through AIVF) was instrumen- 
tal in establishing the Program Fund in the 
first place. AIVF has reorganized a public 
TV committee which will be preparing a 
position to present to the CPB Board at its 
March meeting. Anyone interested in getting 
involved should call John Greyson at (212) 
473-3400. 



TOUCHE TWO-WAY 

New York Attorney General Robert 
Abrams has proposed a law designed to pro- 
tect the privacy of two-way cable sub- 
scribers. According to Abrams, the two-way 
cable system poses a threat to personal 
privacy because of the potential for un- 
authorized disclosure of confidential infor- 
mation. Abrams says the cable television 
operator is being entrusted with details of 
the subscriber's entertainment and consumer 
product choices, personal finances, medical 
history and opinions. "Subscribers must be 
assured that this information will not be 
disclosed to third parties or to government 
authorities without their authorization." The 
bill requires that cable operators obtain the 
subscriber's consent before revealing data, 
tell the subscriber why the information is be- 
ing released and describe what is being dis- 
closed. Warner Amex Cable Communica- 
tions, which pioneered interactive cable in 
Columbus, Ohio, and now offers it in Cin- 
cinnati, requires a subpoena or court order 
before it releases subscriber information to 
government agencies. It also allows sub- 
scribers to remove their names from mailing 
lists to be released to third parties. 

BIGGER FISH TO FRY 

Obviously AT&T couldn't wait for the 
two phone bills (S.898 and HR 5 158 -see 
February Independent) to scuff their way 
through due process in Washington. Out of 
the blue, in a decision CableVision magazine 
has called "one of the most monumental 
agreements in this century," the Justice De- 
partment has unleashed AT&T. The agree- 
ment is a modification of the 1956 Consent 
Decree, which prohibited AT&T from com- 
peting in unregulated markets. In exchange 
for permission to enter the enhanced service 
realm, AT&T must split itself down the mid- 
dle, dumping its 22 local operating com- 
panies (LOCS), whose net estimated worth 
exceeds $89 billion. Don't worry— the re- 
maining Bell Division (Western Electric, Bell 
Laboratories and Long Lines) will remain 
comfortably afloat with approximately $47 
billion in assets, certainly enough to explore 
information age vistas that until now were 
forbidden: computers, data processing and 
cable. 

Opinion is divided as to whether this is a 
coup or a catastrophe for Ma Bell. On the 
one hand, the divestiture cost them nearly 
two-thirds of their assets, and the cable 
market has not yet proven its future viabili- 
ty. As Bob Ross, a Washington telecom- 
munications lawyer, points out: "Just 
because AT&T is big and has access to 
capital (and the research and development 
capacity of Bell Laboratories) doesn't 
necessarily mean it's going to capture the 
market." 

Predictably, the cable industry is less than 
pleased with the agreement. Now that AT&T 

MARCH 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



FESTIVALS 



no longer controls the local phone wire run- 
ning into the homes of the nation (because 
of the split in the corporation), it no longer 
has monopoly control, and cable could po- 
tentially become the new monopoly. Yet this 
potential bottleneck control might provoke 
legislation which would then define cable as 
a common carrier service, which in turn 
would probably require a separation within 
the cable companies between service vs. pro- 
gramming. In other words, those who own 
the wires can't produce the shows. Indeed, 
some feel that AT&T may avoid direct parti- 
cipation in cable ownership. Stephen Effros, 
Executive Director of the Gommunity 
Antenna TV Association, suspects, "They 
have bigger fish to fry." 

Timothy Wirth, House Subcommittee on 
Telecommunications Chair, author of HR 
5158 and champion of competition within 
the telecommunications sector, feels that the 
AT&T/Justice Department's agreement is 
"absolutely workable" as long as it is coupled 
with the legislation (whose could he mean?) 
in progress. Others are peeved at the way the 
bargain was struck. "A closed-door agree- 
ment between two litigants in a court suit is 
no substitute for a comprehensive review of 
communications policy," said Thomas 
Wheeler, president of the National Cable 
Television Association. Meanwhile, the 
Justice Department itself doesn't seem sure 
whether its eight-year-old antitrust suit 
against AT&T is still on the books. While 
AT&T lawyers say the case is now history, 
Federal Judge Harold Greene refuses to 
dismiss the lawsuit from his court, saying the 
suit is "too important to have it concluded in 
a haphazard manner." In the midst of the 
chaos, that's probably one of the very few 
statements that's not a two-edged sword. 

FAIR IS FAIR IS FAIR 

The Democratic National Committee has 
filed a fairness doctrine complaint with the 
FCC, objecting to NBC's and CBS's accep- 
tance of Republican ads supporting Presi- 
dent Reagan's economic program without 
providing contrasting views. The DNC first 
threatened to challenge the network last 
October if they didn't provide time for op- 
posing views. Both CBS and NBC rejected 
DNC's demands for time. Out of the big 
three, ABC was the only one who refused to 
air the ads. 

Meanwhile, the Pacifica Foundation is 
back at the FCC one more time, appealing a 
petition filed by the American Legal Foun- 
dation. The ALF is seeking a denial of 
Pacifica's WPFW license renewal, claiming 
that the radio station has, among other 
things, violated the fairness doctrine and 
broadcast obscenities. The National Black 
Media Coalition, speaking on Pacifica's 
behalf, has charged that the ALF's petitions 
represent a "deliberate effort to silence a 
liberal progressive radio station." ■ 

MARCH 1982 



LATIN CULTURES 
CONNECT AT CUBAN FEST 



SUYAPA ODESSA FLORES 

On December 4-13, 1981, the Third 
Annual International Festival of Latin 
American Film was held in Havana, Cuba. 
One hundred and sixty films representing 38 
countries participated in the event, including 
documentaries, fiction and animation films. 
Attendance was estimated at 230 individuals. 

The festival was organized to bring 
together filmmakers whose work enriches 
the cultures of the Americas, and to pro- 
mote their films. The Third Market Of New 
Latin American Cinema (MECLA), created 
for this purpose, plays an important role in 
developing and extending international dis- 
tribution as well as in facilitating relations 
with producers all over the world. The In- 
stitute of Cinema Art (ICAIC) makes 
screening facilities available for those buyers 
who are more interested in purchasing films 
than in the competition. 

In addition to its traditional functions, the 
Third International Festival also organized 
three seminars: Films, Culture and Cultural 
Genocide in Puerto Rico; The Mass Media, 
National Culture and Imperialist Cultural 
Penetration; and Films and Poetic Imagina- 
tion, all of which were dedicated to prob- 
lems in cinematographic culture and cultural 
independence. 

Special events included: 

1. screening of new Latin American films 

2. Latin American Movie Poster Design 
Contest, in which 3 Coral Prizes were 
awarded 

3. presentation of socialist films 

4. projection of videotapes 

The international jury announced the win- 
ners on the last day of the festival. The jury, 
composed of ten members, awarded the 
Grand Coral Prize for Best Non-Latin 
American Documentary to AIVF member 
Glenn Silber and Tete Vasconcellos for their 
well-known film, El Salvador: Another Viet- 
nam? For the Best Non-Latin American 
Feature, the Grand Coral prize went to film- 
maker Robert Young for /Alambrista!. The 
Union of Writers and Artists (UNEAC) 
awarded their prize to Latin American Film- 
maker Ana Maria Garcia, also an AIVF 
member, for her film The Operation. The 
Decision to Win, a film by a collective of 
young Salvadorian filmmakers called Zero a 
la Izquierda (the "Good-for-Nothings") was 
awarded the Grand Coral Prize for Best 
Latin American Documentary. 



Young Filmakers/Video Arts, with the 
assistance of Rodger Larson, Susan Fanshel, 
Rodi Broullon of Unifilm and FIVF's 
Odessa Flores and Wendy Lidell, collected 
six films by North American independents 
and had them hand-delivered to the festival 
for selection and screening. These titles in- 
cluded: Nicaragua 1979: Scenes From The 
Revolution by John Chapman; The Stranger 
and The Magic Junkman, both films from 
the series Oye Willie, produced by Latino 
TV Broadcasting; Rufino Tamayo: The 
Source by Gary Conklin; Percussion, Im- 
pression and Reality, produced by Third 
World Newsreel; and Joey, a film by 
Raymond Telles. 

Susan Fanshel, an independent filmmaker 
who attended the festival, explained, "Films 
varied greatly in both quality and sophisti- 
cation, reflecting the wide range of par- 
ticipation from countries like Nicaragua and 
Peru which are just developing their own 
cinema to those countries like Mexico and 
Brazil where highly developed film industries 
exist." Fanshel found this year's festival "a 
well-organized, well-attended, high-spirited 
event." 

For the 1982 International Latin 
American Film Festival, we strongly en- 
courage the participation of more North 
American filmmakers. As Ana Maria Garcia 
explained, "The festival is a grand oppor- 
tunity for all filmmakers to share and explore 
films being produced in this continent." 

For information on the Fourth Interna- 
tional Festival of Latin American Films, 
contact the AIVF's Festival Bureau at: (212) 
473-3400. 

DELPHI 

DELPHI INTERNATIONAL FILM 

FESTIVAL, June, will take place for the 
first time in 1982. The festival organizers 
have publicized the event worldwide, in- 
viting works in 35 and 16mm. Their an- 
nouncement begins with the Delphic Oracle: 
"Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the 
Law," which represents the spirit of the 
festival very well. Other excerpts from the 
declaration of principles include: 

"Whatever criteria may be employed in 
pre-selecting films by festival committees 
anywhere in the world, and whether such 
criteria are used for determining the genre or 
quality of a film, we consider them to be in 
essence ideological, in that they are mainly 



THE INDEPENDENT 



used to shape or influence the political 
beliefs of the viewing public . . . 

"We firmly believe that all such principles 
and values imposed upon the public con- 
stitute an arbitrary act. They are a hindrance 
to the free development of the medium; a 
hindrance created and condoned by larger 
self-interests within society, rather than as a 
free dialectic exchange between the film- 
makers and the viewing public." 

There will be no judging, no awards and 
no censorship on any grounds. Films will be 
shown on a first-come-first-seen basis from 
March 21 through the last day of the festival 
in June. Rumor has it that Stan Brakhage 
and P. Adams Sitney will attend. All ac- 
tivities of the festival will take place in 
Delphi in the underdeveloped province of 
Fokida. The festival organizers hope that all 
benefits — both cultural and economic — will 
go to the people of that province. Entry fees 
range from $30-$40 per 15 minutes of film. 
Contact: Dimitris Spentzos, Delphi Interna- 
tional Film Festival, Delphi, Greece. A 
group shipment is possible: contact your 
nearest Greek consultate or the FIVF office 
where applications are available. —S.E. 

ATHENS 

ATHENS INTERNATIONAL FILM 
FESTIVAL, April 30-May 8, is considered 
the largest film and video exhibition in the 
Midwest. The theme varies. Past topics have 
included animation and women in film, and 
the present theme is Art, Technology and 
the Moving Image. This year the film and 
video festivals have been combined, and 
some 800 entries are expected from 20 coun- 
tries. The festival sponsors a variety of view- 
ings. The Qube cable systems in Columbus, 
and possibly in Cincinnati and Pittsburgh as 
well, will screen a selected 5-6 hours of the 
shorter films (up to 15 min.) from Athens. 
The audience selects the winners through the 
Qube interactive communication system. 
There is also a non-competitive screening of 
premier foreign films, which a panel of in- 
dependents, teachers and community repre- 
sentatives selects. These screenings serve to 
bring foreign films of merit to the Midwest 
area, where distributors can pick them up. 
The third event presents the work of in- 
dependents on the festival theme, with the 
bulk tending to be documentaries and short 
films. A series of workshops accompany the 
festival and bring eminent artists, indepen- 
dent producers and related professionals to 
the town of Athens from all over the US. 
Entries are due March 8. Contact: Giulio 
Scalinger, PO Box 388, Athens OH 45701. 

- S.E. 

SINKING CREEK 

SINKING CREEK FILM CELEBRATION, 
June 15-19, has been held since 1969 at the 
Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Ten- 
6 



nessee. A plethora of workshops accompany 
the viewings, with past workshops having 
covered Super-8 production, talks by Louis 
Hock, Al Jarnow, Appalshop, Peter Rose, 
Anita Thacher and others. Past judges have 
included Martha Dubose, Paul Glabicki and 
Kathy Kline. Sinking Creek also sponsors a 
national film collection and arranges inter- 
national lectures and screenings. The coor- 
dinators and participants of this festival are 
entirely "independents", working with 
dedication. Enthusiasm produces spectacular 
results both for and at this festival, which 
consistently turns up excellent work and 
gathers together independent filmmakers. 
The festival is now accepting work longer 
than 30 minutes; the organizers foresee the 
need to encourage filmmakers seeking a 
showcase in the standard 60-minute video 
format. This is the first year that there will 
be entry fees. Making this decision has lost 
the organizers "no uncertain amount of 
sleep". As independent filmmakers them- 
selves, the organizers know how tight the 



economics of truly independent producers 
are. Send in your entries by May 10. Con- 
tact: Mary Jane Coleman, Creekside Farm, 
Route 8, Greeneville TN 37743. - S.E. 



The Festival Report has been compiled by 
Wendy Lidell and Sian Evans with the help 
of Gadney's Guides and the FIVF files. 
Listings do not constitute an endorsement, 
and since dates and other details change 
faster than we can keep up with them, we 
recommend that you contact the festival for 
further information before sending your 
material. Application forms for some 
festivals are available from FIVF. Lastly, 
many festivals are beginning to accept video- 
tape, although our latest information may 
not reflect this. If a particular festival seems 
appropriate, you should call them and ask if 
they accept video. (Perhaps if they get 
enough calls, they will change their policy!) 
For additional listings, turn to the 
NOTICES section. 



LABOR 



ON UNION BIZ: 
NABET W00S INDIES 



RICHARD MILLER 

To many producers of independent film 
and video projects, the word union is 
anathema. To many representatives of film 
and tape unions, independent projects are 
headaches to be avoided at all costs. These 
mutual feelings of distrust have lead to a 
situation in which unions decry independent 
producers for undermining industry stan- 
dards by utilizing non-union labor; and in- 
dependents avoid unions, thus denying 
themselves the skills of union technicians. 
Yet unions have an interest in many subjects 
dear to independent producers. Many 
unions are supportive of, and willing to 
work with, producers of independent films 
to a much larger extent than the producers 
realize. Independent producers will benefit 
from the professional expertise of a union 
crew. 

How has this state of distrust developed 
and persisted? What can be done to break 
down the historical barriers between in- 
dependents and technical unions in our in- 
dustry? What is the future of independents 
and unions working together? 

A quick overview of the unions involved 
in representing technicians in the film and 
tape industry is necessary in assessing what 
can be done in the future. The largest 
technical union is the International Alliance 



of Theatrical Stage Employees (IATSE, 
known as the IA) which represents stage- 
hands, projectionists and technicians 
throughout the country. The IA represents 
the majority of the technicians working in 
Hollywood; all films produced by the major 
studios are crewed by IA members. In New 
York, in the past, the I A also crewed most 
of the major films. Films produced outside 
of these two major centers were crewed by a 
combination of some union technicians 
working alongside non-union local crafts- 
people. 

Historically, the IA has been a fairly closed 
union. It was difficult to join unless one was 
related to a member. This membership pro- 
cedure created a large pool of competent, 
professional technicians who were not 
represented by any union since the IA had 
abrogated its responsibility to organize and 
represent all working technicians in the in- 
dustry. 

Although NABET Local 15 was chartered 
in the early 1950s, building on its base of 
network technicians, it stopped organizing 
freelancers later when the CIO merged with 
the AFI, and the IA absorbed many of its 
members. By the mid-1960s, the IA had 
returned to its old restrictive policies; and a 
second generation of technicians, unable to 

MARCH 1982 




NABET crews at work on The Edith Wharton Project (I.) and Rappuchini's Daughter 



join the IA, again appealed to NABET for a 
charter. 

Local 15 of NABET, which today repre- 
sents about 1200 film, tape and cable techni- 
cians in New York City and throughout the 
eastern portion of the United States, was the 
organization reactivated in 1965. Much of 
the growth of Local 15 over the past fifteen 
years has been a result of organizing film 
and tape technicians who were previously ac- 
tive in the industry but who did not benefit 
from union affiliation. Since the I A has 
long-standing collective bargaining agree- 
ments with the majors in Hollywood, we 
have been precluded from working on those 
films. We therefore set out to represent the 
people working on independent and lower- 
budgeted films. To a large extent we have 
been successful in that endeavor. Films such 
as Joe and Easy Rider in the 1960s were 
crewed by NABET technicians and heralded 
a new era of unions working with indepen- 
dent producers. Local 15 worked on 
numerous independent projects throughout 
the 1970s, many of which have been critical- 
ly acclaimed. Almost all of the segments of 
the American Short Story series which ap- 
peared on PBS were crewed by members of 
Local 15. Hester Street and Between the 
Lines were shot by NABET members. The 
Gardener's Son and Alambrista of the 
Visions Project were also NABET films. 
Three very successful series, funded in part by 
the National Endowment for the Humanities 
— The Edith Wharton Project, King of 
America and the Mark Twain series — were 
all shot on location with Local 15 crews. 
Heartland was shot on location in Montana 
with a crew from Local 15 from New York. 

All of these independent projects and 
many others that NABET has worked on 
had budgetary problems and constraints 
which were thought to be insurmountable, 
which would preclude the production com- 
pany from hiring a union crew and adhering 
to union standards. However, in each in- 
stance NABET was able to negotiate a con- 
tract which protected its members, main- 
tained standards for wages, hours and work- 
ing conditions, and enabled the company to 
utilize and benefit from the services of pro- 
fessional technicians. 

Many producers in the independent area 
have major misconceptions about the tech- 
MARCH 1982 



nical unions. People believe, erroneously, 
that there are rigid minimums for crew size 
which must be followed on all projects; in 
fact, NABET's contract clearly stipulates 
that the size of the crew will be determined 
by the nature of the project, not by some 
preconceived union idea of how many tech- 
nicians should be on the job. Wages are 
another area where independent producers 
fear hiring a union crew will present prob- 
lems. The current working rates for many 
technicians in NABET are considerably 
above the scale rates negotiated in our basic 
minimum agreement. Higher above-scale 
rates are the standard for television commer- 
cials; a slightly lower level of rates is the 
norm on major made-for-television movies. 
A realistic rate for a documentary crew using 
cameraperson, assistant camera and sound 
might run $650 for an eight-hour day, but 
the minimums are substantially below this 
figure. In the independent area, however, 
members very often work for the scale 
minimum rates, thus giving the producer a 
large economic benefit. The members of the 
Screen Actors Guild have developed a sys- 
tem when working on independents 5 projects 
so that rates are lower than those being paid 
on major films. 

At a recent AIVF forum for unions and 
independents, Tom Turley, Business 
Manager of Local 15, spoke along with 
union colleagues from the Directors Guild of 
America, Local 644 of the IA and the 
Writers Guild. The panel discussion was an 
attempt to begin a dialogue between unions 
and independent producers. One of the key 
issues which Turley pointed out was that 
NABET has been able, on a case by case 
basis, to successfully negotiate contracts 
with independent producers on every proj- 
ect. At times we have negotiated agreements 
with independents with certain conditions at 
variance from our basic minimum agreement 
and with members working at scale rates. 
However, Turley, as well as the other 
representatives in attendance, clearly ex- 
plained that it would not be possible for 
members to work below scale, no matter 
how worthy or interesting the project was. 
Many independents could not understand 
why unions which are experiencing high 
levels of unemployment cannot allow their 
members to work below scale. But all the 



union representatives agreed that standards 
which have taken years to be established 
should not be dismantled overnight. 

In order to maintain a union in an in- 
dustry such as ours, certain standards of 
wages, hours and working conditions must 
be established and adhere; if not, members 
would be undercutting each other all the 
time, and producers would not have guide- 
lines to follow in setting wages and condi- 
tions. The unions have played a very positive 
role in helping to create these minimums 
below which members cannot work. These 
conditions have helped to stabilize the in- 
dustry, benefiting producers by maintaining 
a consistent pool of professional technicians. 

One problem Turley cited is the lack of a 
central coordinating organization to nego- 
tiate and set standards for independents. In 
the commercial world, there is an organiza- 
tion which negotiates and establishes stan- 
dards; the majors have a coordinated bar- 
gaining group. However, in the independent 
area there is no cohesive group to sit with 
the unions and discuss problems of mutual 
concern and attempt to resolve them. In- 
dependent productions run the gamut, and 
each production has certain problems and 
needs that must be addressed by the unions 
and the producers. Larry Sapadin, Executive 
Director of AIVF, proposed that a standing 
committee comprised of independent pro- 
ducers and union officials be formed to con- 
tinue the dialogue begun at the recent 
forum. It is hoped that this body will 
generate ideas to help establish industry- 
wide standards for union technicians work- 
ing on independent projects. 

NABET is prepared to work actively with 
such a committee to help explain its position 
to independents. Only through an open ex- 
change of information can unions under- 
stand the needs of independents and at the 
same time explain the rationale behind the 
standards which have been established in the 
industry. A development of this nature can 
only benefit both parties and help to dispel 
some of the distrust which has previously 
characterized the relationship between 
unions and independents. ■ 

Richard Miller is the business agent for 
NABET Local 15. 



THE INDEPENDENT 



IN FOCUS 



IN PRAISE OF 
COLOR NEGATIVE 



DAVID W. LEITNER 

In Part I of A Look at Color Negative 
(February '82), Leitner summed up the 
history of color film processes, from the 
early non-photographic printing process of 
Technicolor to the sandwich stripping 
negative techniques of Kodak and DuPont 
in the late 1940s. 

Reversal is dead. Outdone by the im- 
mediacy of the now-ubiquitous electronic 
newsgathering (ENG) mini-camera and the 
superior speed and latitude of color 
negative, it has ceased to be of much prac- 
tical or commercial interest. Accordingly, if 
16mm film has a future, it lies with color 
negative. 

As a concept in color reproduction, color 
negative is surprisingly basic. Three silver 
halide emulsions are layered onto a single 
acetate support. One layer is sensitized to 
the blue component of an image, another to 
the green and a third to the red. Upon pro- 
cessing, the silver in each layer is developed, 
the corresponding color dyes are brought 
forth and the silver is then discarded. What 
remains are three negative photographic 
records of the original image in the comple- 
mentary primaries of yellow, magenta and 
cyan — each with its own saturation, or den- 
sity, and contrast curve. 

If the challenge of color negative to the 
cinematographer is to expose all three emul- 
sions in such a way that his or her artistic 
priorities are satisfied, the challenge to the 
laboratory is to develop them evenly. In the 
course of developing miles of "camera 
original", demanding technical specifications 
must be met and maintained, with reliability 
the watchword. 

This is complex business, sometimes in- 
volving the manufacturer as well as the lab. 
For this reason labs process color negative 
strictly by the book to prescribed levels of 
contrast and density, leaving the filmmaker 
little creative choice in the matter. 

GRAIN AND TEXTURE 

This does not, however, deny the cinema- 
tographer a contribution to the physical 
structure of the color negative image. 
Graininess, a conspicuous photographic 
characteristic that, in motion pictures, 
brings about a visual sensation akin to view- 
ing the images through a wash of boiling 
sand, is a function of exposure. Since it 
obscures the desired image — atomizing fine 
detail for a signal-to-noise ratio that would 
8 



be utterly unacceptable in a videotape 
master — the concerned cinematographer will 
take measures to suppress it. 

In an effort to understand graininess in 
color negative, it is useful to examine black- 
and-white first. A black-and-white negative 
consists of a single layer of emulsion pep- 
pered throughout with silver halide crystals, 
some of which are sizable, some small. The 
larger crystals react to light readily; with in- 
creased exposure, the finer ones become 
developable as well. What is perceived as 
graininess in the developed black-and-white 
negative is not so much the presence of in- 
dividual grains, which, including the larger 
ones, are mostly too minute to be resolved 
by the eye, but clusters of grain, specks of 
silver superimposed within the depth of the 
emulsion. Since the distribution of grains in 
the emulsion is random, unwanted dump- 
ings are bound to be evident in some spots, 
with minuscule voids in others. 
Randomness is key: the ordered pattern of 
halftone dots in a newspaper photograph 
does not interfere with the image in the man- 
ner of randomly-scattered grain. The eye 
reads the spacing of the dots as a continuous 
rhythm at a steady beat or frequency that 
does not attract attention to itself. Photo- 
graphic grain, on the other hand, is irregular 
in size and spacing. When animated at the 



rate of twenty-four frames-per-second, a 
veritable cacophony of distracting texture is 
unleashed on the image, at times quite 
diverting to the eye. This holds particularly 
when the image is shot soft or out-of-focus, 
because if present, pronounced graininess 
will be projected in sharp relief on the 
screen. 

Instead of opaque silver grains, color 
'negative yields microscopic splotches of 
transparent dye. As described above, each of 
the three color-sensitive layers produces a 
negative image in silver. While developing, 
each forming silver grain is enveloped by 
chemical reaction in a tiny cloud of dye, ap- 
propriate in color to its spectral sensitivity. 
Upon subsequent removal, or bleaching, of 
the silver grains, bits of dyestuff remain 
behind like so many minute, brightly-hued 
footprints. These are color grain. 

Color grain is recognized like black-and- 
white grain. Although individual units of 
yellow, magenta and cyan dye are generally 
not perceived as such in the projected image 
— near its limit of resolution, the eye cannot 
discriminate hue — their random, uneven dis- 
tribution ensures a clumpy, kinetic ap- 
pearance. At a distance, for instance, the 
color image is likely to exhibit a gritty tex- 
ture only; at close quarters, color graininess 
will take on a detail of its own, suggesting to 
some an abstraction of Monet's garden at 
Giverny come to life. Graininess, whether 
color or black-and-white, is most prominent 
in the mid-tones of an image where it can 
stand out in boldest relief. Strong shadows 
cause no exposure on the negative, hence lit- 
tle grain, and highlights burn out the nega- 
tive, completely exposing available silver 
halide crystals and plugging-up detail. As 
luck would have it, the mid-tones of an im- 
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MARCH 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



HISTORY AND THE FATE OF ACCESS 

TANGLED TACTICS: 
BIG APPLE 
CABLE FBANCHISE 



KENNETH STIER 

The widely-touted proliferation of new 
channels of communications has unleashed 
an appetite for new programming, easing 
somewhat the perennial distribution prob- 
lems of independents. However, many 
satellite-smitten indie producers, with necks 
craned to an altitude of 23,000 miles, are vir- 
tually ignoring what is happening literally in 
their own backyard. Cable is coming — and 
fast. In most major cities, cable franchises 
will be awarded within the next two years. 
Franchises are given for fifteen or twenty 
years (and sometimes, as in Rhode Island, in 
perpetuity), and once the ink dries the terms 
of the contract are much more difficult to 
alter. Across the US, now is the time to act. 
Even in New York, with the awarding of 
new franchises imminent in April, many im- 
portant issues concerning public use of the 
wires are still undetermined, hanging in the 
balance of closed-door negotiations. 

Cable offers the possibility of guaranteed 
access for all citizens. It is subject to state 
and/or local regulation, because these have 
jurisdiction over the commercial use of 
public property. The conditions and terms 
by which a cable system is built and 
operated are determined by politicians and 
public officials who are still democratically 
accountable. However, they respond only 
when local pressure is brought to bear. Un- 
fortunately, the interest demonstrated by the 
public, and too often by the independent 
community, is not proportionate to the con- 
sequences at stake. This is particularly true 
in New York. 

HISTORY 

Obtaining access to any means of mass 
communication has always been a struggle; 
it's even more difficult when the means are 
expensive technologies owned and controlled 
by a few corporations. The public's right of 
access to cable was first mandated by the 
Federal Communications Commission and 
then shifted to the jurisdiction of state and 
city governments. Initially envisioned as a 
sort of "electronic soapbox", the notion of 
access has expanded as the public has 
become aware of the significance of infor- 
mation systems and communication flows. 

The National Federation of Local Cable 
Programmers (NFLCP) is the principal 
organization active in preserving and pro- 
moting access to cable. One of its founders 
and beacon lights, George Stoney, considers 
MARCH 1982 



access merely the "rehearsal ground" for a 
later, larger communications arena. But so 
far the number of independents and media 
activists contributing programming and 
helping to construct this very necessary first 
stage is disappointingly small. 

The history of public access can be 
evaluated according to one's expectations. 
For those to whom they mean an "electronic 
soapbox", extending the principle of the 
Fairness Doctrine to the new media, the ac- 
cess channels (measured by the sheer quanti- 
ty of new voices) can be considered success- 
ful. Others, though, including many of the 
earliest access advocates and activists, had 
envisioned something more grand. For 
them, access was a way to decentralize com- 
munication, revive a sense of community 
through a new forum and restore a spirit of 
active citizenship in place of passive con- 
sumership. Cable was our new nervous 
system, and these access facilitators wanted 
to stimulate communication. 

For a whole host of reasons only the less 
ambitious scheme for access was realized. 
Factors included insufficient cooperation 
and promotion from the cable operators, a 
general lack of public awareness, a wide- 
spread laissez-faire approach, overconcern 
with access to the medium rather than access 
to an audience, and related to this, insuffi- 
ciently universal hookup of the population. 
Finally, the absence of steady funding was 
critical. After a flurry of foundation interest 
and largesse (which fostered some fascinat- 
ing projects), monies dried up in a few 
years, condemning access to hodgepodge 
stumblings. Even as a means of showcasing 
talent (as the Theta system in Los Angeles 
does very successfully), access in New York 
is undervalued and underutilized. As the 
medium of community communication, ex- 
cept for a few long-running series with small 
followings, it has been a dismal failure over 
the last decade. 

One exception is the Channel L Working 
Group (CLWG), an independent organiza- 
tion which through extremely adroit political 
maneuvering now helps the City of New 
York develop programming for its previous- 
ly fallow channel. Essentially, the CLWG 
offers technical assistance for the four 
categories of eligible users: Community 
Boards, elected officials, city agencies and 
certain approved non-profit cultural and 
civic organizations. Considering the obvious 






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constraints imposed by dependence on 
voluntary contributions from cable com- 
panies, CLWG has done much to improve 
the reputation and understanding of access 
in the City, among both city officials and 
the public. If there were the will, much more 
could be done. 

CURRENT NY FRANCHISE 

In New York, a four-year-long franchising 
process to bring cable to the boroughs other 
than Manhattan is nearing its end. Interest 
in wiring the outer boroughs (the Bronx, 
Brooklyn, Queens and Staten Island) peaked 
after the arrival of Home Box Office 
catapulted the cable business into the sphere 
of high profitability. The City will soon sit 
down with the short list of applicant com- 
panies to hammer out final contracts. 

Though the City says the franchising pro- 
cess has been "open, fair and orderly", 
many criticisms have been voiced. The 
choice to hire outside consultants — Arnold 
and Porter (A&P), a prestigious Washington 
DC law firm with communications ex- 
perience but not cable expertise — elicited 
protests. Personal connections between 
members of the current City administration 
and A&P may have influenced the decision 
to retain the firm without competitive bid- 
ding. Some persuasively argue that the 
precious public funds spent on A & P (close 
to $1 million) could have been put to better 
use by developing in-house expertise that 
would still be around after the franchises are 
awarded. The obvious wisdom of this was 
apparently sacrificed to political considera- 
tions. 

In particular, the State Cable Commission 
was very critical of A & P's recommenda- 
tions for their "inappropriately conservative 
attitude towards the services and system 
design demands that the City should make 
upon franchises," and urged "the City to ex- 
plore the possibility of a publicly owned and 
financed system, leased and privately 
operated by the cable companies." 

Another barrage of criticism could be sub- 
sumed under the heading of the "big factor" 
fixation: an excessive concern with the 
economic viability of each company (un- 




THE INDEPENDENT 



doubtedly important), which virtually ex- 
cluded other, social questions. Gerry Pallor, 
director of Locus Communications, a porta- 
ble video access facility, commented that "a 
large company could as easily go bankrupt 
as a small one, and some small local ap- 
plicants might have been more in touch with 
the areas they would serve." 

One social question that was overshadowed 
is the future community use of the new high- 
ways and byways of cable. Certainly by now 
some appreciation of the value of access has 
permeated the thinking of the Cable Work- 
ing Group (CWG). This body, composed of 
members of the New York Board of Esti- 
mate and several other City agencies, is help- 
ing to draw up specific recommendations for 
the franchise contracts and evaluating (with 
the aid of A & P) the nineteen proposals sub- 
mitted. The CWG has said it "wishes to en- 
courage the growth of meaningful program 
services developed at the local level." 

MIN/MUMS 

Though these may change, the CWG has 
set minimum requirements for the cable 
systems. These include "at least eight video 
access channels, two each of public, munici- 
pal, institutional and leased. "A portion of 
these — at least four — shall be controlled by 
an access organization in each cable system, 
with the remaining channels (no less than 
two) to be controlled by a central city agen- 
cy. "In addition to providing access chan- 
nels, each franchisee shall be required to 
provide at least one fully-equipped and staf- 
fed state-of-the-art local origination access 
production studio and two fully-equipped 
mobile production units for each three to 
four Community Board Districts it serves. 
Each franchisee shall be required to provide 
technical support and training to the access 
organization in its system." However, the 
minimums make no mention of funding. 

It's unsettling to see that seed and 
operating funds are not included in the 
guidelines, though the city seems to be 
vaguely aware that without steady funding 
access can't be meaningfully fostered. A & P 
recommends only minimal guaranteed fund- 
ing. While believing that an access organiza- 
tion's ability to raise operating funds is a 
proper measure of its success, they acknowl- 
edge that "by their very nature access ser- 
10 



vices cannot entirely support themselves in a 
free competitive marketplace." Therefore 
they recommend that "each franchisee be re- 
quired to provide adequate start-up funds 
and annual support funds." 

But this is only one part of a funding mix 
they blithely envision, including "fees from 
sales of services and channel time, dues and 
contributions from institutions and grants 
from foundations and other organizations." 
Even more chimerically, they suggest that 
funding might be drawn directly from the 
City budget, or part of the franchise fee and 
tax collected by the City. The first is 
ludicrous given the City's financial straits. 
The latter is a logical place to look, but since 
the Director of Franchises feels strongly that 
this money should go to pay for the City's 
oversight of cable, it's unlikely that access 
organizations will be able to tap that source. 

Government funding of programming is a 
politically delicate arrangement. The City 
has still balked at the idea of funding even 
the municipal channel (now voluntarily 
funded by the cable companies). It seems 
more politically acceptable for access fund- 
ing to come directly from the cable com- 
panies, rather than passing through the 
hands and the books of the city. 

ACCESS? 

At this stage in the franchise process, 
what is the status of access? The whole 
situation will change when the franchises for 
the other boroughs are awarded, since the 
Manhattan contracts must be upgraded to 
meet the new standards set (and the ten- 
year-old Manhattan franchises are due for 
renegotiation in any case). 

The proposed negotiation guidelines state 
that "it is contemplated that each franchisee 
. . . will participate in the funding of the ac- 
cess organization in its service area." Later 
it's added that "such commitments may not 
necessarily be incorporated in the franchise 
agreements." This caveat leads to specula- 
tion that the guidelines are relegating access 
to the precarious position of a "gentlemen's 
agreement" or tacit understanding of volun- 
tary contribution. When pressed on this con- 
spicious absence, City officials respond that 
efforts were made to maintain maximum 
flexibility for the negotiating team. They 
add vaguely that "the informal contract will 
have to be judged in its entirety" (according 
to the Mayor's representative, Bob Kendall). 

In brief, then, the City has left the shape 
of access nebulous. Considerable latitude is 
preserved for the Borough Presidents' (BPs) 
offices, and the actual structure of access 
will be determined at the borough level. 
Although the Department of City Planning 
(the agency charged with developing the 
public access channels) made an extensive 
ascertainment study, only oral reports were 
given to the Borough Presidents, instead of 
forceful recommendations. In the absence of 
strict Citywide minimums, the boroughs 



may end up with only the least common 
denominator features of access. Even if the 
less benighted boroughs devise good pro- 
posals, the lack of these basic criteria could 
undercut the City's clout at the negotiating 
table. 

So the fate of access is anything but ob- 
vious. Some fear that access will become a 
dispensible bargaining chip for a negotiation 
team with other priorities, and that without 
citywide access standards, the local access 
organizations will degenerate into another 
pool of political patronage. 

WILY TARSHIS 

The key figure in the whole process is the 
Director of Franchises, the imposing Morris 
Tarshis, who meekly claims "it's only my 
size [over six feet] that is intimidating." 
Someone familiar with his role in negotiating 
franchises for the last sixteen years called 
Tarshis "one of the last big power brokers in 
the Robert Moses mold." Tarshis has a repu- 
tation as a wily and exacting negotiator. A 
lawyer who has watched him in action says, 
"Tarshis isn't going to sell the store. Listen, 
you wouldn't want to be on the other side of 
the table from him; he'd have the shirt off 
your back and more before you knew it." 

Indeed, the 1970 Manhattan franchises 
Tarshis negotiated were considered prescient 
documents and served as prototypes across 
the nation. The original franchises set aside 
City channels as well as leased public access, 
though without funding provisions. Tarshis' 
appreciation of access has apparently evolved 
with the times. He has given lip service to 
the notion of independent access organiza- 
tions for the last two years, although he is 
still vague about funding. 

Though the current proposed funding for- 
mula has been criticized, Tarshis thinks the 
cable companies won't find it conservative. 
He expresses disappointment at the lack of 
groundswell of public interest in cable, and 
complains that he hasn't heard from com- 
munity groups and indies concerned with 
community use of access rather than those 
more interested in self-promotion or 
"aggrandizemen t." 

It's difficult to reconcile this elevated 
sense (at least on a rhetorical level) of the 
public trust and authority invested in his of- 
fice with Tarshis' spotty record of franchise 
enforcement. At his instigation the Office of 
Telecommunications (OT), charged with reg- 
ulation and enforcement, was designed to 
report directly to his office. Tarshis in turn 
is accountable (albeit diffusely) to the Board 
of Estimate. The OT is headed by Leonard 
Cohen, an engineer formerly employed by 
Teleprompter, the current holder of one of 
the two Manhattan cable franchises (what- 
ever happened to the appearance of credi- 
bility?). Though one couldn't call him a par- 
ticularly zealous public guardian, Cohen ad- 
mittedly has large responsibilities for one 
man and a secretary. 

MARCH 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



BOROUGHS WAKE UP 

Now that the boroughs are alerted to the 
arrival of cable, the question remains 
whether it will mean anything more to them 
than movies and sports. All the BP offices 
are in the process of forming Citizens' Ad- 
visory Committees, and all have endorsed 
the concept of independent access organiza- 
tions. 

In the Bronx, the least sought-after fran- 
chise area, the main concern is to ensure that 
cable actually happens and that construction 
is equitably done. Hence, access is under- 
standably a low priority. One member of a 
large Bronx community organization who 
hopes to sit on the Citizen's Advisory Com- 
mittee complains that the BP's staff people 
have too much respect for the cable com- 
panies. 'They didn't get their education at 
the CWG. They just haven't done their home- 
work, and besides deals are made higher up. 
There just ain't much to say for the 
grassroots. If the City is out to lunch, the 
Bronx is asleep." 

In Staten Island, the one staff person 
dealing with cable is obviously overburdened. 
He admitted that access hadn't even been 
considered yet, and expressed concern that 
videomakers from Greenwich Village had 
already approached him regarding access: 
"We don't need these kooks coming over, 
screaming up and down, and getting every- 
one all riled up." He evidently took some 
defensive pride in the fact that "unlike you 
college-educated people who plan in ad- 
vance, we just figure it out as we go along." 

Both Brooklyn and Queens have more 
evolved notions of desirable access struc- 
tures: both plan a first -come first-served 
"pure" access channel, and intend to 
establish an independent access organization 
responsible for developing programming. 
Also envisioned are Boards of Directors to 
control the purse strings and to catalyze pro- 
ductions in the community interest. Brook- 
lyn cited the New York State Council of the 
Arts as a possible model, and expressed in- 
terest in a non-profit communications cor- 
poration with its own production arm to 
produce local news, short features and may- 
be even a magazine-style show. 

INDIES CHASTISED 

However access finally materializes in the 
other boroughs, it won't be as a result of 
strong advocacy on the part of indepen- 
dents. That may become a painful hairshirt 
to wear as indies look in hindsight at what 
could have been. As one who has long car- 
ried the torch for access, John Sandifer, 
Executive Director of CLWG, is understand- 
ably bitter at indie indifference to the fran- 
chise proceedings: "Unlike lobbying directed 
at preexisting grant structures such as CPB, 
PBS and WNET, this is an opportunity to 
create a new funding structure. Indies have 
shied from doing the hard work of organiz- 
MARCH 1962 



ing, both with community groups and at the 
BP's offices. The current wisdom of the 
CWG is in place." But Sandifer emphasized 
that some pressure can still be applied at the 
BP level. 

OTHER MODELS 

With broad-based organizations and sus- 
tained campaigning, exciting access packages 
are being created in other cities such as New 
Orleans, whose cultural and arts communi- 
ties are represented by the Cultural Cable 
Coalition. This group has wrested un- 
precedented concessions from Cox Cable, 
including channels, a fully-equipped studio, 
live transmission capacity at the Contem- 
porary Arts Center, staff to number 65 by 
the fifth year, mobile equipment and 
operating budgets of several hundred thou- 
sand. The Coalition now does consulting for 
arts groups in other cities. 

Boston takes the prize for the unques- 
tionably premier package for over-all access 
development. An independent access organi- 
zation will control not only the operating 
funds but also the public access channels 
themselves — six to begin, and eventually 
twenty. They will also develop and control a 
fully interactive institutional cable, and the 
whole will be facilitated with four studios 
and three mobile vans. Most important 
funding is assured through an astounding 
five percent of total gross revenues, allo- 
cated directly to the access organization. 




NYCCRM 

Though New York is unlikely to secure 
such a package, a small but tenacious group 
called the New York Citizens' Committee for 
Responsible Media (NYCCRM) has been a 
persistent voice championing access. As 
a basis for a successful access package, 
NYCCRM says an independent access or- 
ganization at the borough level should: 

• ascertain community needs vis-a-vis cable 
TV services; 

• define goals and priorities for local access 
programming; 

• plan and monitor access facilities and 
services; 

• evaluate the effectiveness of access pro- 
gramming, facilities and services; 

• enforce penalties for non-performance of 
franchise provisions; and 



Key Figures in Cable Deal 



• A & P: Arnold & Porter, a DC law 
firm which aided City in preparation of 
contracts and evaluation of applicants. 

• BP: Borough Presidents' offices are the 
place to contact this month to press for 
specifics on access. 

• CWG: Cable Working Group is com- 
posed of members of the Board of Esti- 
mate and other City agencies, including 
Dept. of City Planning and Dept. of 
General Services. Made recommendations 
on proposed franchise. 

• CITIZENS' ADVISORY COMMIT- 
TEES: Citywide group of political ap- 
pointees designated by Board of 
Estimate. Largely inoperative. 

• DIRECTOR OF FRANCHISES: 

Morris Tarshis, power broker who 
negotiated 1970 cable deal, and will also 
bargain this time. (21 2) 566-2654. 

• OFFICE OF TELECOMMUNICA- 
TIONS: Headed by Leonard Cohen and 



responsible for enforcement of franchise 
agreements. 

• MCTV: Manhattan Cable TV holds 
franchise for lower Manhattan. Franchise 
to be renegotiated this year. 

• TPT: Teleprompter holds franchise for 
upper Manhattan. Also up for renegoti- 
ation. 

Info & Agitation Contacts 

• CULTURAL CABLE COALITION: 
Secured favorable access provisions in 
New Orleans. Does consulting. Coor- 
dinator Denise Vallon, Contemporary 
Arts Center, (504) 523-1216. 

• NFLCP: National Federation of Local 
Cable Programmers has lots of info at 
national level. (202) 544-7272. 

• NYCCRM: New York City Committee 
for Responsible Media works to secure 
public interest in cable deal. Coordinator: 
Barbara Rochman, (212) 697-4090. 



11 



THE INDEPENDENT 



• make recommendations for funding to the 
community funding program. 

Also recommended is a strong provision 
prohibiting cable operators from controlling 
the content of access programming or access 
services (distinguishing access from local 
origination channels); creating a community 
program fund; and establishing a citywide 
standard of non-discriminatory use of all ac- 
cess channels and services. 

LAST CHANCE FOR ACTIVISM 

The New York negotiations may be com- 
pleted in March, but more likely April if not 
later. At that point Tarshis will submit the 
proposed franchises to the Board of Esti- 
mate. This will be a public meeting at which 
citizens can speak out on the proposed 
agreements. Any glaring shortcomings 
should be vigorously voiced before this 
meeting; most strategically, alone at the 
respective Borough Presidents' offices. Be- 
cause of the close cooperation between the 
Bureau of Franchises and the Board of Esti- 
mate, the proposal is likely to be approved 
largely intact, perhaps at the very same ses- 
sion. Copies of the proposal should be 
publicly available two weeks prior to the 
meeting. 

Certain portions of the negotiations 
should be controversial. Realizing that cable 
will soon be a major utility, effectively 
disenfranchising those without it, Tarshis 
has publicly committed himself to pushing 
for universal service (offering everyone a 
hookup), free or at minimal cost. Even more 
vehement objections can be expected in 
response to a call for universal access. This 
demand would trim the cable operators 
down to their proper role as transmitters, 
i.e. essentially common carriers (like the 
telephone companies for the last 75 years), 
making them programmers only of last 
resort. Unfortunately this notion hasn't been 
aggressively promoted, losing ground in- 
stead to the National Cable Television 
Association's grossly self-serving campaign 
to designate cable companies as telepub- 
lishers (thus allowing them total control over 
content). 

In sum, cable is much more than an elec- 
tronic environment or a mere distribution 
system: each feature of the system has social 
consequences. Many of these can, in fact, be 
preempted and excluded by the technical 
design of the system, as well as the specific 
franchise agreements. The level of inter- 
active and addressable capabilities incor- 
porated in the system will shape and partial- 
ly determine who can communicate with 
whom and how. Without planning and input 
from media activists alert to the impact of 
such technical complexities, the public in- 
terest can be easily short-changed from the 
very outset. This is especially relevant in 
New York, where the City has already 
shown itself lacking in the vision and politi- 
12 



cal will necessary to establish the expertise 
that could bend the private sector's in- 
itiatives to the public interest. Of course, it 
will be a tough fight, since underneath all 
the public service rhetoric of the franchise 
process, cable's primary impetus is market 
forces, its desire to become the Number One 
home utility. ■ 

Kenneth Stier has been an access producer 
in Manhattan and is currently a part-time 
student at New York University's Interactive 
Telecommunications Program. He also 
works with a new non-profit communica- 
tions group called Hispanic Information 
Telecommunication Network. 



Color Negative Continued from page 8 
age are typically of greatest interest. 

MULTILAYERING 

At this point any similarity in dynamic 
between black-and-white and color graini- 
ness ends. Light, at the microscopic level, is 
blocked by each grain of silver. As a conse- 
quence, the heavier the exposure given 
black-and-white negative (i.e., the larger the 
population of developed silver grains), the 
grainier the image. Units of color grain 
(deposits of transparent dye that are micro- 
scopic filters) absorb merely part of the 
spectrum of white light, transmitting the 
lion's share. Since discrete points of light are 
not blotted out, extremely thin emulsions 
densely packed with very fine grains are 
made possible. These, by themselves, would 
be inordinately slow if not for the technique 
of multilayering. Each color-sensitive layer 
in color negative is actually divided into an 
upper coating of coarse, fast crystals and a 
lower one dense with the slower but finer 
crystals. As the green-sensitive layer is ex- 
posed, for example, the large crystals of the 
uppermost coating respond easily; if enough 
light is available, the fine crystals in the 
underlying sub-layer are struck and sensitized 
too. 

In color negative's case, the heavier the ex- 
posure, the finer the appearance of overall 
graininess. The finer grain patterns, to the 
extent they are in evidence, effectively fill-in 
coarser structures, cancelling their contribu- 



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tion to image graininess. In light of this, the 
common practice of rating color negative at 
an exposure index (E.I.) of 125 for tungsten 
lighting, underexposing it 1/3 stop from its 
designated E.I. of 100, is more a tribute to 
the latitude of color negative than an effort 
to secure a quality image. When a minimum 
of graininess is desirable, overexposing 1/3 
to 1/2 stop, to E.I.'s of 80 or 70 respectively, 
will saturate more fully the fine grain coat- 
ings integral to color negative's enhanced 
reputation. And since color negative 
possesses considerably more latitude in the 
direction of overexposure, highlight detail 
will not be compromised, while more 
shadow information will be present on the 
negative. 

When shooting 35mm, the information 
presented above is not essential to a success- 
ful working knowledge of color negative. 
Grain size relative to the useful area of its 
frame renders the 35mm format most forgiv- 
ing of exposure errors and excessive 
graininess. On the other hand, the dimen- 
sions of the diminutive 16mm frame, sharing 
the 35mm grain structure, are less than ideal; 
and producing comparably high-quality 
footage with 16mm negative, while within 
the realm of the near-possible, challenges the 
cinematographer's skills to the utmost. 
Because graininess is boosted with every 
reproduction from the original — a dailies 
print, a dupe, a second generation print 
from said dupe, an optical effect, a film-to- 
tape transfer or, most demandingly, a blow- 
up to 35mm — wisdom dictates that an effort 
be made to nip as much of it in the prover- 
bial bud as possible. 

A NOTE OF APPRECIA TION 

As detailed in last month's column, 
today's color negative is the fruition of over 
thirty years of relentless research and devel- 
opment. Improvements have been registered, 
almost at predictable intervals, in speed, 
sharpness, granularity and processing 
chemistry. Recently, for example, both 
Kodak and Fuji introduced color negatives 
of exposure index 250 (!), and reports cir- 
culate of test shoots employing 15 foot- 
candles of light and less. Although, in this 
age of Atari, cranking by motor a per- 
forated strip of film — the gelatinous emul- 
sion extruded from cattle bones, the 
cellulose base from tree pulp — through a 
device mechanically resembling a sewing 
machine and dunking it repeatedly in tanks 
of chemical soup before drying and buffing 
might seem by comparison primitive, the 
end result justifies the means with a stan- 
dard of image fidelity unmatched by other 
systems. Simply put: color negative 
represents a mature, vital, enduring 
technology, not to be written off. ■ 

David Leitner is an independent producer 
who works at DuArt Film Labs in New 
York. Coming next issue: Film-to-Tape. 

MARCH 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



INTERVIEWS WITH INDEPENDENT PRODUCERS 



VOICES FROM 
THE HINTERLANDS: 
CONCLUDING SECTION 

BERNARD TIMBERG & THOMAS ARNOLD 



In this final section of "Voices From the 
Hinterlands," the makers of "Heartland" 
discuss project development and distribu- 
tion. Citing personal commitment as the key 
element in all four projects considered in the 
series, the authors conclude that, though in- 
dependent features have been financially 
precarious so far, indies are learning from 
their shared experiences. 

One of the most interesting strategies for 
an independent regional feature was put 
together by Annick Smith and Beth Ferris, 
who combined a large production grant 
from NEH ($600,000) with New York and 
Hollywood talent to produce Heartland in 
1979. 

Smith and Ferris, both natives of Mon- 
tana, began their collaboration in Spokane, 
Washington, where Smith was working out 
of a local TV station to produce a series on 
Pacific Northwest Indian tribes and Ferris 
was working independently on wildlife films. 
There they started to talk about doing a 
project on women's lives in the West. In 
1976, they wrote an $82,000 research and 
development proposal for NEH, which call- 
ed for two research assistants and a series of 
western historians and film and writing ad- 
visors. When funded in the fall of 1977, the 
"Wilderness Women Project", based at the 
University of Montana, began a year of 
research and script development. The results 
included short biographies of a wide range 
of women in western history, seven research 
papers and selection of two women as script 
subjects: Eleanor Stewart (author of Letters 
of a Woman Homesteader) and Narcissa 
Whitman (a Presbyterian missionary in 
Idaho and Eastern Washington). Annick 
Smith explains: 

ANNICK SMITH: We finally chose the 
Eleanor Stewart story for a couple of' 
reasons: for one, a story with only a few 
main characters and one location was by far 
the easier to produce. We also found a direc- 
tor, Richard Pearce, who was very interested 
in that story, and in working with us on the 
script development. 

QUESTION: How did you meet him? 

AS: We searched. We looked around at 
the work of all the young directors who 
would be within our range. He had done a 
film for the Visions PBS series which I liked 
very much, and I felt he had the right kind 
MARCH 1982 



of touch. He was already doing a relation- 
ship story set in the West, and we started 
working together. So he did get involved in 
the R & D phase. 

[After an extensive search for a location, 
Heartland went into production in March 
1979 in Harlowtown, Montana, with a pro- 
duction team consisting of director Richard 
Pearce, cinematographer Fred Murphy, pro- 
duction designer Patricia Von Grandenstein 
and a NABET crew from New York.] 




Homesteaders heading west in Heartland 

Q: Why did you decide to use 35mm? 

AS: We had been thinking about it all 
along and tried to raise extra money but 
couldn't. Then we did some tests on location 
immediately before production began, and 
for those huge landscapes the quality of the 
image was really worth the difference. Beth 
and I went over budget by about $100,000 
out of our own pocket because we shot in 
35mm. 

Q: How did you raise the extra money? 

AS: We went into big debt. We took out a 
bank loan for $60,000 using our personal 
collateral. Irwin Young at DuArt was very 
kind to us and we have a one-year deferment 
on payments — which we're still trying to pay 
off with interest; and we had other creditors 
who were willing to wait. We also got a 
deferment from General Camera for 
$10,000, which helped a lot. Mike Hausman 
[who became line producer for the film in 
New York] was able to set it up because he 
had done a lot of work with them. 

Q: So how have things turned out? 

AS: We're still in debt. 



Q: At what pay scale were you working 
with the actors in order to come in at 
budget? 

AS: They were working at PBS scale. Once 
we go into theatrical release we owe all the 
actors residuals — 150% of their salary. We 
signed a contract with SAG to pay the actors 
at PBS scale. 

DISTRIBUTION 

Q: Looking back on the whole thing, is 
there anything you would have pre-planned 
for? 

AS: We would have wanted an additional 
$50,000, at the very minimum. It can cost up 
to $100,000 to do press kits and travel and 
office expenses and all those additional g 
prints, screenings rooms, entry fees to § 

festivals, shipping and all that kind of thing. £ 

-< 
Q: Do you feel that at this point you can 3 
leave Heartland to the distributor? J 

AS: That was the whole reason for trying 1 
to find a distributor rather than doing it our- $ 
selves. We really didn't want to. Although S 
we have spent almost two years hand-carry- 
ing the thing around and getting it launched. 
That was about our limit— we've been work- 
ing on designing publicity campaigns with 
the distributor, but we didn't expect to bear 
the bulk of the work of distribution. With 
this Heartland Distribution Company, we 
spent a lot of time on distribution in the 
Rocky Mountain area. We retain those ter- 
ritories for ourselves. 

Q: Has this paid off? 

AS: We did very well, especially in Mon- 
tana, in terms of box office gross, but what 
finally comes back in terms of profit isn't 
that great. But every little bit helps. We have 
two part-time assistants working on a com- 
mission basis with a booker out of Salt Lake 
City, doing our regional distribution. 

Q: This is unique — having an ongoing 
regional distribution network. 

AS: Right. We figured that this is an area 
where the population is so low that any 
major distributor will forget it. We are mak- 
ing a special effort to get it around the 
Rocky Mountain area. 

Heartland will be on PBS in the spring of 
'83. We're going to give ourselves a year for 
theatrical distribution, then an additional 

13 



THE INDEPENDENT 



nine months for cable, then PBS. The terms 
of our contract with NEH require us to offer 
our film to PBS at no charge for the first 
showing. We have sales to cable which will 
come up after the theatrical run — one is with 
Warner Amex and another with Showtime, 
and a third smaller sale is to a company called 
Select TV. Those were arranged through 
Richard Pearce's agent at William Morris. 
He's also been helping us in all the aspects of 
distributing. 

Q: Is it a major frustration having to do 
this stuff in NY and LA, while not being 
there? 

AS: That is one reason we had an agent — 
since we were not in LA or NY ourselves we 
had to have somebody around who could 
make the contacts. But with a lot of tele- 
phoning and letter writing and occasional 
trips, I think we managed to do it fine. We 
would have been quicker to get everything in 
order if we had been in New York or LA, 
but neither of us wanted to move — or would 
move. 

Q: Why did you decide not to go with First 
Run Features for your distribution? 

AS: It was a possibility. We considered it 
and they considered us. We finally decided 
to go ahead on our own because in some 
ways Heartland is a little bit more commer- 
cial a film, we felt, and ought to have a 
slightly different kind of distribution. 

At about the time of our late summer 
1981 interview, the producers of Heartland 
made an agreement with Leavitt-Pickman in 
New York to distribute their film. Beth 
Ferris is currently working on a film on the 
impact of resource development on small 
rural communities in the West (four state 
humanities committees and WNET-TV Lab 
are funding this project), and Annick Smith 
has received a CPB scriptwriting grant for a 
contemporary story. 

• 
CONCLUSION 

In the interviews over the last four issues 
we have tried to present a range of models 
for producing regional independent features 
and to relay the personal experiences of 
filmmakers working on their first features. 
On one end of the spectrum we heard from 
filmmakers like Herb Smith and his wife (the 
makers of Handcarved), who worked with 
very small budgets and two- or three-person 
crews. These films were generally documen- 
taries. On the other end, we have producers 
like Annick Smith and Beth Ferris, who 
brought in an outside director and produc- 
tion crew for a dramatic feature that came 
out of a year and a half of studying and 
thinking about women in the West. The 
range of techniques for funding these first 
features also varied considerably; often the 
film was made on a combination of public 
grant and private foundation money. In 
14 



many cases (Herb Smith's Handcarved, Ross 
Spears' Agee, Annick Smith and Beth 
Ferris' Heartland), NEA or NEH funding 
was crucial. In addition, CETA money 
helped Ross Spears and Penny Allen in im- 
portant stages of their projects. 

At present the filmmakers we talked to are 
back on the road looking for new funding 
for their next films. The second film is often 
both more ambitious in scope and more 
realistic in its budget. Most of the film- 
makers we talked to had budgets under 
$100,000 for their first films. Many were 
moving on to features that would cost much 
more than that. In looking for funding for 
larger budgets, filmmakers have been mov- 
ing toward limited partnership arrange- 
ments, but as Sandra Schulberg points out, a 
fundamental contradiction arises in trying to 
set up for-profit investor groups to put up 
substantial sums for films that have no track 
record of profit. 




Smith (I.) and Ferris (r.) with Montana 
rancher during Heartland shoot 



Schulberg had hoped that a combination 
of public and private money could finance 
her own film Red Ghosts of the Mesabi and 
solve the problem of funding independent 
films in the 1980s. But so far her efforts 
have been unsuccessful. 

"There was confusion in people's minds. 
How could it be for-profit on the one hand 
and not-for-profit on the other? Even 
though the lawyers — their lawyers — said it 
was legal to do it this way, how could there 
be such an animal that was neither one nor 
the other nor both? I think that is a very 
grave problem we face: that we fall right 
through the middle." 

The kinds of independent films done to 
date — with an unknown cast on a historical 
subject, or a character study, or an explora- 
tion of regional values — have not done well 
financially. One reason is that the films have 
not had established routes for distribution. 
The Independent Feature Project, First Run 
Features and the AFI-IFP feature showcase, 
as well as some smaller distributors like 
New Day Films, are working to change that. 
Raphael Silver (who distributed Hester 
Street and Between the Lines in 1975 and 



1978) says it has become harder, not easier, 
for the independent to break into established 
distributor-exhibitor patterns. In addition to 
the "stigma" of their quieter, more thought- 
ful themes, independent features tend to be 
viewed by backers and exhibitors as repre- 
senting unsophisticated and technically 
rough forms of filmmaking. To overcome 
these attitudes, or to circumvent them, the 
filmmakers we talked to were developing 
more realistic and detailed plans of financing 
and distribution for their second features — 
whereas the first films were usually done on 
the faith that if the film was good, an au- 
dience would be there to see it. 

This brings us to that key element— the 
belief or faith or whatever-it-is that impels 
filmmakers to keep working on their proj- 
ects in spite of the obstacles. This personal 
commitment takes the form of a total invest- 
ment of time and money for one to five 
years. It is accompanied by the decision to 
make films on what they know about, and in 
the area where they live. 

But the filmmakers had to have more than 
blind faith and commitment to their sub- 
jects. They had to be experienced film- 
makers, or have experienced filmmakers on 
their team. They needed writing skills to pre- 
sent their projects to potential funders or in- 
vestors. Most of all, they had to be willing to 
live out on a limb. As Victor Nunez (the 
filmmaker who made Gal Young 'Un out of 
Tallahassee, Florida) put it, "We're really a 
marginal bunch of crazies in everybody's 
eyes." 

At the time of our August interview, 
Sandra Schulberg was attempting to raise a 
total of $2 million for her new film with Jon 
Hanson in the face of the contradictions in- 
dependent film presents. Victor Nunez was 
working to raise $500,000 for his new film 
(an adaptation of a John D. MacDonald 
story). Their experiences and those of Ross 
Spears and Jude Cassidy in Tennessee, 
Annick Smith and Beth Ferris in Montana, 
Penny Allen in Portland and Herb Smith in 
Whitesburg, Kentucky, speak to anyone 
who wants to produce films with the kind of 
personal vision that Hollywood rarely 
finances. 

The supporters of these filmmakers and 
films — investors, new exhibitors, those who 
publicize the filmmaker's efforts and local 
individuals who care and help out — have 
been essential to the success of these first 
film features. They will be even more impor- 
tant in areas where public grant support has 
been threatened or cut back. When all is said 
and done, it comes down to people: the film- 
makers and the people who respond to them 
.and the ideas they struggle to put on film. ■ 

Bernard Timberg teaches film and broad- 
casting at the University of Nebraska at 
Omaha. With Thomas Arnold, a freelance 
writer currently living in Boston, he is 
developing a series of programs about film 
history in the Midwest. 

MARCH 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



INDEPENDENT RADIO 



THE SOUND AND 

THE FURY: 

AUDIO INDIES SPEAK OUT 



MICHAEL TOMS 

Audio Independents (AI) is the national 
representative of independent radio pro- 
ducers. Independent radio producers work 
in much the same way as independent film 
and videomakers, and represent a similar 
alternative approach to media production. 
In the words of AI's Executive Director 
Michael Toms, "The independent radio pro- 
ducer is an artist-entrepreneur, a freelance 
professional able to operate with creative 
freedom and thus frequently able to bring 
innovation, ingenuity and inspiration to the 
airwaves. " They also have similar problems: 
obtaining adequate funding and distribution 
to produce their work and reach their 
audience. 

On November 5, 1981, Toms addressed 
the Board of the Corporation for Public 
Broadcasting on behalf of Audio Indepen- 
dents to make certain recommendations 
designed to increase access and cooperation 
between independents and the public radio 
system. Some of these recommendations 
parallel approaches taken by independent 
film and videomakers with respect to the 
public television system. Other of AI's 
recommendations suggest different ap- 
proaches that we may wish to explore in our 
own dealings with CPB and the public TV 
stations. Toms' statement apears below. 
• 

Audio Independents, Inc. is a nonprofit 
service organization dedicated to the devel- 
opment and wider broadcast distribution of 
radio programs created by the nationwide 
community of independent radio producers 
and audio artists. It was established in 1979 
by independent radio producers from 
throughout the United States. 

For eight years previous to my present 
position I was an independent radio pro- 
ducer. I founded New Dimensions Radio, a 
nonprofit independent radio producing 
group based in San Francisco. I am also 
a member of the Board of Directors of 
KQED, the third largest public broadcasting 
station, located in San Francisco. 

With the challenges facing public broad- 
:asting now and in the future it seems 
crucial that our energies need to be unified. 
We can accomplish more together than we 
can separately. I am here to suggest mutual 
cooperation with the independent radio pro- 
ducer community towards fostering creati- 
vity in public radio, promoting diversity in 
programming and generating alternative 

MARCH 1982 



funding options for public radio pro- 
gramming. 

For years independent radio producers 
have labored long and hard for public radio 
stations, more often than not simply for the 
opportunity to have access to the airwaves. 
There are more independent radio producers 
now than ever before. This is indeed pro- 
pitious for public radio, since considerable 
programming emerges from this invaluable 
human resource. Indeed, some of the most 
creative, original and innovative programs to 
be found on public radio stations come from 
independent radio producers. Recently one 
of the largest single grants ever awarded for 
radio, $778,000, was made by TRW to the 
National Radio Theatre of Chicago, an in- 
dependent producer. Independent radio pro- 
ducers have received Peabody, Armstrong, 
CPB and Ohio State awards. 

Some other notable examples of the hun- 
dreds of active independent radio producers 
include Western Public Radio, recent recip- 
ient of a $225,000 grant from the Markle 
Foundation to create a national training 
project for radio producers; Adi Gevins, 
recipient of a $150,000 grant from the Na- 
tional Endowment for the Humanities; ZBS 
Media, producer of fine radio drama and re- 
cipient of this year's CPB award for best 
spoken word program; Jay Allison, a con- 
summate sound portrait artist; Radio Arts, 
recipient of the 1978 CPB best program 
award; Boyd Lewis, producer of South- 
Wind; New Dimensions Radio, one of the 
most successful independents using the EPS 
satellite system, with 70 NPR stations carry- 
ing a regular one-hour weekly series; Youth 
News, a pioneering independent producer of 
youth-oriented news programming produced 
by teenagers for teenagers; Children's Radio 
Theatre, winner of both the Peabody and 
Ohio State awards; Scoop Nisker, producer 
of the highly acclaimed Last News Show; 
Public Affairs Broadcast Group, an inde- 
pendent with more than 300 stations carry- 
ing its programming; the Sane Educational 
Fund, producer of Consider the Alter- 
natives, aired on 150 stations nationwide; 
Anna Turner, a onetime television producer 
who turned to radio as a visual medium to 
help create an extraordinary musical ex- 
perience in sound called Music from the 
Hearts of Space, aired on Pacifica radio 
since 1973; Firesign Theatre; and literally 
hundreds and hundreds more, which time 



precludes from mention here. 

The independent radio producer is an 
artist-entrepreneur, a free-lance professional 
able to operate with creative freedom and 
thus frequently able to bring innovation, in- 
genuity and inspiration to the airwaves. He 
or she deserves to be supported — not in a 
welfare way, but rather supported for the 
work they are doing and the contribution 
they are making. I'm asking the Corporation 
for Public Broadcasting to recognize the in- 
dependent radio producer community as the 
extraordinary resource it is, and to nurture 
and support this unique public radio 
resource. The time is now. For too long the 
independent radio producer has been little 
recognized. 

Audio Independents makes the following 
recommendations: 

1. That CPB encourage a semi-annual 
meeting between NPR and appropriate 
representatives of the independent radio 
producers community to explore ways of 
working more closely together and to 
foster a better understanding of the 
creative possibilities inherent within the 
public radio system. This idea emerged 
from discussions with the New York 
State Council on the Arts about ways to 
encourage more creativity in public radio. 

2. That CPB establish a context for bringing 
public radio station programmers to- 
gether with independent radio producers, 
so that greater awareness of program 
diversity and availability is fostered. 
Educating station managers and program 
directors about the independent radio 
producer as a programming resource is of 
paramount importance. 

3. That CPB reopen the minority and train- 
ing grant program to independent radio 
producers. 

4. That CPB allocate radio programming 
funds specifically for program produc- 
tion by independent radio producers in 
keeping with the language of the 1978 
Telecommunications Financing Act and 
reaffirmed by the Public Broadcasting 
Amendments Act of 1981, specifically 
where the law mandates CPB to make 
grants or contracts with independent pro- 
ducers and production entities for the 
production or acquisition of programs, 
and specifically directs that "a significant 
portion" of its funds be used for program 

15 



THE INDEPENDENT 



Are you now 
or have you 
ever been... 



a member of aivf? 



If not, perhaps now is the time. As the 
national trade association for independent 
producers, we've been working since 1974 to 
provide the sort of representation you need. 
For instance: 

• Testifying before congress on legislation 
affecting independents 

• Monitoring developments in public TV, 
cable and telecommunications 

• Participating in media coalitions 

• Reaching out to the general public with the 
independent's viewpoint 

Along with our sister organization, the 
Foundation for Independent Video & Film 
(FIVF), we provide our members with such 
services as: 

• Comprehensive Health Insurance at in- 
credibly low rates 

• The Independent, our monthly film & video 
magazine 

• Short Film Distribution through the NEA's 
Short Film Showcase 

• Festival Liaison for independents through 
our Festivals Bureau 

• Comprehensive Information Services at our 
downtown NYC office— resource files, 
reference library, free consultations with our 
helpful staff (drop by soon!) 

• Screenings, Seminars & Workshops designed 
to reflect our members' needs and interests 

In all, AIVF continues to provide a strong 
collective voice, concrete services and a 
wealth of information for independent pro- 
ducers and supporters of independent video 
and film. Of course, we can't survive without 
your input . . . and assistance. Write, call or 
drop by our office today, and we'll be happy 
to tell you more about what membership in 
AIVF could mean for you. 

ASSOCIATION OF 
INDEPENDENT 
VIDEO AND 
FILMMAKERS, INC. 
625 Broadway, 9th floor, 
New York, NY 10012 
Phone: (212)473-3400 




production and of those funds, "a sub- 
stantial amount shall be reserved for dis- 
tribution to independent producers and 
production entities." 

Because of the entrepreneurial nature 
of independent radio production (i.e., the 
producers have to survive as creative 
artists by their wits and ability), we fur- 
ther recommend that this fund allocation 
be matched equally by monies from other 
sources to be generated by the producers 
themselves, working in concert with 
Audio Independents and other appro- 
priate organizations. Since most indepen- 
dent radio producers operate with an 
extraordinarily low overhead-to-produc- 
tion-cost ratio, this would mean that 
CPB programming dollars would be 
creating maximum leverage. 

Because our interest is to encourage 
creativity and expand diversity in public 



radio as well as to foster healthy and 
open competition, we do not oppose the 
eligibility of station producers for such 
programming monies. At the same time 
we recognize the intent and focus of the 
1978 Act, which mandated greater in- 
dependent producer participation in CPB 
programming monies. 
5. That CPB allocate monies directly to the 
public radio stations on a matching basis 
(once again for leverage's sake), speci- 
fically to acquire independently-produced 
programming. 

The independent radio producer com- 
munity is an integral part of the public radio 
whole. Let's work together to make the 
totality greater than the sum of its parts. 
The independent radio producer is a vital 
factor in the ultimate equation for public 
radio in the United States, if it is to realize 
its full potential. ■ 



AIVF FORUM 



MUZZLED AGAIN? SOUTH 
AFRICA'S FREE SPEECH 



In December 1981, the AIVF office re- 
ceived a phone call from an individual in 
Chicago working on solidarity with the 
South African people, telling us about the 
incommunicado detention without charges 
of a Mr. Mark Kaplan of Community Video 
Resource Center in Capetown, South Africa. 
The Center's activities reportedly include 
making video equipment available to black 
workers in the area. After confirming the 
situation with Amnesty International, we 
sent the following letter to South African 
Prime Minister Pietaw Botha; US Under- 
secretary of State for African Affairs, Mr. 
Chester A. Crocker; and South African Am- 
bassador to the US, Mr. Donald B. Sole. As 
advocates of democratic media access, we 
felt compelled to offer our support to Mr. 
Kaplan. Mr. Sole's response speaks for 
itself. We are pleased that Kaplan has been 
released but it seems clear that the struggle 
for free speech in South Africa is far from 
over. 

VIDEO WORKER DETAINED 

Dear Mr. Sole: 

We understand that the government of 
South Africa has detained Mr. Mark Kaplan 
of the Community Video Resource Associa- 
tion in Capetown without charges and with- 
out access to family or legal counsel since 
November 10, 1981. 



16 



In the absence of any basis for his deten- 
tion, Mr. Kaplan must be immediately and 
unconditionally released. Pending such 
release, Mr. Kaplan must be granted full 
visitation rights and access to legal counsel. 

The indefinite detention of individuals 
without charges or communication violates all 
international standards of due process. As 
media producers, we are particularly alarmed 
by the incarceration of Mr. Kaplan, as it 
represents a clear attack on the right and 
principle of free speech everywhere. It is im- 
perative that he be released immediately! 

SOLE REDEFINES FREE SPEECH 

Dear AIVF: 

Mr. Kaplan was detained in South Africa 
in terms of Section Six of the Terrorism Act 
No. 83 of 1967, which provides inter alia for 
the detention of a person who is suspected 
of withholding any information relating to 
terrorists from the police. He has now been 
released. 

Your allegation that Mr. Kaplan's arrest 
represents an attack on the right and princi- 
ple of free speech, is unfounded and devoid 
of any substance. Detention of a person con- 
nected in any way to the media represents as 
little an attack on free speech as would the 
detention of a clergyman represent inter- 
ference in the exercise of freedom of 
religious expression. 

MARCH 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



May I assure you that Mr. Kaplan's deten- 
tion was in no way connected to any of his 
dutues legitimately and legally performed on 
behalf of the Community Video Resource 
Center. D.B. Sole, Ambassador 



PATCO PLAINT 

Dear AIVF: 

I joined AIVF to learn and share informa- 
tion about film production. I expected it to 
be a trade organization and not a political 
forum for any of its management or direc- 
tors. 

Your letter to PATCO which was pub- 
lished in the December issue of the Indepen- 
dent states what I think is a distorted and 
uninformed view of the facts and circum- 
stances surrounding the illegal PATCO 
strike, and presents a view which is not at all 
shared by me and which I do not wish to 
have represented as my view. 

I do not understand your support of this 
union's actions, especially since you are sup- 



posed to represent 'independents'. As many 
'independents' realize, the reason their 
chosen profession is so difficult to finance is 
the exorbitant labor costs of union produc- 
tion crews. Can you imagine how many 
more films we could produce if these costs 
were more reasonable, and how much more 
everyone could and would work if that were 
the case? 

The most productive thing that you could 
do would be to try to negotiate union con- 
cessions for AIVF member productions. 
That would keep more of us and union 
people working, learning and improving the 
art form. James MacPherson 



GROUP SHIPMENTS 

If three or more film/videomakers plan 

to enter the same foreign festival, 

FIVF can arrange a group shipment, 

thereby saving you money! What you 

must do is drop us a note telling us 

what festival you are planning to enter, 

and if we get enough interest in one, 

we will call you. 



SUMMARY OF MINUTES 

The AIVF/FIVF Board met on 
January 6, 1982. Complete minutes are 
available on request. Highlights of the 
meeting follow. 

• CPB SCRIPTWRITING GRANT: 
CPB's second draft of a scriptwriting 
contract was still not acceptable to most 
of the grantees. AIVF held a meeting of 
several of the NY grantees and legal 
counsel, at which the decision was reached 
to renegotiate the contract with CPB col- 
lectively. (Organizing effort was subse- 
quently set aside due to lack of majority 
support.) 

• CPB PROGRAM FUND: With 
rumors confirmed of major funding go- 
ing to WGBH for a documentary series, 
rather than to independents, the Board 
resolved to have a letter of protest sent to 
the CPB Board, to notify legislators in- 
volved with PTV and to alert AIVF mem- 
bers. Board member Marc Weiss pressed 
Board and staff to develop an affirmative 
PTV strategy. AIVF's PTV committee is 
to meet to discuss Program Fund 
response and PTV issues in general. 

• WNET/ INDEPENDENT FOCUS 
staff will seek to clarify the role of a 
panel in the selection process. Marc 
Weiss and Eric Breitbart will brief this 
year's Focus panelists on the panel's func- 
tion in the past. 

• CHAPTERS: The Chapter Committee 
recommended an experiment with a 
regional section structure, coordinated by 
a section head, where regional members 
would meet once a month for a screening 



or presentation. The purpose of the 
structure is to provide regional members 
with an opportunity to meet on a regular 
basis, without placing a heavy burden on 
the national office. The Board approved 
the recommendation unanimously. 

• INDEPENDENT PRODUCER/ UNION 
COMMITTEE: Formed following the 
FIVF panel discussion on shooting union, 
this Committee was to meet on January 
13, 1982. Cancelled due to heavy snow. 

• ADVISORY BOARD COMMITTEE 
has produced a list of candidates for an 
AIVF/FIVF Advisory Board. The Board 
declined to set priorities, agreeing to let 
executive director Sapadin and Board 
member Bob Richter contact any can- 
didates on the list. 

•PTV INTERCONNECTION COM- 
MITTEE has suggested that AIVF offer 
programs for satellite distribution on a 
trial basis. AIVF will delegate curatorial 
function to ICAP, Window or other in- 
terested programmers. 

•FUNDRAISER: The Board approved 
the retaining of a professional fundraiser 
to develop new individual, foundation 
and corporate sources of income for 
FIVF. 

•ANNUAL MEMBERSHIP MEET- 
ING: This will consist of a business 
meeting followed by a party. Nomina- 
tions will be taken for new Board mem- 
bers. Date: March 23, 1982. Place: 
AIVF. Time: 7:30 pm. 

•AIVF/FIVF Board Meetings are re- 
scheduled for the second Wednesday of 
each month. The next meeting is March 
10, 1982. ■ 



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MARCH 1982 



17 



PRINCIPLES & RESOLUTIONS 
OF THE ASSOCIATION 



FOUNDING PRINCIPLES 

1. The Association is a service organi- 
zation of and for independent video 
and filmmakers. 

2. The Association encourages excel- 
lence, commitment and independence; 
it stands for the principle that video and 
filmmaking is more than just a job — 
that it goes beyond economics to in- 
volve the expression of broad human 
values. 

3. The Association works, through the 
combined effort of the membership, to 
provide practical, informational and 
moral support for independent video 
and filmmakers and is dedicated to en- 
suring the survival and providing sup- 
port for the continuing growth of in- 
dependent video and filmmaking. 

4. The Association does not limit its 
support to one genre, ideology or 
aesthetic, but furthers diversity of vi- 
sion in artistic and social consciousness. 

5. The Association champions indepen- 
dent video and film as valuable and 
vital expressions of our culture and is 
determined, by mutual action, to open 
pathways toward exhibition of this 
work to the community at large. 

RESOLUTIONS 

1. To affirm the creative use of media 
in fostering cooperation, community & 
justice in human relationships without 
respect to age, sex, race, class or 
religion. 

2. To recognize and reaffirm the 
freedom of expression of the indepen- 
dent film and videomaker, as spelled 
out in the AIVF principles. 

3. To promote constructive dialogue 
and heightened awareness among the 
membership of the social, artistic and 
personal choices involved in the pursuit 
of both independent and sponsored 
work, via such mechanisms as screen- 
ings and forums. 

4. To continue to work to strengthen 
AIVF's services to independents, in 
order to help reduce the membership's 
dependence on the kinds of sponsorship 
which encourage the compromise of 
personal values. 




AN APPLE 
A DAY... 
HEALTH INSURANCE 

FOR AIVF MEMBERS 

• 

AIVF now offers its members an excellent 

Group Life & Medical Insurance Plan. 

Highlights include: 

• $1,000,000 Major Medical Plan, which 
pays 85% of all eligible expenses not 

covered by the Basic Plan 

• $10,000 Group Life and $10,000 Group 
Accidental Death or Dismemberment 

Insurance 

• Partial psychiatric coverage 

• Reimbursement for illness, injury & 

hospital expenses 

• 

If you are a member, write: 

AIVF Health Plan, TFIGIT, 551 Fifth Ave., 

New York, NY 10017. If you're not, call 

AIVF at 473-3400 and ask for free 
membership & health plan brochures. 



Correspondence Continued from page 3 

3. Representation of the film by ICAP and 
subsequent cablecasting on USA Net- 
work. 

4. Acquisition for a thirteen-part PBS series 
assembled by the Bay Area Video Coali- 
tion. 

Strangely, my approach to AIVF for a 
screening involved a year's worth of phone 
calls and information sent to the office. 
Finally, Wendy Lidell, who is responsible 
for choosing which members' films will be 
presented by AIVF, consented to look at the 
film. My frustration stems from the fact that 
Ms. Lidell screened the film in the office 
during a business day, while eating lunch. 
She then asked me if the film had technical 
sound problems. (It does not.) She explained 
that AIVF is not primarily a screening orga- 
nization and that she could not think of a 
film to program with Hobie's Heroes. When 
she said she would again place the informa- 
tion about the film into the files, I began to 
realize she was not particularly enthused 
about the project. 

When pressured for a personal reaction, 
Ms. Lidell's words were: "I think your film 
is about values and I don't particularly agree 
with them." I have to admit this is a more 
candid response than one would receive 
from PBS. However, I regret that a one- 
person screening committee has seemingly 



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18 



prevented my work from being screened or 
discussed by AIVF. 

As I read the many articles in the Indepen- 
dent which angrily protest PBS program- 
ming and granting policies, I often wonder 
what the central issues really are. With all 
due respect to a fine organization, my ques- 
tion is: If justice-minded AIVF cannot 
handle a screening/selection process with a 
minimum of fairness, how can they expect 
others to do any better? 

Steven Montgomery 

LIDELL REPLIES: 

Yes, it is unfortunate that FIVF cannot pro- 
vide a showcase for all our members' films 
and tapes. We have decided our program- 
ming niche would best be filled by profes- 
sional workshops and seminars, and I 
believe our programming over the past six 
months demonstrates a relative level of suc- 
cess in this area. When we do screen films or 
tapes, preference is given to programs that 
raise issues which are of professional interest 
to media producers. 

As for democracy, we are very open to 
collaborating with individuals who bring us 
ideas. I will reiterate here the invitation 
which has appeared repeatedly in The In- 
dependent and on our program calendars: If 
you have an idea for a program or would 
like to constitute a programming committee, 
contact our program coordinator, John 
Grey son. 

We cannot, however, host every program 
suggested to us. As staff, we feel we are 
relatively in touch with the needs and in- 
terests of our members. We felt that Hobie's 
Heroes, a film about a diving coach with 
whom Montgomery once trained, would not 
interest enough film and video producers to 
justify a program at FIVF. 

It's really that simple and it's too bad 
Montgomery misquotes me. But, as he 
points out himself, I was being pressured. I 
think therein lie the values we disagree 
about. ■ 

MARCH 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



NOTICES & MORE FESTIVALS 



NOTICES & MORE FESTIVALS are listed free of charge. AIVF members 
receive first priority; others included as space permits. Send notices to 
The Independent do FIVF, 625 Broadway, 9th Floor, New York NY 10012. 
For further info, call (212) 473-3400. Deadline: 15th of second preceding 
month (e.g. March 15 for May). Edited by Odessa Flores & Wendy Udell. 



DOMESTIC FESTIVALS 

THE SIXTH ANNUAL MAINE STUDENT 
FILM FESTIVAL, May. When one considers the 
enormous effort — not to mention enthusiasm — 
required to put together a media festival, the 
heroics of an organization such as MAMA, the 
Maine Alliance of Media Arts, begin to shine 
forth. Here is an organization which for six years, 
through rain, sleet and Maine economics has been 
not only publishing the Camera Obscura news- 
letter, but also organizing the Fall Media Arts 
Fair, Summer Institutes in filmmaking, The Indi- 
vidual and the Environment, film and videomaker 
exchange programs, the Maine Biennial Film and 
Video Exposition and screenings in a multitude of 
public sites such as the Farnsworth Museum (a 
feat akin to bringing Stan Brakhage to the 
Cloisters) and throughout Maine. This group has 
been truly nurturing the independent media artists 
of Maine, as well as bringing the concept to the 
schools of Maine. This last year has seen budget 
cuts of more than 80% for MAMA due to rejec- 
tions from the Maine State Commission on the 
Arts and Humanities, CETA, NEA and busi- 
nesses. MAMA is once again plunging through 
these drifts, planning for the Sixth Annual 
Festival and expecting over 400 entries from 
young filmmakers in a state where film is still not 
part of the curriculum in almost any of the 
schools. J. Huey and Beverly Burton will be pro- 
ducing this year's festival — perhaps the last from 
MAMA, but certainly not the last of films from 
Maine. Entries are due May 1 . Contact MAMA at 
PO Box 4320, Station A, Portland ME 04101, 
(207) 773-1130. 

ROCHESTER INTERNATIONAL FILM 
FESTIVAL, May, invites entries of a non- 
theatrical nature for amateurs only. Sponsored by 
Movies on a Shoestring, Inc. and NYSCA, the 
Festival also organizes a touring exhibition of au- 
diences in the Rochester area. This Festival has 
been running since 1959 with a high degree of ef- 
ficiency and accomplishment to the benefit of the 
area's filmmakers and public alike. Work should 
be in 16, Super-8 or 8mm. Entries are due in 
March and there is a $6 fee. Contact: Dan Rear- 
dan, PO Box 3360, Rochester NY 14614. 

AUDUBON SOCIETY INTERNATIONAL EN- 
VIRONMENTAL FILM FESTIVAL, Second 
Annual, May is accepting 16mm films on subjects 
relating to nature, wildlife, the effects of pollu- 
tion and other topics of interest to the Audubon 
Society. The festival was organized in order not 
only to recognize films of merit, but to expand 
and encourage the use of media in "spreading the 
conservation message", and to promote such 
work through the Audubon Society's network of 
466 local chapters. The Society has some 447,000 
members, all of whom will be able to book the 
winning films through the Festival Filmography 
distributed by the festival. Last year some 150 

MARCH 1982 



films were entered, and some 90 will be included 
in the Filmography distributed and promoted 
among the Society. The judges will also break 
categories down into higher and lower budget, 
where merited. Entries are due March 15, and 
there is a $40 fee. Contact: Carol Taylor, 
Audubon Society, 950 Third Ave., New York NY 
10022. 

SEA INTERNATIONAL UNDERWATER 
FILM FESTIVAL COMPETITION, May, has 
been presenting 16, Super-8 and 8mm films 
related to underwater photography and conserva- 
tion since 1965. Entries should be no more than 
30 minutes long, and at least 30% must have been 
exposed underwater. Over 3,000 people attend the 
screenings, and there is a competition. Submis- 
sions should be in by April 25. There is a $5 fee. 
Contact: Susan O'Neil, Underwater Photography 
Society of California, 19715 Vineyard Lane, 
Saratoga CA 95070. 

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON FAMILY RELA- 
TIONS ANNUAL FJ.LM AWARDS COMPETI- 
TION, October, accepts films in 16mm and 
videotapes on V* ". The theme of the festival is 
Quality of Family Life: Integrating Theory, 
Research and Application. The viewing is held at 
the four-day meeting of the NCFR, which more 
than 1000 professionals attend. A large portion of 
last year's entries were features and short fictions, 
but a "small, though representative" portion was 
of experimental films. Work must be available for 
rental, purchase or lease. Entries are due by April 
15, and fees range from $30-$50. Contact: Betty 
Morrison, 1219 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis 
MN 55414. 

MASON GROSS FILM FESTIVAL, April 6-8, is 
open to all those who work in 16 and Super-8mm. 
The emphasis is on film as a creative medium. 
Sponsorship is by Mason Gross School and the 
New Jersey State Council on the Arts. Jurying is 
by a panel of independent artists and critics. A 
majority of last year's entries were shorts and 
documentaries from California, New York and 
Ann Arbor. There may be viewing at other loca- 
tions within New Jersey, aside from the festival at 
Mason Gross, since the festival organizers are 
hoping to expand the exposure of the winners. 
Entries are due March 10. Contact: Mark Berger, 
Mason Gross Film Festival, Mason Gross School, 
New Brunswick NJ 08903. 

UNITED STATES INDUSTRIAL FILM 
FESTIVAL, April 1982, is an international 
festival. Called the "world's largest exclusively 
industrial film/media" festival, it receives some 
1200 entries from 18 countries annually. 16mm 
films or 3 A " tapes must have been produced for 
an organization, but the festival separates com- 
mercially-produced films from non-commercially- 
produced films for fairness of recognition, the 
two-day-long festival includes seminars and work- 



shops. Winners may be included in the University 
of Iowa's American Archive of Factual Film. 
Sponsors include La Belle Industries, Backstage 
Publications, Kraft Inc., National Film Board of 
Canada, American Dental Association and Iowa 
State University. Fees range from $30-$90. En- 
tries are due in March. Contact: J.W. Andersen, 
841 North Addison Ave., Elmhurst IL 60126. 

INTERNATIONAL WIDESCREEN FILM 
FESTIVAL, April, accepts any film made as a 
"widescreen" film and without profit intentions. 
"Widescreen" is generally understood as film shot 
for any screen wider than 1.33:1 (the normal 
screen ratio). This category has been broken 
down to "widescreen" — 2:1, "Cinemascope" 
2.35:1, and "full Cinemascope" — 2.66:1. The en- 
thusiasts proclaim widescreen's greater "realism", 
peripheral vision and enhanced effect from mov- 
ing shots. There is a lot of innovation here, as 
widescreen filmmakers create a new utilization of 
standard equipment, film frame allocation to 
audio/visual, quadrophonic sound, interlocking 
cameras and multiplied image within slightly 
larger screens. Popular in the '50s, and 
sporadically since in its more bizarre forms of 3-D 
and extremely anamorphic lenses, widescreen is 
nevertheless now the mean for international pro- 
fessional screen ratios with movies such as Star 
Wars and The Empire Strikes Back shot in 2.35: 1 . 
Entries are due in April. Contact: Greater Pitts- 
burgh Widescreen Group, 2616 Voelkel Ave., 
Pittsburgh PA 15216. 

HOUSTON INTERNATIONAL FILM FESTI- 
VAL (15TH FESTIVAL OF THE AMERICAS), 

April 20-25, sponsored by Cinema America Inc., 
an independent film production company now 
based in Houston. Formerly THE ATLANTA 
INTERNATIONAL FILM FESTIVAL ('68-'74), 
THE VIRGIN ISLANDS INTERNATIONAL 
FILM FESTIVAL (74-77) and THE GREATER 
MIAMI INTERNATIONAL FILM FESTIVAL 
(78). Cinema America's J. Hunter Todd has been 
negotiating contracts with state and city govern- 
ments for sponsorship since '68. The six day 
festival draws enormous crowds of 6-10,000 to its 
sponsoring city, and both government and festival 
take full advantage of the publicity. A thick 
catalogue of local (and in the case of Houston — 
international) advertising pushes hotels, theatres 
and businesses as well as the usual festival infor- 
mation. 

The festival is dedicated to independent film 
and video productions but entry fees (from 
$25-150), past winners and seminar topics 
(Hollywood Studio System, Hollywood Directors 
etc.) show an emphasis on higher-budget films 
and videotapes. Nevertheless, films of all types 
are accepted for pre-screening under categories of 
Feature, Short, Documentary, Student, Experi- 
mental, TV and TV Commercial. The festival reg- 
ularly receives 2100 entries from 30 countries, 
with about 20% from foreign producers. The 
festival simultaneously runs the Photomax Trade 
Fair, presentations of internationally-distributed 
feature films, and a film and video market ($25 
fee), with VTR and film screenings for buyer- 
sellers (especially cable) being very well organized. 
This is a professional festival for independents 
— particularly those looking towards Hollywood. 
Entries due March 15. Contact: J. Hunter Todd, 
P.O. Box 56566, Houston, Texas, 77027. 

19 



THE INDEPENDENT 



FOREIGN FESTIVALS 

TRENTO INTERNATIONAL FESTIVAL OF 
MOUNTAIN AND EXPLORATION FILMS, 

April 25-May 1, is an international festival held in 
Trento, Italy in conjunction with the Interna- 
tional Mountaineering Convention. Films in 35 
and 16mm on topics as diverse as speleology, 
geography, environmental protection, mountain 
peoples, documentation of expeditions or scien- 
tific research dealing with anthropological, eco- 
logical, physical or archaeological aspects of the 
Earth should be submitted by March 20. No fee. 
Contact: Piero Zanotto, Via Verdi 30, C.P. 402, 
38100, Trento, Italy. 

EKOFILM, INTERNATIONAL FILM 
FESTIVAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROB- 
LEMS, May, is held in Ostrava-Poruba, 
Czechoslovakia for four days. Over 5,000 peo- 
ple attend this specialized festival which intro- 
duces new films dealing with environmental prob- 
lems and, in particular, unconventional solutions 
and developments. There are an average of 150 
entries. Work should be in 35 or 16mm, and no 
longer than 30 minutes. Categories range from 
Agriculture, Industry and Energy Systems to 
Negative Environmental Effects Limitation and 
Ecologically Balanced Landscape Development. 
The winners may be shown on local TV. Entry 
fees are $15-$24. Entries are due in March. Con- 
tact: Libuse Novotra, Konviktska 5, 113 57 
Prague 1, Czechoslovakia. 

FACTFILM (FORUM, ARCHITECTURE, COM- 
MUNICATION, TERRITORY), September- 
October, is held to promote wider use of media to 
convey architectural and urban issues to the pub- 
lic. There is an annual theme relating to archi- 
tectural and urban issues. Sponsored by 
UNESCO, the French Government and Columbia 
University, New York, there are an average of 
200 entries, with 1500 attending the Festival. Vi " 
videotapes are also accepted. Over $4,000 is 
awarded to winners in the categories of Made for 
TV, Made for Festival, and Theme. Entries are 
due in March. Contact: Francois Confino, Circa, 
Chartreuse, 30400 Villeneauve, Avignon, France, 
or Caroll Michells, 491 Broadway, New York NY 
10012. 

DIRECTOR'S FORTNIGHT, May, accepts films 
in 70, 35 and 16mm which have not been com- 
mercially exhibited in French or European compe- 
titions. This is held during the Cannes Interna- 
tional Film Festival at sites both in Cannes and 
Paris. The Fortnight shows new films "without 
restriction or censorship of production". Here 
there is more emphasis on the work of the in- 
dependent than elsewhere in Cannes, but films 
still represent higher budget categories. There are 
no awards or fees, and PR and documentation is 
required. Entries are due in April. Contact: 
Pierre-Henri Deleau, 215 Rue du Faubourg, 
Saint-Honore, 75008 Paris, France. 

CANADIAN INTERNATIONAL AMATEUR 
FILM FESTIVAL (CIAFF), June, is open to 
amateurs, students and independents alike. En- 
tries cannot have been sold, commissioned, spon- 
sored or otherwise subsidized for profit. Cate- 
gories include Canadian, Scenario, Documentary, 
Natural Sciences, Animation, Humor and Experi- 
mental, and must be 16, Super-8 or 8mm, 30 
min. max. The festival is sponsored by the 
Ontario Arts Council, Elmo Canada and Kodak 

20 



Canada. Held at the National Library and 
Archives Theatre in Ottawa, it culminates in a 
touring exhibition of the winners. From some 150 
entries from 20 countries, 20 winners are chosen. 
$5 fee. Entries due April. Contact: Betty Peter- 
son, 4653 Dundes St. West, Islington, Ontario, 
M9A 1A4, Canada. 

ASOLO INTERNATIONAL FESTIVAL OF 
FILMS ON ART AND BIOGRAPHIES OF 
ARTISTS, May-June, presents a critical survey of 
film on arts and artists. Held in the Eleonora 
Duse Theatre in Asolo, Italy, since 1973, 
categories include Art, Artist Feature, Short. 
Work should be in 35 or 16mm. No fee. Entries 
are due in April. Contact: Flavia Paulon, Calle 
Aogaria 1633, 30123 Venice, Italy. 

INTERNATIONAL FESTIVAL OF SUPER-8 
CINEMA, March, is sponsored by the govern- 
ment of Barcelona. Held at the International 
Center of Photography for four days, over 3,000 
people attend. Work in Super-8 and 8mm should 
be submitted in early March. Contact: Enrique 
Lopez Manzano, Accion Super-8, Conde del 
Asalto 3, Apdo. Correos, 35352, Barcelona 1, 
Spain. 

VELDEN AMATEUR FILM FESTIVAL OF 
NATIONS, June, invites submissions in 16, 
Super-8 and 8mm, 25 min. max. Categories are: 
Travel, Games, Genre-Fantasy, Experimental, 
and Misc. Winners may be shown on Austrian 
TV. Some 250 entries each year are viewed at the 
week-long Festival. Entries are due in April. No 
fee. Contact: W. Hufsky, A-9220 Velden am 
Woerthersee, Kurverwaltung, Austria. 

TRAVES-PYRENEES INTERNATIONAL 
TOURISM FILM FESTIVAL, June, is held in 
Tarbes for 9 days. Accompanied by seminars and 
debates, the festival is government-recognized and 
exists to promote tourism. Work in 35 or 16mm, 
50 min. max., in French or with transcription is 
accepted. Commercials or "propaganda" are not. 
Entries due in March. Contact: Etienne Achille- 
Fould, 2 Place Ferre, 65000 Tarbes France. 

AUCKLAND INTERNATIONAL FILM 
FESTIVAL, July, has been running since 1950. 
Formerly part of the Adelaide International Film 
Festival, it is supported by government councils 
and is now under the auspices of the Auckland 
Festival of the Arts. The Festival attracts interna- 
tional submissions, averaging 50 films from 20 
countries each year. There are no fees, but entries 
must be in by April. Contact: Max Archer, PO 
Box 1411, Auckland 1, New Zealand. 

SCOTTISH INTERNATIONAL AMATEUR 
FILM FESTIVAL, April, is sponsored by the 
Scottish Association of Amateur Cinematog- 
raphers and the Scottish Film Council. Work 
should be in 16, 8 or Super-8mm, and produced 
without professional assistance. Held since 1938, 
the Festival has strong support. Entries should be 
made by April 15. Contact: SAAC, Dowanhill, 75 
Victoria Crescent Rd., Glasgow, G12 9JN, 
Scotland, Great Britain. 

COSTA BRAVA INTERNATIONAL AMATEUR 
FILM FESTIVAL, June 15, is accepting non- 
professional films made in 16, Super-8 and 8mm. 
An average of 300 a day attend the week-long 
Festival, which is sponsored by the Ministry of 
Culture and over twenty years old. Entries should 



be made by April 15. Contact: Agrupacio 
Fotgrafica y Cinematografica, Sant Feliu de 
Guixols, Gerona, Spain. 

KARLOVY VARY INTERNATIONAL FILM 
FESTIVAL, July 3-15, has been held alternately 
with the Moscow International Film Festival since 
1946. Supported by the Czechoslovakian govern- 
ment, its philosophy is "for noble relations 
among people, for lasting friendship among na- 
tions". This is definitely one of the largest Euro- 
pean film festivals, with one film of any par- 
ticipating country accepted in the competition of 
features and first-film-of-filmmaker categories. 
Work should be in 35mm, unshown at any other 
international festival, and in its original language 
(Czech subtitles are provided by the Festival). 
Past winners include The Fiancee by Gunther 
Rucker, Signum Laudi by Martic Holly, Beads of 
a Rosary by Kozimierz Kutz and others. Topics of 
winning films range from Vietnam to Marxism. 
Awards are given in many categories including 
Best Actor (Al Pacino, for And Justice for All in 
1980), Best Director etc. The Festival is well at- 
tended, as it showcases the major foreign films 
you'll be seeing in New York, Chicago and 
elsewhere across America. No fee. Entries due 
March 15. Contact: Dr. F. Marvan, Czechoslovak 
Film Jindrisska 34, 111 45 Prague 1, Czechoslo- 
vakia. 

FLORENCE FILM FESTIVAL, May 29-June 3, 
began three years ago as the Review of American 
Independent Cinema. Although it has now ex- 
panded to include European independents as well, 
they will be accepting about ten American 
features this year. According to festival director 
Fabrizio Fiumi, the festival is designed to provide 
a cordial meeting place for independent film- 
makers, critics and distributors. Attendance and 
press coverage has increased each year (it takes 
place just after Cannes) and this year's festival is 
expected to be even larger. Only feature-length 
fiction films are accepted in 16 or 35mm. They 
should not yet have premiered in Italy, and 
preference is given to productions completed 
within the last two years. There is no competition 
and no entry fee. The festival pays all shipping 
costs, subtitles all prints and provides hospitality 
to all participating filmmakers. Selection will take 
place in New York at the Italian Cultural In- 
stitute, 686 Park Avenue, New York NY 10021, 
(212) 879-4242. Contact festival directors Giovan- 
ni Rossi or Fabrizio Fiumi there between March 
15 and April 11. 

SYDNEY FILM FESTIVAL, June, is the major 
Australian festival, along with Melbourne 
(reviewed in the February Independent) for get- 
ting your film into the Australian market. The 
Sydney Festival was established in 1953 and 
presents over one hundred shorts and features, 
awarding cash prizes in documentary, general and 
feature categories. They also publish an il- 
lustrated catalog and sponsor a traveling show 
throughout Australia. Filmmakers are encouraged 
to attend, and some may be provided with travel- 
ing expenses, especially when the film is also be- 
ing shown at Melbourne, so that the two festivals 
can share the expenses. Recent entrants include 
Alambrista, Northern Lights and The Jocelyn 
Shrager Story. There is no entry fee and the 
festival pays return postage. Entry deadline: 
April. Contact: David J. Stratton, GPO Box 
4934, Sydney, New South Wales 2001, Australia. 

MARCH 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



FUNDS • RESOURCES 

NJCH accepting proposals for pilot media grants. 
Deadline April 1 for mid-May review. For 
guidelines and more info contact: NJCH, 73 
Easton Ave., New Brunswick NJ 08903, (201) 
932-7726. 

ARTIST-1N-RESIDENCE PROGRAM 1982-83, 
for video/film artists, accepting resumes. Pro- 
gram enables artists to work in variety of com- 
munity settings among students & adults. Regis- 
tration deadline: April 5. For more info contact: 
New York Foundation for Arts, Artists-in- 
Residence Program, 5 Beekman St., Rm. 600, NY 
NY 10038, (212) 233-3900. 

NEA grant application deadlines: for Dance 
Video, May 1; for Art Centers, May 3; Video Ex- 
hibition, June 1; Video Production, Sept. 15. For 
more info contact: NEA Media Arts, (202) 
634-6300. 

CPB/ANNENBERG SCHOOL OF COMMUNI- 
CATIONS Project accepting proposals for next 
round. Application deadline April 5. $5 million 
will be awarded to producers for educational pro- 
gramming in film or video. Contact: CPB/ASC 
Project, 1111 Sixteenth St., NW, Washington DC 
20036. 

CCLM FILM MAGAZINE Grants Program 
deadline Mar. 15. NYSCA-funded program will 
allocate money to non-commercial magazines 
published for at least 1 year. For application & 
details contact: Leonora Champagne, CCLM, 
1133 Broadway, Rm. 1324, NY NY 10010, (212) 
675-8605. 



MEDIA BUREAU GRANTS 1981-82 of up to 
$200-300 available for presentations of media 
works in New York State, (i.e. lecture, rental, 
artists fees). For info contact: Media Bureau, 59 
Wooster St., NY NY 10012. 

AND / OR is a resource & sponsor for contem- 
porary art activities/ideas, w/commitment to find 
ways to support work by artists. Currently 
developing projects in areas such as: funding 
works & providing accounting services for artists 
& non-profit organizations. For info contact: 
And/Or, 915 East Pine St., #420, Seattle WA 
98122, (206) 324-5842. 

FILM IN THE CITIES was awarded $42,480 
from Northwest Area Foundation for their Min- 
nesota Screenwriters & Directors Development 
Project. Project will enable FITC to award 
fellowship to a Minnesota filmmaker wishing to 
acquire directing skills; will also culminate in 
half-hour dramatic film using screenplay by a 
Minnesota screenwriter. For project info contact: 
FITC, (612) 646-6104. 

ASSOCIATION OF COLLEGE, UNIVERSITY 
& COMMUNITY ARTS ADMINISTRATORS, 
NEA-funded pilot program offers technical 
assistance to non-profit arts organizations. 
Market planning & research, artist residencies, 
developing volunteer groups & facility operating 
assistance available. Contact: ACUCAA, Box 
2137, Madison WI 57301, (608) 262-0004. 

MEDIA ARTS PROGRAM: NEA-funded, ad- 
ministered by Downtown Community TV, accept- 
ing proposals for community-oriented video proj- 
ects. Deadline: Mar. 31. Maximum grant: $1500. 



For applications contact: DCTV, 87 Lafayette 
St., NY NY 10013. 



PUBLICATIONS 

BAY AREA VIDEO COALITION now offers 
National Exhibition Directory for video. Printed 
in a special edition of Video Networks, Directory 
is available to non-subscribers for $2. Send checks 
to: BAVC, 1111 17 St., San Francisco CA 94107. 

MONEY FOR ARTISTS, a guide primarily for 
NYS artists on grants, fellowships, awards & 
artist-in-residencies available at $2. Bibliographic 
references are useful on the national level. Send 
check to: Center for Arts Information, 625 
Broadway, NY NY 10012, (212) 677-7548. 

PROFILE, a publication devoted to exploration 
of artists' ideas, accepting subscriptions. Pub- 
lished bimonthly: individual $9; institution $18. 
Send check to: Profile, Video Data Bank, 
School/Art Inst. Chicago, Columbus at Jackson, 
Chicago IL 60603. 

FILM FUND FUNDRAISING KIT now avail- 
able. Designed for film/video & slide show pro- 
ducers, kit includes foundation, corporate, gov't 
& individual donor fundraising information. For 
beginners it includes an extensive & comprehen- 
sive bibliography. Send $3 check to: Janice 
Sakamoto, The Film Fund, 80 East 11 St., NY 
NY 10003. 

VLA announces the 3rd edition of Fear of Filing: 
A Beginner's Handbook on Record Keeping & 
Federal Taxes, for performers, visual artists & 



FILffl FORUm 

SCREENING ROOM 

150 & 194 SEATS BOTH WITH 16 S 35MM 

AVAIL: MORNINGS, EARLY AFTERNOONS 

MIN. CHARGE: $30 

CALL OR WRITE: JANET PERLBERG 

FILM FORUM, 57 WATTS, NYC 10013 

431-1592 

Partially supported by NYSCA 



Film Stock Scotch #208 & 209 

Leader Fullcoat Fi,m for s, ' des 

Downtown 

DISCOUNT 

Frezzi Camera Rental 
16 Interlock Prjn. Video Cassettes 

" A % K 12 ,475-7884 



| 814 BROADWAY, NEW YORK, N.Y. 10003 | 



The LARGEST fully equipped 
NON PROFIT MEDIA CENTER 

in the City is now offering at very affordable rates: 

A Professional broadcast-quality COLOR TV STUDIO 

for Access producers 

Up to 3 Ikegami cameras with chroma key, special effects 

generator, overhead lighting grid, 20'x40'xl2' studio 

with engineer— from $35 to 50/hour to "C" and "D" producers 

("J" rates slightly higher) — Your crew or ours 

• 

Telecine Roll-ins (S8, 16, slides)— from $20 to 25/hour 
"C" and "D" 

• 

Video Editing (switcher with luminance key, graphics camera, 
character generator, TBC, and technician) 
—from $25 to 30/hour "C" and "D" 

• 

In addition: 

Portable video equipment: film, audio and lighting equipment 
rentals; film postproduction; and training — all at low cost 



Young Filmakers/Video Arts 

a non-profit media arts service organization 

4 Rivington Street rA| , cto ooc4 

New York City 10002 UALL b7o-9ob I 



THE INDEPENDENT 



writers. The handbook provides instructions on 
income, deductions & tax credit for artists, in- 
cluding those self-employed. Price: $8, plus $1 for 
postage & handling (first copy; 50c postage each 
additional copy). Send check to: VLA, 1560 
Broadway, Suite 711, NY NY 10036, (212) 
575-1150. 



IN & OUT OF PRODUCTION 

MURINI WINDOW, a new film by Michael Hall, 
documents glassblower Dudley Giberson's year- 
long creative process of 3-paneled stained glass 
window, partly composed of thousands of free- 
blown glass murini symbols. 28-min. film gives 
viewer insights on craft, unique artwork & 
challenges to artists in this time. For info contact: 
Image Resources, Box 315, Franklin Lakes NJ 
07417, (201) 891-8240. 

ELEVENTH HOUR FILMS announces comple- 
tion of In Our Backyards: Uranium Mining in the 
US. 29-min. documentary produced & directed by 
Susanna Styron & Pamela Jones w/narration by 
Peter Matthiessen, explores radioactivity of 
uranium & its impact on environment. For 
distribution info contact: Bullfrog Films, (215) 
779-8226. 

THE NATIONAL NETWORKS of Italy have ac- 
quired the broadcasting rights to Saints in 
Chinatown by AIVF member Sol Rubin. This 
Cannes Festival award-winning film is a satire 
about admiration for the sacred, dictators and 
gangsters. 

TO FIND THE BARUYA STORY: An Anthro- 
pologist's Work with a New Guinea Tribe by Jill 
Klein & Stephen Olson still in progress. 50-min. 
documentary explores work of French anthro- 
pologist Maurice Godilier, who has worked with 
Baruya people for 15 years; raises issues about 
primitive cultures & economies. For info contact: 
Film Arts Foundation, (415) 552-8760. 

GAMELAN SEKAR JAYA, 40-min. unfinished 
documentary by James Thomas & Jill Klein, 
celebrates Balinese Gamelan music. Film focuses 
on I Ways Suweca, co-founder & director of 
Sekar Jaya group, & his work to pass on tradi- 
tional Gamelan music to 20 American students. 
For info contact: Film Arts Foundation, (415) 
552-8760. 

A SENSE OF BALANCE by Michael Hall is out 
of production. 27-min. film portrays 14-year-old 
Scott Gardner & 5 other teenagers in journey to 
rehabilitation & unique experience on 2-week 
Minnesota Outward Bound Course. For rental & 
info contact: Image Resources, Box 315, Franklin 
Lakes NJ 07417, (201) 891-8240. 

AIVF/FIVF congratulates filmmakers Barbara 
Kopple and Hart Perry on the arrival of their 
baby boy, Hart Nicholas Kopple Perry. 

BUY • RENT • SELL 

FOR SALE: IKEGAMI ITC 350 camera w/AC 
adaptor, 2 on-board batteries & charger, 25 ft. 
VTR cable, Saticon tubes, Fujinon 11-110 power 
zoom lens. Sony VO 4800 deck w/portabrace 
carrying pack, 2 batteries, AC supply. JVC TM 
41 AU 5 " color monitor w/battery & charger. 

22 



Beyer DT 48 stereo headphones. Entire package: 
$10,000. For info contact: Ralph Rugoff, 134 
Benefit St., Providence RI 02909, (401) 274-2493. 

FOR RENT: 16 SR Arriflex camera & 10-150 
zoom lens & Sachtler tripod. Special exclusive 
AIVF discount: $150/day. Zeiss Super Speeds & 
many other accessories available at additional 
cost. Contact: Bob Zimmerman, (212) 741-0974. 

FOR SALE: EASTMAN 25B 16mm projector. 
1000W Xenon pedestal mounted. Opt-mag sound. 
Brand-new 100W Xenon lamphouse, bulb, power 
supply. Takes 6000' reel: $5000. EIKI EX-1510 
16mm projector. 300W Xenon opt-mag sound, 
spare lamp: $1500. Both excellent condition. Both 
for $6000. Contact: Karen Cooper, (212) 
431-1592. 

FOR SALE: BELL & HOWELL 16mm/Super-8 
cine printer/analysis projector, filters $500. Also 
16mm analysis projector, frame by frame & con- 
tinuous working, $700 or both for $1000 final. 
For info contact: (212) 228-4024. 

FOR RENT: 8-PLATE KEN Universal by the 
month $600, 3 16mm picture heads, 2 16mm 
sound heads. Leave message for Pat Russell: 
(212) 581-6470. 

FOR SALE: MOVIOLA flatbed 16mm 4-plate. 
Good condition, $4000 or best offer. For info 
contact: Araness Communications, (212) 
582-6246. 

FOR SALE: MITCHELL 1200' magazine, $600; 
Anvil case for 2 1200' Mitchell mags, $125; Frezzi 
F-30 EXF 30VDC fast-charge power belt & Frezzi 
BC-30 fast charger $700. Also Frezzi double- 
shoulder body brace for 16mm cameras, $150; 
Sony professional mixer MX670 x/6 microphones 
input, 2 channel output, $300. For info contact: 
(716) 885-9777. 

FOR RENT: Animation special: camera service 
w/Oxberry master series, rear projection, image 
expander, 16-35mm, computerized controls 
available, $50/hr. Complete graphics product 
facilities, kodaliths, transfers & editing also 
available. Contact: Darino, (212) 228-4024. 

FOR RENT: Film studio, approximately 15' x 
15', many amenities. Asking $430/mo., 
negotiable. For info write to: Film Planning 
Associates, 38 East 20 St., NY NY 10003, (212) 
228-9000. 

FOR RENT: Complete 16mm editing room w/ 
Moviola flatbed on Upper West Side. Available 
9 am-6 pm Mon-Fri only. For info contact: 
Susan, (212) 724-0847, leave message. 

FOR SALE: 2 AUDIO RMS 8 wireless 
microphones, $1000 each. Schoeps hypercardioid 
microphones, $275. Schoeps MK-8 bi-directional 
capsule, $335. 2 Rogers LS 3/5A mini-monitor 
speakers, $400/pair. Crown D-75 power ampli- 
fier, $250. All in excellent condition. For info 
contact: Larry Loewinger, 376 Broome St., NY 
NY 10013, (212) 226-2429. 

FOR SALE: REEL-TO-REEL Vi " videotapes, 
1-hr. & Vi-hr. Cheap prices. For more info con- 
tact: Jeff Byrd, (212) 233-5851. 

FOR SALE: ZOOM motor control J4-J5, cinema 



products. Includes complete brackets for 10-150. 
For info contact: Robert Zimmerman, (212) 
741-0974. 

FOR SALE: ECLAIR NPR, excellent condition, 
Beala Ha crystal motor, variable speed, kinoptic 
viewfinder, 2-400 ft. magazines, Angenieux 
12-120 T 2.5 lens, power cables, 7 amp. hr. Cine 
60 battery belt, new cases. Contact: Jimmy 
Lebovitz, (212) 966-6657. 

FOR SALE: COMPLETE 16MM editing bench, 
nearly new, w/M-50 viewer, rewinds, amplifier, 
5-gang synchronizer w/mag reader; Rivas razor- 
edge frameline splicer. Entire outfit: $1000 or best 
offer. Contact: Carol Ritter, (212) 499-4661. 

OPPORTUNITIES • GIGS 

FOX & DOUBLE B. AGENCY has internship 
position open. Requirements: must know how to 
edit camerawork & have at least basic journalism 
or writing background. Send resume to: Double 
B. Agency, 445 East 200 South, Salt Lake City 
UT 84111. 

NEH PROPOSAL WRITER experienced in all 
phases of proposal preparation for documentary 
films. Research, editing, writing & advisor cor- 
respondence. References. For more info contact: 
Regina Sackmay, (212) 474-6729. 

YOUNG FILMAKERS has chief video engineer 
position available. Requirements: 2 yrs. in similar 
position; completion of technical training pro- 
gram in Video Maintenance or equivalent ex- 
perience; familiarity with electronic test/monitor- 
ing equipment & 16mm/Super-8 film technology. 
Duties include: repair & maintenance of film, 
audio & TV equipment, supervising technical in- 
terns & technicians, inventory, instituting regular 
preventive maintenance plan for organization. 
Salary negotiable. Good benefits. Contact: David 
Sasser, (212)673-9361. 

WITNESS FILMS seeks dramatic & documentary 
scripts for film/video production. Particularly in- 
terested in feature-length script, powerful 
storyline, few characters, easily shot in NYC area 
on low budget. Include return postage or pick up 
material. For info contact: Terry Williams, 
Witness Films, 37 West 20 St., NY NY 10011. 

VIDEO VISIONS, independently-owned produc- 
tion company, seeking established network of 
cross-country independent producers to develop 
weekly boxing magazine. Other formats also 
under consideration. Interested parties send 
description & public relation materials to: VV, 
PO Box 755, Richboro PA 18954. 

EDITING/PRODUCTION ASSISTANT avail- 
able to work with film/video artist or organiza- 
tion anytime. Contact: Dorsey Davis, (212) 
431-8045. 

SENSE OF HUMOR? Producer looking for 
writers & actors interested in assembling Saturday 
Night Live-type package for cable TV distribu- 
tion. For info contact: John Mackenzie, (212) 
661-5550. 

EXPERIENCED CINEMATOGRAPHER avail- 
able immediately. Fiction & documentary. Reel 
available. Access to 16mm equipment. Contact: 

MARCH 19B2 



THE INDEPENDENT 



Igor Sunara, (212) 249-0416. 

EXPERIENCED DIRECTOR, writer, editor 
seeks work in film or otherwise. Contact: James 
Khlevner, 143 Mercer St., Jersey City NJ 07303, 
(201) 451-1319. 

COMPOSER AVAILABLE, experienced in film 
& video. Specializing in electronic music & syn- 
thesized sound design. Contact: Robert Fair, 
(212) 966-2852. 

CAMERAMAN w/equipment available. Ikegami 
HL-77, Sony deck, 2 full rigs, editing. For more 
info contact: Paul Allman, (212) 477-6530. 

MIDWEST communications firm has writer- 
producer-director position available. Applicants 
will deal directly w/clients on professional level. 
Requirements: Experience in instructional writing 
& videotape production mandatory. Agricultural 
& mechanical background helpful. National af- 
filiation provides excellent benefits. Salary com- 
mensurate with experience. Send resume & cover 
letter to: Signal Communications, 727 East 2 St., 
Des Moines IA 50309. 

OPERATIONS COORDINATOR sought by 
Young Filmakers. Responsibilities include: 
assisting program director, maintaining equip- 
ment inventory records, managing special proj- 
ects, coordinating computer mailing list, supervis- 
ing interns. Organizational skills, strong media 
background, ability to work under constant 
pressure a must. Salary negotiable & commen- 
surate with experience. Good benefits. For info 
contact: David Sasser, (212) 673-9361. 

15 TV INTERNSHIP positions available at 
WNYC-TV 31 in all aspects of production. Ap- 
plications reviewed in May. Academic credit 
available & paid internships arranged thru Urban 
Corps. For details contact: Tad Turner, WNYC- 
TV 31, (212) 566-3952. 



EDITING 

VIDEO editing facility for 3 A " Panasonic NV- 
9600. Also complete film editing room w/ 16mm 
6-plate Steenbeck & sound transfers available. 
For more info contact: Nugent, (212) 486-9020. 

VIDEO/FILM postproduction services available 
for 3 A " Betamax or 16mm & Super-8. Also 24-hr. 
access to 16mm film editing suites. For details 
contact: Young Filmakers, (212) 673-9361. 

EDITING & POSTPRODUCTION facilities 
available, fully-equipped rooms. Two 6-plate 
Steenbecks, 1-16/35 KEM, sound transfers from 
Vi " to 16mm & 35mm mags, narration record- 
ings, extensive sound effects library, interlock 
screening room. Contact: Cinetudes, 295 West 4 
St., NY NY 10014, (212) 966-4600. 

EDITING SERVICE AVAILABLE, quick & effi- 
cient synching of 16mm dailies & track. Equip- 
ment provided. For info contact: Terry, (212) 
658-5270. 

FILMS & TAPES WANTED 

SHORT COMEDY FILM WANTED: 16mm, 
20-30 mins. to be paired with 60 min. comedy for 

MARCH 1982 



theatrical release. For info contact: Fishelson/ 
Zinman, 338 East 13 St., NY NY 10003, (212) 
677-9531. 

CAREER CENTER TELECOMMUNICATIONS 
STUDIOS interested in airing films or videotapes 
10 mins. or under for a new talk show, Wash- 
ington Folio. Prefer abstract/creative works. For 
more info contact: Daniel Lahiguera, (202) 
920-4480. 

SOHO TV seeking 3 A ", '/2-hr videotapes for cable 
TV program. Interview format on any subject of 
artwork. For info contact: Artists TV Network, 
72 Fifth Ave., 2nd fl., NY NY 10011, (212) 
243-7305. 

AMERICAN FILM SHOWCASE, 1-hr. weekly 
series featuring work of independent filmmakers, 
seeking submissions. Also developing Video 
Bandstand, '/2-hr. weekly showcase for rock 
videotapes. For info contact: Bill Horberg, Tish 
Tash Productions, 222 South Morgan St., 
Chicago IL 60607, (302) 733-2679. 

FOOTAGE WANTED: Independent producer 
seeks 16mm color footage of flea markets for use 
in documentary. Contact: Richard Chisolm, 2802 
Maryland Ave., Baltimore MD 21218, (301) 
467-2997. 



SCREENINGS 

ANTHOLOGY FILM ARCHIVES screening 
schedule: Mar. 6: Deans Keppel, Me & Mom: An 
Autobiography, Quit Kicking Sand in our Faces; 
Mar. 13: Lance Wisniewski, Remote Video 
Monitoring of Nature; Mar. 20: Janice Tanaka, 
Duality Duplicity plus others; Mar. 27: Rita 
Myers, Our Living Dreams, Points of a Star, 
Chapter Three. All showings at 2 pm. Admission 
$3. For further info contact: AFA, 80 Wooster 
St., NY NY 10012, (212) 226-0010. 

MILLENNIUM will present 80 mins. of new 
films by active workshop members on Mar. 26. 
Memorials & Miniatures by Renata Breth will be 
screened on Mar. 27. Admission: $2.50. For more 
info contact: (212) 673-0090. 



SEMINARS • CONFERENCES 

INTERNATIONAL VIDEO MARKETS con- 
ference scheduled for June 2-3 in New York City. 
Focus on distribution worldwide to cable, pay 
TV, videodisc markets. Sponsored by Knowledge 
Industry Publications, known for Video Expo 
every fall in NYC. For info contact: Peter 
Caranicas, (914) 328-9157. 

HOFSTRA UNIVERSITY announces section III 
of Women in Cinema: An International Festival. 
Series includes lectures on women's films such as 
A Lady Named Baybie (1980), The Second 
Awakening of Christa Klages (1977), One Way or 
Another (1977) etc. Fee: $75 the series or $40 each 
section. For info contact: Natalie Datlof, (516) 
560-3313, 3296. 

CTS, Community Telecommunications Services, 
a non-profit consulting organization, sponsors 
1-day seminar April 5: Cable TV Franchising & 
Refranchising for city/county officials. Admis- 
sion: $100. Contact: CTS, 105 Madison Avenue, 



NY NY 10016, (212) 683-3834. 

THE INDEPENDENT FEATURE PROJECT/ 
Los Angeles is sponsoring a day-long seminar in 
conjunction with FILMEX entitled Hard Cash- 
How to Finance Independent Feature Films. $35/ 
pre-registration, $45/at the door. March 27, 9am- 
5pm. IFP/LA, 309 Santa Monica, #321, Santa 
Monica, CA 90401. (213) 394-8864/451- 
3602 (messages). 



TRIMS • GLITCHES 

ALABAMA FILM-MAKERS CO-OP has been 
assigned new street number. Mailing address now: 
200 White St., Huntsville AL 35801, (205) 
534-3247. 

A JUSTE CAUSE-SECRETS OF YOUTH is new 

title of Marilyn Goldstein's cable show. Those in- 
terested in participating in special & promoting 
independent works on live show welcomed. She 
can be seen at 1 pm on channel D & at 6:30 pm 
(EST) Sats. on channel C. For info call: Marilyn 
Goldstein, (212) LI 4-0742. 

HIGH QUALITY SUPER-8 TO VIDEO & sound 
work offered by Bob Brodsky & Toni Treadway 
in Boston area. Super-8 transfers to } A ": 500 line, 
broadcast blanking; variable & still framing up to 
40 FPS; sound from any source; 8-track, blx mix- 
ing. Contact: (617) 666-3372. 

DARINO FILMS offering free conversion charts 
useful for filmmakers in general. Includes time, 
words, feet, meters, for both 16/35mm. Send 
SASE to: Darino Films, 222 Park Avenue So., 
NY NY 10003. 

ART EXPRESS has new location. All corres- 
pondence for magazine should be addressed to: 
PO Box 2498, East Side Station, Providence RI 
02906. 

SOHO TYPING has new office as of Jan. 11. 
Can be reached at: Soho Building, 110 Greene 
St., 3rd fl., NY NY 10012, (212) 966-5155. 

AFI California branch has moved to new address. 
Contact them at: 2021 N. Western Avenue, Los 
Angeles CA 90027. 

LA BIBLIOTHEQUE DE LA CINEMATHE- 
QUE is now part of La Cinematheque 
Quebecoise. Address all mail to: Le Centre de 
Documentation Cinematographique, Cinemathe- 
que Quebecoise, 335 est Boul. de Maisonneuve, 
Montreal Quebec Canada, H2X 1K1. 

APOLOGIES to the Santa Fe Winter Film Ex- 
position whose entry deadline was incorrectly 
reported as Jan. 15, instead of Feb. 15, in the 
December Independent. 

APOLOGIES: On page 13 of the February Inde- 
pendent, the non-profit Public Service Satellite 
Consortium was incorrectly identified as the 
Cable Service Satellite Consortium. 

In the In Memoriam notice in the February 
issue, the title of the late Kit Clarke's feature 
film was misprinted. The correct title is 
Sticky My Fingers, Fleet My Feet. The In- 
dependent regrets the error. 

23 








Tuesday, March 9 • 7:30 

Cold War: Red Menace 
Or Red Herring? 

FIVF At The Collective For 
Living Cinema 

52 White Street (W. of B'way, S. of Canal) 
$3/Members, $4/Non-members 

The Case of the Legless Veteran 
Howard Petrlck, 60 mln., B&W, 1981 

James Kutcher, who lost his legs in WWII, was fired from his S39-a-week clerk 
position in the Veterans Administration in 1948 because he was a member of 
the Socialist Workers Party. This film, utilizing historical footage and interviews, 
tells the story of his ten-year battle to win his job back. In the process, the 
political and social climate of the period— the cold war, the witchhunts, 
McCarthyism— is exactingly captured. 

Red Nightmare 
George Wagner, 28 mln., 1957 

Featuring Jack Webb (remember Dragnet?), who earnestly describes the 
terrifying consequences of a communist takeover of a small American town. 

Following the screenings, Harry Ring, a member of the Socialist Workers 
Party and a long-time friend of Kutcher's, and Walter Bernstein, a screenwriter 
(The Molly Magulres, The Front) who was blacklisted from 1050-58, will speak 
about their experiences during that period and their memories of the Red 
Scare. 



Tuesday, March 16 • 7:30 

An Evening with 
Erik Barnouw 

FIVF At Anthology Film Archives, 

80 Wooster Street (W. of B'way, N. of Canal) 
$3/Members, $4/Non Members 

Hiroshima/Nagasaki, August 1945 
1970, 16", B&W 

Footage of the bombings that was suppressed for 25 years, edited by 
Barnouw into ". . .a very remarkable document— I wish every American could 
see it, and particularly, every Congressman." Prof. S.E. Luria, 

Massachusetts Instit. of Technology 

Fable Safe 
1971, 9", Color 

An animated depiction of the arms race, with drawings by Robert Osborn. 

Following his films, Erik Barnouw will discuss their particular production and 
distribution histories, addressing the topics of censorship, mass communica- 
tions & disarmament, and the use of archival footage in filmmaking. 

Erik Barnouw is the author of many books, including Mass Communication 
(1956), the three-part History of Broadcasting in the United States (1966-70) 
and Documentary: A History of the Non-Fiction Film (1975). Besides producing 
several films and TV series for public television, he taught for many years at 
Columbia University, where he founded the Film Division, and headed the 
Writers Guild of America from 1957-59. 




THE FOUNDATION FOR INDEPENDENT VIDEO & FILM 

625 Broadway, 9th floor, (b'tween Bleecker & Houston), New York, NY 10012 

FOUNDATION FOR 
INDEPENDENT 
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FILM, INC. 
625 Broadway, 9th Floor, New York, N.Y. 10012 

MOVING? LET US KNOW... 

It takes 4 to 6 weeks to process 
an address change, and we don't 
want you to miss a single issue. 

If you have an idea for a program, or need more information, call 473-3400 
Drop by our office and use our reference materials & information resources 




THE 



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APRIL 1982 



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THE INDEPENDENT 



THE 



INDEPENDENT 

APRIL 1982 • VOLUME 5, NUMBER 2 



Publisher: Lawrence Sapadin 

Editor: Kathleen Hulser 
Assistant Editor: Fran Piatt 

Contributing Editors: Mitchell W. Block, 

Suyapa Odessa Flores, John Greyson, 

David Leitner, Wendy Lidell, Susan Linfield 

Contributors: Ralph Arlyck, Sian Evans, 
Barton Weiss, Arlene Zeichner, Ken Stier 

Designer: Deborah Thomas 

Art Director: John Greyson 

Advertising Director: Michelle Slater 

Staff Photographer: Sol Rubin 

Typesetting: Compositype Studio 

Printing: Red Ink 



The Independent is published 10 times 
yearly by the Foundation for Independent 
Video and Film, Inc. (FIVE), 625 Broadway, 
9th Floor, New York NY 10012, a non- 
profit, tax-exempt service organization 
dedicated to the promotion of independent 
video and film. Publication of The Indepen- 
dent is made possible, in part, with public 
funds from the New York State Council on 
the Arts and the National Endowment for 
the Arts, a Federal agency. 

Subscription is included in the Association 
of Independent Video and Filmmakers, Inc. 
(AIVF), the trade association sister of FIVF. 
AIVF is a national association of indepen- 
dent producers, directors, technicians and 
supporters of independent video and film. 
Together, FIVF and AIVF provide a broad 
range of educational and professional ser- 
vices and advocacy for independents and the 
general public. 

Articles in The Independent are con- 
tributed by our members and supporters. If 
you have an idea for, or wish to contribute 
an article to, The Independent, contact the 
Editor at the above address. 

All contents are copyright of the authors 
and The Independent, except when otherwise 
noted, and reprints require written permis- 
sion from both. ISSN 0731-5198. 



AIVF '/FIVF Staff Members: Lawrence Sapadin, 
Executive Director; Wendy Lidell, Assistant Direc- 
tor; John Greyson, Media Coordinator; Sol Hor- 
witz, Short Film Showcase Project Administrator; 
Susan Linfield, Short Film Showcase Administra- 
tive Assistant; Fran Piatt, Membership Developer; 
Suyapa Odessa Flores, Administrative Assistant. 

AIVF /FIVF Board of Directors: Jane Morrison, 
President; Marc Weiss, Vice President; Kathy 
Kline, Secretary; Matt Clarke, Treasurer (FIVF 
Board); Richard Schmiechen, Chair; Eric Breitbart, 
Pablo Figueroa, Jessie Maple, Kitty Morgan, Judy 
Irola, Manny Kirchheimer, Robert Richter, 
Lawrence Sapadin (Ex Officio). 



A PUBLICATION OF 

THE FOUNDATION FOR 
INDEPENDENT VIDEO & FILM 



CONTENTS 



Columns 

New York Cable Footnote 

Media Clips • Kenneth Stier 

Unions & Indies Talk at AIVF Roundtable 

Labor • Lawrence Sapadin 

Film-to-Tape: Background to a Choice 

In Focus • David Leitner 

Green Pastures: Funding Guides 

Books • Barton Weiss 

Festivals 

Festivals Editor • Wendy Lidell 

Notices 

Editor • Odessa Flores 

Features 

Super Sleuth Files an Infestigative Report 

NY International Film & TV Fest • Ralph Arlyck 

Video Artists Invade "Night Flight" 

Interview • Arlene Zeichner 

Documentary Crisis 

AFI Seminar • Susan Linfield 

Latin American Video 

Emerging Scene • Barbara London 



5 

6 

15 
16 

20 

8 
10 
12 
13 



COVER: New flight plans for video artists, strictly after hours. From the top down: Stills from tapes by 
Bill Viola, Twin Art, Ed Emshwiller, Kit Fitzgerald & John Sanborn (two stills) and Dara Birnbaum. 
Photos courtesy of the artists and Electronic Arts Intermix. See page 10. 



CORRESPONDENCE 



WORKING IN A 
HINTER WONDERLAND 

Dear Independent, 

For those of us who choose to live 
elsewhere than in the Big Apple, the re- 
mainder of the United States is not the 
"hinterlands" (as your articles Voices from 
the Hinterlands suggest), and you would do 
well to cease using this noun in an arrogant 
and naive context. Peter Bundy 

Minnesota (West of the Hudson) 

Author Bernard Timberg of Omaha, 
Nebraska replies: You're right. 

WHERE ARE HIGH BUYERS? 

Dear Independent: 

Your January '82 issue contained an ex- 
cellent article, Satellite Networks, by Sandy 



APRIL 1982 



Mandelberger. Because we are involved in 
many video projects and have no immediate 
access to buyers, we found this piece quite 
interesting, particularly the Buyers Profiles 
section. 

We would appreciate any assistance you 

can give us in obtaining the addresses of 

such buyers. Thanks. Scott Shirai 

Visual Perspectives, Hawaii 

Editor's Note: Send $4 to AIVF for "Access 
II: The Independent Producer's Handbook 
of Satellite Communications. " 



The Independent welcomes letters to the 
editor. Send them to The Independent, 
FIVF, 625 Broadway, 9th floor, New York 
NY 10012. Letters may be edited for length 
and clarity. 

3 



THE INDEPENDENT 



MEDIA CLIPS 



NEW YORK 
CABLE FOOTNOTE 



KENNETH STIER 

Contrary to some glowing reports about 
the leaked cable franchise draft for New 
York City's outer boroughs, the document 
warrants skepticism and concern. While 
some features of this draft are laudable, and 
even unprecedented, there are also numer- 
ous glaring omissions, blurred definitions 
and a surprisingly quixotic penalty provi- 
sion. As of this writing, many details must 
still be filled in by the "targeted applicants" 
and the City before negotiations begin in the 
first week of March. The City is putting 
forth its toughest demands at the outset of 
negotiations, and some erosion of these is 
inevitable. 

The two most progressive features of this 
draft are /. universal service, meaning "a 
portion (either 12 or 24 channels) of the 
basic subscriber service is offered for no in- 
stallation charge or monthly or other service 
charge, other than a converter deposit or 
rental charge"; 2. unlimited leased access, 
meaning "sufficient leased channels to 
satisfy demand." 

These two provisions are particularly im- 
portant because cable is likely to become a 
major utility in the near future. The leased 
channel proviso essentially sets aside a por- 
tion of the cable as a common carrier. It re- 
mains to be. seen, though, if this first-come, 
first-served provision will be established with 
rates and terms that are truly "non-dis- 
criminatory." Serious inequities already ex- 
ist in access to the most basic communica- 
tions. Approximately 25% of homes in the 
Bronx, and up to 44% in some neighbor- 
hoods, don't even have telephones. 

POWER STRUCTURE? 

It appears that public (open to all) or 
community (programmed by community ac- 
cess organizations) access channels will be a 
feature of the contract, though the crucial 
conditions shaping their use are largely 
undetermined. A minimum of four video 
channels and an undetermined number of 
audio and data channels will be placed under 
the jurisdiction of a community access 
organization, which will be "designated" by 
the respective Borough Presidents. The com- 
panies have submitted details of their in- 
tended access support, but their plans have 
not been made public. For its part, the City 
in cooperation with the Borough Presidents' 
offices will determine the structure of these 
access organizations along with their powers 



and duties. 

Despite this skeletal structure, indepen- 
dent access at this point is anything but 
secure. In deference to the boroughs' 
political turf, the Bureau of Franchises 
leaves the Borough Presidents considerable 
latitude in establishing these organizations. 
These not-for-profit corporations will each 
have both a board of directors and an ad- 
visory board or council. Will the members 
of these boards be elected or merely ap- 
pointed by the Borough Presidents? How 
publicly accountable will these organizations 
be? Which organization will have the 
decision-making power? What kind of pub- 
lic participation will be invited? These mat- 
ters are being decided now and are pre- 
sumably still susceptible to indie pressure at 




Media Activists Go to Work on Draft 

the borough level. The working distinction 
between local origination and access pro- 
gramming is still to be settled. Additionally, 
though there is some promise of a start-up 
"contribution" for access, ongoing funding 
is "to be supplied pursuant to a separate 
agreement." Any agreement outside the 
franchise established after the City has lost 
its leverage can only be inadequate. It seems 
each Borough President's office will be on 
its own to wrestle its funding formula from 
the "cablers." So, make yourself heard at 
the borough level. 

ENFORCEMENT 

The all-important area of oversight and 
regulation is also inadequately handled in 
the draft contract. The shoddy Manhattan 
regulatory record should not be allowed to 
recur. So far, it's wholly unclear that the 



City will retain the qualified personnel to 
perform the necessary watchdog role. Since 
this franchise concentrates enormous discre- 
tionary authority in the Director of Fran- 
chises' office, an oversight and regulatory 
body outside the jurisdiction of the Bureau 
of Franchises and its satellite, the Office of 
Telecommunications, is evidently needed. 
For example, while nominal ways exist for a 
subscriber to seek redress, there are no direct 
means of judicial appeal. To rely on the em- 
pathy of a busy public official is a wholly 
unsatisfactory substitute for clear avenues of 
appeal. 

As it stands, the cable companies must post 
performance bonds for timely construction 
and establish a security fund from which the 
City can exact penalty fees, though no penal- 
ty structure is yet established. Furthermore, if 
the City is dissatisfied with cable company 
performance, it reserves the right to pur- 
chase the system at "book value." The 
boldest clause allows the City to terminate 
the franchise (presumably for serious 
breaches), and in such an event, to take over 
the system at "no cost to the City." Though 
certainly a step in the right direction, this 
provision flies in the face of the political 
climate evident in the City's recent trend to 
privatize previously public functions. 
Though the City is highly unlikely to use this 
measure (since it would surely provoke a 
court challenge), it is an important assertion 
of the public's sovereignty. 

The franchise is either vague, inadequate 
or negligent on various other matters 
including privacy, equal employment oppor- 
tunities and institutional hook-ups. 
NYCCRM (the New York City Committee 
for Responsible Media), the guardian of the 
public interest, is in the process of formulat- 
ing a response to the current document. 
Because these matters are so urgent, the 
NYCCRM recommendations will be directly 
mailed to the New York City AIVF member- 
ship. 

SFS IN LAS VEGAS 

Tom Moyer, President of Tom Moyer 
Theatres, was presented with the annual 
Short Film Showcase award for "commit- 
ment and dedication to promoting the art of 
short film in exhibition" at Showest '82 in 
Las Vegas in February. Moyer has been a 
continuous supporter of the Showcase since 
its inception in 1977. Accepting the award 
for Tom Moyer was Bill Spencer. The award 
was presented by Susan Linfield of the Short 
Film Showcase. 

The Showcase was created by the National 
Endowment for the Arts to revive the art of 
the short film and to bring independent film- 
making to American theatregoers. To date, 
over 20 million theatre patrons have seen its 
films on over 5,000 screens. 

The Showcase currently distributes 24 G 
and PG-rated shorts. Four new releases are 
expected to be in distribution this spring. ■ 

APRIL 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



LABOR 



UNION REPS & INDIES RAP 
AIVF ROUNDTABLE: PART I 



LAWRENCE SAPADIN 

An important trend in independent pro- 
duction has been the movement of docu- 
mentarians toward dramatic narrative 
forms, and an increased interest in feature 
production generally. These trends make the 
question of whether a low-budget producer 
can shoot union even more urgent. At the 
same time, high unemployment has prodded 
many of the creative unions and guilds to 
seek some basis for working with inde- 
pendents. 

In an effort to bridge the gap between in- 
dependents and the unions and guilds, FIVF 
invited representatives of the major unions 
and guilds to meet and address the local pro- 
ducer community on December 15, 1981 on 
the prospects and limits to shooting union 
on a low budget. In speaking order were 
Leonard Wasser, Executive Director of 
Writers' Guild East; Stanley Ackerman, 
Assistant Executive Secretary of Directors' 
Guild East; Douglas Hart, Vice President of 
IATSE Local 644; Larry Racies, Business 
Manager of I A TSE Local 644; and Thomas 
Turley, Business Manager of NABET 15. 
Questions are from both audience members 
and moderator Lawrence Sapadin, Executive 
Director of AIVF. Representatives of the 
Screen Actors Guild and AFTRA were un- 
able to attend due to out-of-town negotia- 
tions, and Michael Proscia, President of 
IATSE Local 52, suffered a death in his 
family. 

While there is, of course, a low-budget 
level at which it is simply impossible to con- 
sider employing a union crew, a consensus 
emerged from the panel that many union 
members would be willing to work at scale 
on an independent production — and scale 
represents a substantial saving over the going 
commercial rates. Clearly, there is a 
budgetary gray area within which the unions 
and guilds appear willing to negotiate rates 
and other contract terms. It is our hope that 
this discussion will help define the scope and 
flexibility of that gray area. 

To carry the discussion further, an inde- 
pendent producer/union committee has been 
established. For more information, call the 
AIVF/FIVF offices at (212) 473-3400. 

LEONARD WASSER (Executive Director 
of Writers' Guild East): The Writers' Guild 
represents writers in motion pictures, 
television and radio. There are two unions: 
Writers' Guild West, which is a separate 
organization, and Writers' Guild American 
APRIL 1982 



East. We are closely affiliated; we negotiate 
our national agreements essentially as a 
single union and sign the agreements as one. 

We represent writers who work in the 
whole field — dramatic, documentary, 
comedy, variety, special programming, 
daytime serials, news broadcasts — the range 
is infinite. We negotiate our contracts with 
the major producers, meeting when the con- 
tract expires with the Association of Motion 
Picture and Television Theatrical Producers 
and the three major networks. They serve as 
the hard core of the negotiations body on 
the other side of the table. Out of this pro- 
cess, barring something unforeseen such as 
the strike last summer, comes a national 
agreement. 

We offer the national agreement to any 
producer who wishes to sign it, and some 
3,000 sign. Of those you can assume that a 
large number are relatively small indepen- 
dent producers. The so-called giants are 
limited in number to maybe 60 or 70 pro- 
ducers, and the rest are relatively small in- 
dependents. 

Why do they sign that agreement? If you 
serve as an all-round, universal individual 
you can be the producer, the director and 
the writer. Then, for the Writers' Guild, 
your production would be a non-union ac- 
tivity. However, there are virtues in adhering 
to a union agreement. It is an entree to a 
professional arena that could very easily be 
closed to many of you in terms of interac- 
tion with other professionals in the field. 
Writers, do not, despite certain myths, truly 
exist in a vacuum. As an independent pro- 
ducer the need to communicate is essential, 
and through an association with others in a 
union you get this kind of interaction. When 
you operate as a non-union independent 
writer, you will lose. 

Many of you, however, are moving out in- 
to an area where your activities are too full, 
you simply can't do the writing yourself. 
You need to hire someone. All right, you 
can hire, I suppose, a non-Guild writer, and 
I'll be generous enough to say I'm sure some 
are not bad. The truth, however, is that we 
are a professional organization. There are 
close to 9,000 Guild members, and these are 
the writers. Now the writing population of 
the country may number fourteen million: 
everybody's a writer nowadays. Unfor- 
tunately, not all of them are professionals, 
whereas the Guild people are. 

When you sign our contract as a pro- 



ducer, you have to adhere and comply with 
all the terms and conditions of our agree- 
ment. It sets up minimum wages, minimum 
conditions and certain [residual] rights. Over 
the years, the extent to which the writer par- 
ticipates in [ancillary] exploitation has grown 
immensely, and that's what a union can 
offer. 

Now it's true there are individuals strong 
enough in their own right — Paddy Chayev- 
sky when he was alive — to operate outside 
the union. Nonetheless Paddy never did. His 
concern was with the union: he operated 
totally within it. You grow with an organiza- 
tion and this is what a union such as ours 
offers. 

Should every independent producer 
operate within the union framework? My 
feeling is, of course, he or she should. We 
offer the very best. 

Q: On a small budget, how does one hire a 
union writer? 

LW: We have a range of rates depending 
upon the kind of work. The rates for 
documentary are not particularly high. They 
range, depending on the size and length of 
the program, from $500 up to about $6,000 
for a writer. The writing portion of any 
budget very rarely runs more than 6-7% of 
the total budget. 

Q: Does the Writers' Guild permit defer- 
ments? 

LW: If by deferment you mean if you get 
money you'll pay the writer, the answer is a 
resounding never, never, never. That's not 
deferred payment, that's speculative writing. 
And it's taboo. What it means is that a 
writer puts him or herself on the line, fur- 
nishes someone with material on the basis of 
"Well, if I get money somewhere you'll get 
paid." 

Q: What about participation in the potential 
property? 

LW: Over and above minimum, yes. But 
participation in lieu of minimum payment is 
also speculative writing. 

Our contract with public broadcast or- 
ganizations establishes a minimum fee for 
writing. Then, in addition, if the program is 
actually produced, there's an additional pay- 
ment made to the writer. But there is a 
minimum for the story, a minimum for the 
teleplay. 

Q: If you're committed to a political idea 
that somebody else is doing a tape or film 
about, are you prohibited from putting your 
time and energy into doing it? 

L W: If a writer on his or her own and you 
as a producer on your own go into a venture 
to sell a concept, that's something else en- 
tirely. We're not talking about that. I'm talk- 
ing solely of the situation where the writer is 
an employee. 

To be continued in May Issue ■ 



THE INDEPENDENT 



IN FOCUS 



FILM-TO-TAPE: 
BACKGROUND TO A CHOICE 



DAVID W. LEITNER 

It's 1982, 7:00 am in the age of global tele- 
communications. As we shake off the sleep 
and rub our eyes, it becomes clear that the 
volatile issue of film aesthetics vs. tape 
aesthetics has dissipated in the night. For to- 
day, images recorded on 1 " videotape are as 
likely to wind up on a projection screen as 
those photographed in 16mm are to be dis- 
played on a television receiver. What will 
these changes in the means of production 
and distribution mean for independent pro- 
ducers? 

Much as 19th century American settlers 
felt it their divinely sanctioned "manifest 
destiny" to span this bounteous, undevel- 
oped continent in search of fortune, modern 
telecommunications systems will seek to set- 
tle every demographic frontier, pushing on- 
ward until every household is secured. 
Already the power of the motion picture 
projector to assemble a paid audience under 
one roof is giving way to the domestic con- 
venience of broadcasting, cable, video- 
cassette, videodisc and shortly, from all in- 
dications, direct broadcast satellite distribu- 
tion. 

But while technological resources are plen- 
tiful, cash is not. Not only have public and 
private grant monies dried to a trickle, but 
high interest rates and inflation have con- 
spired to render an expensive business even 
more so. To compound the woe, fresh tech- 
nology has exerted upward pressure on 
quality standards and production values. 
The independent producer — of whatever 
stripe — cannot long remain oblivious to 
these trends. Unless one is a scion of a 
wealthy family, the effort to scale back costs 
while recouping as much as possible will in- 
tensify. As in distribution, independents will 
have to learn new ropes in the production of 
recorded moving images. 

THE ADVANTAGES OF FILM 

At this juncture, though tape extends the 
advantages of instant replay and low operat- 
ing costs, there are several compelling 
reasons for an independent to consider pro- 
duction in film. In the first place, contrary 
to the shifting tides in video hardware and 
techniques, film is a mature technology. 
With 16mm color negative providing overall 
quality comparable to that of the 35mm of 
only 15 years ago, film in either format rep- 
resents high definition here and now, in wide 
screen if desired. The latitude of color 
6 



negative, with its ability to record faithfully 
a full range of highlights and shadow detail, 
remains a distant objective for video engi- 
neers. Likewise, only the most sophisticated, 
costly color video cameras can match the 
sensitivity of the new high-speed negatives, 
which require only 8 footcandles of light at 
T 1.4 for full exposure. 

Excellent film production equipment is 
widely available and, unlike video, highly 
resistant to perennial obsolescence. As 



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camera houses invest more heavily in video 
equipment and narrow their motion picture 
lines, and as the newest generation of 
sophisticated 16mm cameras— the Aaton 7 
LTR, the Arri SR II -take their place in the 
firmament, the available supply of used, ful- 
ly professional Eclair NPRs, CP-16 and Arri 
BLs burgeons. Prices for these, as well as 
lenses and other requisite gear, are by com- 
parison affordably low. How many low- 
budget, independent producers have their 
own Ikegami HL-79s along with the neces- 
sary CCU (camera control unit) for set-up, 
the video technician to operate it, and the 
professional Va " or 1 " Type C VTR for 
recording? 



VIDEO: THE LATE BLOOMER 

Production techniques commonplace in 
film are considered avant-garde and state-of- 
the-art in video. Television was hatched 
without the benefit of a recording medium, 
so until 1956 (the year videotape was in- 
troduced) there was no postproduction. 
Events were covered live with multiple 
cameras, with an engineer eyeing an array of 
monitors — one per camera— and "switching" 
among them. Subjects were lit so that all 
camera angles were satisfied simultaneously, 
precluding the expressive lighting styles 
known to film. Videotape recording hardly 
altered the situation. Two-inch broadcast- 
quality recorders were large, cumbersome 
and too terribly expensive to be dedicated in 
numbers to an editing process; no SMPTE 
time code existed for addressing and relocat- 
ing frames; and expeditious microprocessor 
technology was years away. As late as 1971, 
less than 15% of taped CBS productions 
contained postproduction edits. That was 
mostly the preserve of high-budget dramatic 
series, shot on film single-camera style and 
edited 100% — as film — in postproduction. 

CBS, Compact Video and other corporate 
producers have been tinkering with a single 
camera style in video for several years. Com- 
pact's high-definition ImageVision incor- 
porates this concept, as well as the recently 
introduced EC-35 camera by Ikegami and 
Cinema Products, which features inter- 
changeable primes and zooms with usable 
T-stops, a matte box and a flat black finish. 
Panavision, meanwhile, is developing a 
reflex video camera with a ground glass and 
genuine see-through-the-lens capability. All 
of this is available now, at under a tenth of 
the cost, in a good used NPR. And video is 
just discovering double system sound and 
multi-track mixing. 

FILM EASES FOREIGN SALES 

Film, at this point in time, provides the 
more conventional avenue to theatrical 
release and, ironically, simplifies sales to 
foreign video and television markets. A pro- 
duction originated in video in the US under 
the standard NTS 525 lines/30 frames-per- 
second system is incompatible with the UK 
I(PAL) 625 lines/25 frames system, the 
variant G(PAL) system in use on the Conti- 
nent, the SECAM III 625 lines/25 frames 
systems of France and the USSR, or the 
M(PAL) system of Brazil, 525 lines/30 
frames. (Other parts of the world — Latin 
America, for instance — are up for grabs, not 
having entirely standardized.) Each of these 
systems is, to a greater or lesser degree, 
technically distinct. The exchange of images 
among them is a complex process, entailing 
image degradation and adding to the cost of 
distribution. Digital signal processing tech- 
nology, recently standardized on a world- 
wide basis, will ameliorate this situation, but 
this method is utterly new and will take years 

APRIL 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



to fall into place. Film, on the other hand, 
converts readily to any of these standards 
with splendid results. In countries where the 
video frame rate is 25 per second (24 fps or 
25 fps), film is transferred frame-per-frame 
(the one-frame speed-up, in the case of 24 
fps, is deemed insignificant). In the US, 
Canada, Mexico and Japan, where NTSC is 
the rule, 24 fps of film must be stretched 
over 30 fps of video. This is not as straight- 
forward but has been resolved in practice for 
years, and will be discussed in detail later in 
this series. 

WHY FILM-TO-TAPE 

If production in film has so much to of- 
fer, why use film-to-tape? 
/. Image quality; 

2. Postproduction facility; 

3. Distribution within the prevailing video 
standard. 

Film can be transferred to tape from a 
print or from negative, electronically revers- 
ing its tonalities for a positive image. This 
can be accomplished on a system as basic as 
a color video camera plugged into the optics 
of a flatbed, or as sophisticated as a Bosch 
CCD-type telecine that employs a solid-state 
array of sensors to sample and digitally en- 
code the film image "on the fly." The 
transfer can occur prior to, during or after 
the editing and conforming process. 



Transferring to tape from an acceptably 
timed composite answer print — for instance, 
to fill an airdate — is most common. Less so 
is transferring directly from uncut camera 
rolls or selected takes of negative, although 
this saves a generation and provides superla- 
tive results owing to the lower contrast of 
color negative, which is intended as an in- 
termediate and doesn't require projection 
contrast. Presently, tape dailies in multiple 
copies on l A " or 3 A " cassette can be had at 
rates that compare favorably to film dailies 
—and that could become mit sound as 
16mm time code gains acceptance, or if the 
production assumes the expense of black- 
and-white slop prints for conventional syn- 
ching prior to transfer. Consider the conve- 
nience of cheaply forwarding cassette copies 
of synched dailies to those requiring them. 

The advantages of editing electronic 
dailies are immediately obvious. In contrast 
to the butchering of a work print, tape edits 
can be previewed before committing oneself; 
what's more, edits can be made as many 
times as desired. In some systems, effects 
can be previewed as well. Dispensing with a 
film bin full of tangled strips of celluloid, 
tape editing is intrinsically organized and ef- 
ficient. Each frame is identified by time 
code, and scene data can be manipulated in- 
stantly. Once a fine-cut tape edit is obtained, 
an edit list can be generated that specifies by 
edge number and frames the location of cuts 



necessary to assemble and conform the origi- 
nal negative. This allows for film prints. If 
tape editing proceeds with a non-broadcast 
quality format such as VHS or Beta, an edit 
list appropriate to a CMX editing system for 
conforming, with effects, 1 " Type C is 
possible. Alternately, one could edit in film, 
generate a CMX-compatible edit list from 
the fine cut and, upon transfer to 1 ", con- 
form in tape. 

Each of the possibilities described above 
has been put into practice, and each boasts 
its proponents. But the equipment and tech- 
niques required to achieve the economies of 
time, energy and resources are unevenly 
available and, in some cases, prohibitively 
expensive. (However, so were home com- 
puters not too many years ago.) And as 
desirable as film-to-tape can be, the process 
contributes its share of obstacles: frame rate 
disagreements, mismatching color sensitivi- 
ties, a multiplicity of time codes etc. 

Before planning a production based on 
interfacing film and tape, research the hard- 
ware, root out the inevitable hidden costs, 
ponder the imponderables. Phone the 
laboratory, for instance. There is no set 
recipe, as yet, in this area. ■ 

David W. Leitner is an independent pro- 
ducer who works at DuArt Film Labs in 
New York. Next month, In Focus will ex- 
amine: Film-to-Tape: The Transfer Process. 



CINETUDES FILM PRODUCTIONS, LTD 

295 W. 4th Street, New York City 10014 • 966-4600 



EDITING & POST-PRODUCTION FACILITIES 

16mm & 35mm 



ATELIER CINEMA VIDEO STAGES 

295 W. 4th Street, New York City 10014 • 243-3550 



THE INDEPENDENT 



INTERNATIONAL FILM & TV FESTIVAL OF NY 

SUPER SLEUTH 
FILES AN 
INFESTIGATIVE REPORT 




RALPH ARLYCK 

Call me Festival Man. I make movies and 
enter them in contests. Once in a while my 
number comes up and I put the results in a 
brochure and mail it out. It's a living. 

I've never actually been to a film festival. I 
send away applications and prints. About 
three or four months later I get back a letter 
or a mailgram (kaboom: impact of a tele- 
gram), followed shortly by a certificate or 
plaque or, sometines, an ugly, phallic object 
in plexiglass. 

A few years ago I doubted that festivals 
actually existed. I worried that they were 
really all run out of a mail-order house in 
Reading, Pennsylvania and that the prints 
were never even screened. This notion passed. 

The announcement for the International 
Film and TV Festival of New York came on 
a steamy Tuesday in late July, one of those 
days when it gets so hot even the Steenbeck 
sweats. The event looked like a honey— 24th 
year, celebrities, awards banquet for 1,400 at 
the Sheraton' Centre, loads of prizes — so I 
sent away for the paperwork. 

When the forms arrived the details were 
even more impressive: commendation 
messages from Governor Carey and Mayor 
Koch, anticipated entries from 40 different 
countries, 150 judges. True, there would be 
nearly 500 individual awards, so the winner's 
circle would not be particularly exclusive 
company. But so what; a win here could 
look good. Said fast it could sound like the 
New York Film Festival at Lincoln Center. 

And the categories: Live Action, 11-30 
Seconds; Live Action, 31-60 Seconds; 
Animation or Puppets, 11-30 Seconds; 
Animation or Puppets, 31-60 Seconds; Live 
and Animation, 11-30 Seconds . . . Surely I 
could find a niche for myself somewhere 
here. 

But I got hung up on the bread. The entry 
fee for my 40-minute TV documentary 
would be pegged at $175. Then a $65 sur- 
charge if the film was "selected for final 
judging". It would cost another $60 to come 
to the Awards Banquet and pick up my 
prize, plus tux rental, engraving fees, other 
extras. The whole tab for just one entry 
would easily go over $400. Since I didn't 
have the scratch right then I just let it ride. 

But on September 18 comes this post card: 
"Dear Festival Participant; Still haven't sent 
your entry? Join the crowd! Whether it's the 
mails or those lazy days of summer, entries 
are now arriving in such numbers, we decided 
to move back the entry deadline. New Entry 
6 



Deadline, September 30." 

I've entered lots of festivals in my day, but 
that was the first one that ever reminded me 
of a deadline. Still I couldn't decide. Then 
on the afternoon of September 30th, the 
phone rings. It's "Johanna" from the 
Festival. She has noticed I haven't sent in my 
forms and wonders if I'm planning to enter. 
I say I'll call her back. 

FISHY BIZ 

Something wasn't right. The whole 
business was beginning to bother me, so I 
went down to AIVF to talk to Larry 
Sapadin, the President. Larry was on two 
phones at the same time and looked at me 
over the top of his horn-rimmed specs while 
I spoke. He didn't seem to see a problem; 
said it sounded like a simple clash in values. 
I tried to explain: 

"I don't know, Chief. I just don't like it. 
These people are too anxious." 

Larry shrugged. "Check it out, Festival 
Man." 

I went to work. The original brochure 
listed Barry Chase as one of the judges from 
the previous year. Barry is a street-smart 
PTV lawyer high up in PBS's Programming 
Division who I'd met a couple of years ago. 
At first, when I called, Barry didn't know 
what festival I was talking about. 

"Oh, right, that's the one run by Gerald 
Goldberg. I was on something he called a 
Blue Ribbon Panel which meant that about 
seven or eight of us looked at a dozen or so 
category winners and then, over lunch in a 
nice New York restaurant, finally compro- 
mised on one of them as a Grand Award 
winner. The whole process reminded me of 
jury duty." 

"What impression did you come away 
with?" 

"I had a good time and it seemed to be 
run fairly well. It's certainly a very commer- 
cial operation. Goldberg runs the thing full- 
time all year round and earns his living from 
it. As I remember, he had just purchased the 
business from another guy." 

"What do you actually buy when you buy 
a film festival?" 

"I don't know, I guess some lists, maybe a 
couple of bank accounts. In this case 
probably the main thing you're buying is the 
name with New York in it. That must be a 
gold mine. I'm sure it's copyrighted." 

Next I stopped by ICAP to see Kitty 



Morgan who, I was told, knew her way 
around the New York film scene. She told 
me she didn't know a lot about the IFTVF 
and that she personally didn't know anyone 
who'd ever won a prize in it. Her general ex- 
perience in such matters was that there's no 
substitute for being there in person. I 
agreed. As I was leaving she looked up and 
said softly: "Be careful, Festival Man. These 
people mean business." 

Kitty was right. When I got to the 
Sheraton Centre on Friday night there were 
prosperous-looking businessmen swarming 
all over the place. It felt like the Fortune 500 
meeting in black tie to divide up the world. 

I wandered into the Royal Ballroom to the 
cocktail reception. A man and a woman sit- 
ting alone at a table off to the side motioned 
for me to sit down, and introduced them- 
selves as Mr. and Mrs. Henry Otto. Henry 
had a warm smile. Was he there to pick up 
an award? 

"Well, since I'm here I guess I'm going to 
win something. In the past eight years we've 
won five golds, two silvers and a bronze. 
Never came away empty." 

"What's the film?" 

"It's a series called American Life Style . 
I'm Henry Otto Enterprises. I was in TV for 
30 years, but I'm on my own now." 

My heart leaped. "You're an independent 
then." 

"That's right." 

"And you made this film that's up for an 
award tonight?" 

"Well, it was made for Vansant Dugdale." 

"What's that?" 

"They're a Baltimore ad agency. They 
represent USF&G." 

"Come again?" 

"United States Fidelity and Guarantee 
Company, an insurance company. But if 
you're talking from a technical point of 
view, the thing was actually filmed by 
COMCO." 

"Hold it. I'm lost. I thought we were talk- 
ing about your film." Henry patiently tried 
again: 

"Look, it's not complicted. I'm a packager 
and a consultant. I put the deal together. I 
refine the concept, find the producer, put 
him together with a backer, locate the syn- 
dicator. . ." 

"But how do you decide who gets the 
award?" 

"It doesn't matter. We order duplicate 
plaques, and we all put them up on the 
wall." 

Dinner was imminent, so I went across the 
hall to the Imperial Ballroom to check out 
the banquet scene. Wrong door. Inside they 
were setting up for a concert and light show. 
I asked a guard where the IFTVF banquet 

APRIL 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



was to be held. 

"This is it, Mack." 

I looked again. This was the banquet all 
right. Up front the Tommy Dorsey Band 
was blasting. Sullen kids in tight pants were 
fiddling with mixing boards and setting up 
projectors to show the winning entries. A 
live video camera was focused on the stage, 
hooked up to a huge screen which would 
televise the presentations to the rear of the 
hall. Shouts of "test" filled the air, and 
waiters with murder in their eyes screamed at 
me to get out of their way. 

In the middle of the room a woman was 
giving last-minute instructions to 14 stun- 
ning models in silks and taffeta, as a hand- 
some tuxedoed man with a British accent 
tried to grab her attention. The woman 
acknowledged my presence: 

"Can I help you?" 

"I'm a reporter." 

"Well, you don't want to report this." 

PRIZES, KISSES, PEACHES 

At that point the PA system announced 
dinner. The menu promised "Fresh Fruit in 
Silver' Supremes, Potage de Champignon 
with Golden Croutons, Braised Brisket of 
Beef Bordelaise in Red Wine Sauce, Rissole 
Potatoes, New Green Peas, followed by 
Baked Alaska, Brandied Peaches and Petit 
Fours." Inside the Imperial Ballroom the 108 
tables, each with at least 12 places, were fill- 
ing up. The man with the British accent, 
who turned out to be Michael Sedgwick, 
Master of Ceremonies, welcomed us and 
began introducing the 14 models. 

"Ladies and Gentlemen, I'd like you to 
meet Jody Harris. Jody is Exxon's Calendar 
Pin-Up Girl. She has done numerous 
regional commercials and her national com- 
mercials include Barqs Root Beer and Fram 
Oil Filters. And now here's Randi Taylor, 
who was a professional speed roller skater 
and is presently studying acting. She has two 
national posters for a blue jean company 
and her photo was picked by Hugh Hefner 
for the January cover of Playboy Magazine. 
She's asked me to stress, the cover only. 
Sorry guys." 

Meanwhile I found my assigned table and 
met the other guests. Every place except 
mine seemed to be paid for by the man sit- 
ting directly across from me: Charles Ticho, 
President of Performance Designs Inc., a 
New York City production company. Ticho 
said he subscribed to a good thirty film jour- 
nals and magazines, but had never heard of 
The Independent. 

While the Sheraton waiters sloshed Potage 
de Champignon into our bowls, Sedgwick 
announced that the presentation of the silver 
and bronze awards would begin immediately 
at our tables. 

Problem was the IFTVF's computer had 
gone down the day before. So Gerald M. 
Goldberg himself did the honors, carrying a 
huge list from table to table, followed by a 
APRIL 1982 



young man with cigarette lighter for him to 
read by, two models and several other 
cronies with trays of medals. Goldberg 
would announce the award, then one of the 
models would hand over the medal, lean 
down and either shake the guy's hand or give 
him a kiss while a photographer took a snap 
from the other side of the table. How did 
the model determine what was appropriate? 
I'm pretty sure it wasn't a handshake for a 
bronze and a smooch for a silver. 

FORCED SMILES 

Since just about every entrant was to 
receive an award, getting a bronze or a silver 
early in the evening was a little like receiving 
a letter bomb. Consequently there were 
many forced smiles and lots of talk about 
what an honor it still was and how stiff the 
competition had been this year. 

Our table host had three entries. In fact, 
so far as he knew he was the only one in the 
Festival's 24-year history to have three award 
winners in three different categories for five 
years in a row. (Ticho turns out about 30 
productions a year). Two other tablemates, 
Tom Sweeney and Joe Rizzo, had their 
hopes riding on one of Ticho's TV documen- 
taries, Listen Up With Norm Crosby, a film 
about hearing loss with lots of celebrities in 
it. When Goldberg's troop of grim messen- 
gers arrived at Table 18 they laid a silver on 
one of Ticho's productions and nothing on 
the second (a tipoff of a gold later on), but 
the Norm Crosby hearing film pulled a 
bronze. 

FROM BRONZE TO PBS 

Joe and Tom took it gracefully and allow- 
ed as how they could still "merchandize the 
hell out of the award" by stating simply that 
the film had been "cited" in the Interna- 
tional Film & TV Festival of New York. This 
started a discussion about how the film was 
to be marketed. Tom explained that his 
company, EAR (short for energy-absorbing 
resins, i.e. earplugs), had granted $115,000 
to Joe's Better Hearing Institute to make a 
movie about the dangers of hearing loss and 
the importance of hearing protection. 
Though EAR isn't mentioned in the credits, 
having kicked in the whole budget, the com- 
pany didn't want to fund distribution, too. 
Being public-spirited is fine, but as Tom put 
it, "How much more money are we going to 
put up to promote other people's hearing 
devices?" 

Joe said BHI's problem was how to reach 
as wide an audience as possible. He said, 
"PBS is no sweat. That's a cinch for this 
one. Don't get me wrong, now. We consider 
them a valuable outlet, but we know we can 
always get them, so they're far down on our 
list." 

Since most of my independent filmmaker 
buddies would give their right arms for a 
PBS broadcast, I wondered if this wasn't a 



bit of bravado on Joe's part. So I pushed 
him further on it. 

"What makes you so sure you can get it 
on PBS?" 

"Because we've done it loads of times. 
Why, just the other day we had a segment 
on Over Easy starring Keenan Wynn. We had 
a Hearing Help Line too. EAR was very 
supportive on that." 

At this point the Grand Award winner in 
the Multi-Image Productions category was 
being shown on a Cinemascope-size screen 
up front. Stacked-up, snazzy images were 
whipping by at five per second while the 
volume on a sound track quickly passed the 
pain threshold. 

PROJECTOR KAPUT 

It turned out that not only had IFTVF's 
computer gone down, but its 35mm projec- 
tor as well, so many of the winning entries 
couldn't be shown. The whole program was 
also running way behind, and by 11:30 (four 
hours after the start of the banquet) many 
winners were still to be announced, three- 
quarters of the audience had packed away its 
heavy metal and vacated, and those who 
hung on were getting restless. 

Meanwhile the Dorsey Band, the mixed- 
media samples, the smoke, the wine sauce 
etc. had given me a terrific headache. Guilt 
feelings swept over me in waves: What are 
you here for, with your anti-business bias? 
You think every festival has to be designed 
with you and your scuzzy friends in mind? 
Does Charlie Ticho enter Ann Arbor or 
Sinking Creek? "Get hold of yourself, 
Festival Man," I told myself. I went to the 
men's room to splash cold water on my face. 

When I returned the place was in an 
uproar. A couple of execs from advertising 
agencies (Ogilvy and Mather, and Benson 
and Bowles of London), were criticizing the 
organization of the festival; noting that the 
lack of a back-up projector for an event 
devoted to communication was unbelievable, 
and that "bronze and silver medals had 
simply been thrown on the tables." 

Realizing that at this rate it would soon be 
dawn, and the Sheraton waiters would be 
serving, say, "Fresh Squeezed Jamaican 
Orange Juice over Crushed Ice," or "Bagels 
and Lox a la Bordelaise," I got my stuff and 
split. Out in the cold air I felt better, but 
halfway up the block my attache case fell 
open and its contents spilled onto Seventh 
Avenue. As I was picking up, a woman of 
the evening approached and asked if I 
wanted to drop something else. 

"How's that?" 

"You know, do you want to have a big 
evening?" 

"No thanks, Ma'am. Just had one." ■ 

Ralph Arlyck, alias Festival Man, is a 
charter member of AIVF, and chairman of 
the Poughkeepsie chapter of FLUFF (Film- 
makers' Lobby on Unduly Fat Festivals). 

9 



THE INDEPENDENT 



INTERVIEW WITH CABLE SHOW'S IDEA MEN 

NEW FLIGHT PLAN: 
VIDEO ARTISTS INVADE 
NOCTURNAL WASTELANDS 

ARLENE ZEICHNER 



The Video Artist is the only nationally- 
televised cable series devoted to video art. 
It's cablecast on USA Network's Night 
Flight, a mostly-music service which pro- 
vides six hours of programming for Friday 
and Saturday night viewers. The show is co- 
produced by Eric Trigg and Stuart Shapiro, 
an odd couple brought together by out- 
spoken video artist John Sanborn. Sanborn 
met Shapiro, a former film distributor and 
co-producer of Night Flight, at an October 
AIVF forum, TV Becomes Video. There, 
Sanborn challenged the panelists (including 
representatives from Music Television 
[MTV] and RCA Selectavision Videodiscs) 
to broadcast video art. Only Shapiro agreed 
— if a "source" of tapes could be found. 
Sanborn suggested Eric Trigg, a former' 
employee of Good Morning America who is 
now Director of Distribution at Electronic 
Arts Intermix (EAI), a major distributor of, 
and production facility for, video art. 

When the co-producers met last fall, they 
"immediately liked each other," and spent a 
few hours with a three-foot stack of video- 
cassettes to decide upon the show's form and 
content. They opted to make it 15 minutes 
long, each segment featuring an individual 
artist presenting his/her aesthetic and 
samples of his/her work. Sanborn was com- 
missioned to create the show's logo, a visu- 
alization of a shared fantasy among video 
artists: an exploding TV radiates frames of 
video art. Appropriately, the first show on 
January 2 was devoted to the work of San- 
born and his collaborator Kit Fitzgerald. 
The other seven artists presented were 
TwinArt, Shalom Gorewitz, Anita Thacher, 
Bill Viola, WTV, Ed Emshwiller, Merrill 
Aldighieri and Joe Tripicani. The show airs 
on Saturday night, usually around 2 am. 

ARLENE ZEICHNER: Why did you opt to 

put artists' video on Night Flight, a video 
music show? 

STUART SHAPIRO: Night Flight is more 
than video music. I don't play promos. It's a 
music variety show started to show original 
programming not offered on any other na- 
tional service. I've been enamored of the 
video art field because it's an unexploited 
form that had no place to go. There was 
nobody like me to put it on a TV show. 

AZ: Should video art be broadcast? 

ERIC TRIGG: Having some of it broadcast 
is very encouraging to everyone. It en- 
10 



courages style. It took a program like Night 
Flight to take some risks and put it on. But 
it had been developing for broadcast and 
cable all along. 

SS: Sound was the critical element when 
Eric and I were choosing tapes. With a 
music show like Night Flight, you really 
can't put on a silent video piece. As great as 
the imagery might be, you're going to have 
trouble holding onto your audience. We 
leaned to some artists because they were 
musically oriented. 

ET: But there are artists represented who 
are not, such as Bill Viola, who is part of the 
series although his sound is not music. 




Entropy by Fitzgerald £ Sanborn 

AZ: How did you decide upon the format 
of the show? 

SS: The series is called The Video Artist. 
We wanted to show the human being inside 
the art form. Our main thrust, aside from 
exposure, is to illustrate what video art is. 
Ask what video art is, and people's common 
reaction is that it's computer-generated 
graphics and that's all. We felt giving the 
artist some time to speak about why he/she 
is doing what he/she is doing and what 
makes him/her an artist would make video 
art clearer. 

ET: Video in some ways is just another 
medium for artists — like painting or sculp- 
ture. Artists working in video have the same 
problems and concerns as artists working in 
any other medium. So it's not only video art, 
it's artists who work in video. 

AZ: All of the artists you are showing are 
distributed by EAI. Will others be shown, or 



is this venture partly a means of getting the 
artists you represent distributed fully? 



SS: You have to 
can develop. We 
because Eric had 
without an Eric 
have the time. A 
sources and can't 
ferent producers. 



start with a catalogue you 
could develop eight shows 
the rights. For me to do it 
. . . Quite frankly, I don't 
programmer has to rely on 
expect to deal with 100 dif- 
Eric is a source. 



AZ: What about other sources: The Kitchen, 
Castelli-Sonnabend Tapes? 

ET: This is not a closed show. EAI would 
like to work with any artist interested in par- 
ticipating. We shoot the interviews in the 
artists' own studios. We like to show where 
they work; it's natural. I've tried to give the 
artist as much input as possible: the TwinArt 
interview segment was produced by Twin- 
Art. Shalom Gorewitz colorized his inter- 
view. The artist is involved in selecting the 
work and ideas presented. 

AZ: Why do you prefer to have shows 
centered on one artist? I think theme shows 
work well. 

SS: That wasn't our intention. At first, we 
wanted to develop the video artist as an enti- 
ty. Not the art form as much as the artist. It 
was the artist who had trouble making a liv- 
ing. Now I feel it's important to establish the 
individual and the work. It wouldn't be the 
same to bring together three or four dif- 
ferent artists who work in the same style. 
We may do that later on. A theme show 
would have to be a longer show, and I was 
unsure as to how much the audience would 
accept. At 15 minutes I wasn't afraid of 
turning anyone off. 

ET: We are now planning a second series of 
eight shows. For something new and ex- 
perimental you have to rely on classic or ac- 
cepted styles of video art in the beginning. 
We'll open it up a bit more and include 
things like Ant Farm. 

AZ: And Nam June Paik? 

ET: He's coming. Part of the problem with 
Nam June has been music rights, problems 
that have nothing to do with the work. 

AZ: You can also talk about Dara Birn- 
baum who does good, accessible work but 
has a piracy problem. Are you only showing 
work you can clear easily? 

ET: We are not going to get sued by 

APRIL 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



anyone. CBS Cable wanted to put Dara's 
work on, but they then figured out how 
much it would cost them — $4,000 or some 
kind of amazing figure just for one minute 
of Kojak Wang or Wonder Woman. If CBS 
Cable can't touch it. . . 

AZ: Do you pay artists? 

SS: Night Flight pays for everything. We 
pay $40 a minute for stuff that has no mar- 
quee value. We never ask for anything free 
and never will; whereas MTV doesn't pay 
for anything but their features. 
• 
In fact, MTV does pay ASCAP a nominal 
performance fee — about 12<f per airing. But 
most of the tapes they show are supplied 
free by record companies as a promotional 
effort. The labels finance the tapes and 
benefit from increased album sales. Now 
that stereo TV equipment is readily avail- 
able, labels plan to package video "records" 
for the growing videocassette market. The 
artists featured on Night Flight, however, 
finance their own work — with a little help 
from grants. It is, of course, an expensive 
venture. Most of the artists interviewed for 
the series expressed strong interest in tapping 
the potentially very lucrative home market. 
Do Trigg and Shapiro have any plans? 

SS: I have a videocassette company myself, 
Harmony Vision. Probably, down deep in- 
side, I had two reasons for doing the video 
art show. For one, I didn't know any of the 
art and wanted the opportunity to expose 
myself to the medium. But my main interest 
is to have videocassettes by these artists. 
We're getting into that right now. We are 
doing a very exciting project, the culmina- 
tion of our work. I want to find a hook to 
actually make video art a commercial ven- 
ture. Although we are making a compilation 
cassette of existing video, we came up with 
an idea for new work. There's a Jimi Hen- 
drix live never-before-released album coming 
out. Magnificent performance. We're going 
to commission seven or so video artists to 
choose a song to compose images for. Then 
we'll put out a videocassette in conjunction 
with the record album. 

AZ: Was this in any way inspired by 
Shalom Gorewitz's Sign Off, a visualization 
of the national anthem set to Hendrix's 
music? 

SS: Yes and no. I asked Shalom to do that 
for me. 

ET: It was an experiment. It shows that it 
works. 

SS: The "no" is that we are just trying to 
find a formula to exploit the medium. You 
have to find a hook to make someone want 
that cassette. 

ET: A tape was done in the Seventies with 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra by Nam 
June and 7 other video artists. Each video 
APRIL 1982 



artist was commissioned by WGBH to pro- 
duce video imagery to go with Beethoven's 
music. This is a similar project, but it's going 
to be more exciting for everyone involved. 
First of all it's a more commercial venture. 
Secondly, the music will give the artists a lit- 
tle more freedom. 

AZ: This particular illustrative style is ap- 
propriate for Hendrix because he is dead. 
But for me, the best video music results 
from a collaboration between a video and 
audio artist. Are you considering cooking up 
projects where that type of collaboration 
would occur? 

ET: Absolutely. Kit Fitzgerald and John 
Sanborn are working on a series of projects 
involving collaboration with George Lewis, 
Ned Sublette and others. 

AZ: Have you thought of using Joan 
Logue's 30-second clips of video artists? 
Since USA Network is advertiser-supported, 
it might be interesting to tag these unusual 
commercials onto the usual ones. 
SS: I've looked at a lot of those and they 
don't work for me. But I'm trying to expand 
Night Flight, to break up the programming 
and put teasers in. Unfortunately it's very 
time-consuming. But I have asked Proctor 
and Bergman, friends of mine from Firesign 
Theater, to do those things. I want them to 
be comedy-oriented. Making people laugh is 
wonderful. We will expand the video art seg- 
ment. I can't see any reason why it can't be 
longer than 15 minutes. Not enough people 
are being exposed to it. It's purposely put on 
the middle-to-latter two-thirds of the Satur- 
day night show, since the early night au- 
dience is a little straighter. I try to make the 
first features a little broader. 

AZ: How do you feel about showing avant- 
garde film? 

SS: We may do a filmmakers' segment. But 
I feel that the greatest juice, the creative 
energy is in video right now. 

ET: Video is more accessible to more peo- 
ple. You don't need a million-dollar budget. 
Many video artists crossed over from other 
media: sculpture, painting, performance. 
They can't afford to work in film. 

SS: That's why I crossed over. I had to. 

CONCLUSION 

It's hard to tell if viewers appreciate Night 
Flight's shift from video music to artists' 
video. Despite the show's large audience (up 
to 10 million), viewer response has been sur- 
prisingly slim. The most feedback has come 
from artists, art students and museum 
curators, an admittedly biased audience 
grateful for the exposure. 

The Video Artist, however, does succeed 
in offering viewers a rare glimpse of tele- 
vision's art. But it's a somewhat narrow view 
Continued on page 14 



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11 



THE INDEPENDENT 



REPORT ON AFI SEMINAR 



DOCUMENTARY 
CONFERENCE: 
SIDESTEPPING THE ISSUES? 



SUSAN LINFIELD 

"The documentary is in a state of crisis." 
Many participants at an American Film In- 
stitute conference on The Future of Docu- 
mentary Film, held in New York City on 
January 16, readily agreed with this state- 
ment. But there was major disagreement as 
to whether the cause of that crisis is basically 
aesthetic (and thus solvable by individual 
artists themselves) or political (and thus re- 
quiring concerted action and structural 
change). 

Three new films, all produced by Peter 
Davis for a six-part PBS series called 
Middletown (a re-examination of Muncie, 
Indiana, site of the Lynds' famous socio- 
logical study) were screened and were used, 
to some extent, as focal points for the con- 
ference: The Campaign, a chronicle of the 
1979 mayoral race in Muncie; Community of 
Praise, a study of a rural fundamentalist 
family; and Family Business, a portrait of a 
family struggling to keep its pizza business 
alive. Participants at the conference ranged 
from political documentarian Emile de An- 
tonio (Underground) and cinema verite 
pioneer Richard Leacock (co-director of 
Community of Praise), to NBC correspon- 
dent Tom Brokaw and CBS Cable executive 
Jack Willis, to writers Calvin Trillin and 
Studs Terkel. Discussion sessions were 
moderated by Peter Biskind, editor of 
American Film magazine. 

The conference's morning session ad- 
dressed questions of dissemination and ex- 
posure. The failure of most documentaries 
to reach a wide audience "is our own fault," 
said Peter Davis, in that the work is simply 
not yet good enough. Robert Drew of Drew 
Associates (pioneers in the development of 
light-fast equipment) echoed this essentially 
aesthetic analysis. "We're still not making 
movies that capture reality," he said; the 
task is therefore "to make documentaries 
that are so strong that they [must] attract 
audiences." Others identified the problem as 
the relatively small number of people they 
felt any documentary could attract, compar- 
ing it to the small number of people who 
buy books or paintings. 

CRITIQUES SHUT OUT 

Disputing this view were political docu- 
mentarians such as Deborah Shaffer (The 
Wobblies). Although agreeing that 
everyone's work needed improvement, Shaf- 
fer said, "I would give up making films 
12 



tomorrow if I thought there was only a tiny 
audience for them." Shaffer said it's not the 
audience, but the exhibition/marketing 
structure that is the problem: critical docu- 
mentaries have simply "been shut out" of 
the marketplace. She added that, under the 
Reagan administration, funding has become 
a much greater problem for independent 
filmmakers vis-a-vis both government agen- 
cies and the corporations, both of which are 
scrambling to put their money into "the 
most uncontroversial places possible", such 
as dance films. 

Shaffer's analysis was reinforced by Julia 
Reichert (Union Maids), who compared the 
present situation of documentary film- 
makers to that of the Sniders, the about-to- 
be-foreclosed family of Family Business. 




Snider fighting back in Family Business 

Admitting to a sense of "despair", she said, 
"I felt a tremendous parallel between those 
people's lives and my own. We are in retreat 
right now; what's in ascendence is the mo- 
nopolistic, profit-controlled society." 
Reichert, a co-founder of the New Day dis- 
tribution collective, said she no longer 
seriously considers TV (private or "public") 
as an outlet for her work, but simply gets 
her films out in front of people herself. (In- 
deed, it's doubtful that PBS will be fighting 
too hard to air her forthcoming film, a study 
of US Communist Party members.) 

Emile de Antonio pointed out that not 
only documentaries, but all serious films (he 
cited Godard and Truffaut) have trouble 
getting on the networks, PBS or cable. Sum- 
ming up what might be called the political 
perspective on the documentary crisis, he 
said, "The medium is not the message. The 



real story is: [they] who own the medium 
own the message." De Antonio added 
privately that he thought one solution would 
be a unified organization of filmmakers 
which would fight to get their work out in 
front of people, noting that no such organi- 
zation had existed since the Newsreel col- 
lective of the '30s. 

Somewhat surprisingly, the growing cable 
industry was not held up as the cure-all it so 
frequently is among independents. Jack 
Willis of CBS Cable said the industry might 
offer some expanded opportunities for film- 
makers in producing documentaries for a 
small target audience, but admitted that 
cable will not necessarily not be more open 
to controversial films than the networks. 
Jon Alpert (Downtown Community Televi- 
sion Center) and others voiced distrust of the 
"small target" audience, with Alpert calling 
cable a "Balkanization" of the audience and 
a threat to the struggle to reach as many peo- 
ple as possible. Ricky Leacock stated simply, 
"I don't believe in all this crap about cables. 
They're going to make more and more crap 
— that's all they can afford." Leacock voiced 
hopes for increased videodisc production but 
admitted later, with a smile, that regarding 
this as "the answer" was also probably false. 

NO SERIOUS DEBATE 

The discussions on cable and network ac- 
cess illustrated one of the conference's main 
problems: the unwillingness of participants 
representing different aspects of the industry 
to really engage each other in serious debate. 
For instance, there was virtually no response 
to Leacock's publicly-stated contention that 
cable companies are producing "crap". 
Similarly, Tom Brokaw stated "there's a 
great deal" of TV programming that is 
critical of conditions in American society — 
but quickly added, 'There's not much on 
television I can defend," when his original 
statement was met with dubious looks and a 
few chuckles. (Brokaw left the conference, 
with no explanation, rather abruptly some- 
time in mid-morning). Perhaps significantly, 
the discussion during the afternoon — when 
the issues were aesthetic rather than 
organizational or political — was livelier. Are 
filmmakers willing to debate each other only 
when the issue is the content of their art 
rather than the politics of the industry? 

The conferences afternoon session, pre- 

Continued on page 14 

APRIL 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



CONTEXT FOR AN EMERGING ART SCENE 

A GLIMPSE OF 

VIDEO PROSE, POETRY & POLITICS 

FROM LATIN AMERICA 



BARBARA LONDON 

Great interest in modern technology has 
been developing in Latin America, and 
many artists have been attracted to such 
recently developed media as video, Super-8 
films, Polaroid photography, Xerox art and 
computer graphics. Restricted to using the 
materials at hand, Latin artists have had 
limited opportunity to experiment with 
video, because new electronic developments 
take longer to reach the Third World. This 
situation is compounded by rampant infla- 
tion, import taxes that quintuple equipment 
costs, inaccessible parts and hardware that is 
difficult to repair. In some places it is even 
illegal for an independent to have a video 
camera. Color television has only recently 
reached such countries as Argentina. 

Although some experimentation took 
place at television stations and private in- 
stitutions during the Sixties, it was not until 
the mid-Seventies that the new relatively § 
low-cost portable cameras were purchased 3 
by several art schools and museums, and g 
Latin American video art activity gained £ 
momentum. However, few individual artists £2 
in Latin America have been able to develop § 
a substantial body of video work. In Latin 8 
American countries experimental art means 
economic uncertainty. Federal grants for the 
arts are limited, and only a few collectors 
and museums acquire recent material. Video 
is especially problematic; little is shown and 
even less gets sold. Art schools are a relative- 
ly recent phenomenon in Latin America. 
Previously, artists studied the related field of 
architecture, both to learn about the visual 
arts and to enter a financially secure pro- 
fession. Now that it is possible to study the 
visual arts, there are other alternatives: those 
who learn the craft of video can live off such 
marketable skills as camerawork and editing. 

FEW VIDEO OUTLETS 

Through sheer persistence and determina- 
tion, some Latin American artists have been 
able to, produce strong statements in video. 
However, once a new videotape finally is 
made-, there are relatively few outlets for ex- 
hibiting the work. Over the last sixteen years 
Latin American video has been exhibited in 
the Bienal of Sao Paulo, first in 1975 and 
again in 1981, and several institutions have 
presented and have helped artists to produce 
work. In 1965, with the encouragement of 
Jorge Romero Brest, then director of the In- 
stituto Torcuato di Telia in Buenos Aires, 
Armando Durante made a "synthesized," in- 
APRIL 1982 



teractive video work that used images ac- 
tivated by live sounds. In 1967 David 
Lamelas created his video piece Time Situa- 
tion, also through the Instituto Torcuato di 
Telia. Several years later Jorge Glusberg 
opened the Centro de Arte y Communi- 
cation (CAYC) in Buenos Aires and en- 
couraged such artists as Leopoldo Mahler 
and others to work in video. At the Museu 
de Arte Contemporanea in Sao Paulo, under 
Walter Zanini's direction, such artists as 
Regina Vater, Anna Bella Geiger and Sonia 
Andrade first experimented with video. Two 
television stations have aired video by ar- 
tists: Global Television in Sao Paulo and 
Televisa in Mexico City. Several universities 
provide courses in television and video pro- 
duction, and a few private workshops have 
been formed. 




Who loves Lucy? Babalu by Labat 

Over the years a number of Latin 
American artists have moved to Europe or 
North America to pursue their art work 
under more favorable conditions. What re- 
mains apparent in the work made by Latin 
American artists, whether living at home or 
abroad, is a unique sensibility and energy 
and a strong political commitment. After a 
long residence abroad, however, an artist's 
vision naturally becomes more international. 

Latin American video covers a range of 
formats — namely single-channel tapes and 
installations — and a variety of approaches 
including performance, narrative, poetic, 
documentary and political work. Perfor- 
mance-oriented video is where most artists 
begin, because when working alone with 
portable equipment, it is easiest to point the 
camera at oneself. During the late Sixties 



this was a logical outgrowth of the then- 
popular performance and body art activities. 
In this type of video the artist executes a 
series of actionsT which generally are 
centered on one theme. 

SKY-HIGH PERFORMANCE 

In A morte do horror (To Die of Fright), 
Brazilian artist Sonia Andrade carried out 
four activities, which are strong, almost 
brutal essays. Anna Bella Geiger's short 
pieces in Mapas Element ares (Elementary 
Maps) are visual and verbal puns about 
Brazil. The Colectivo, a collaborative group 
that has worked together in Chile for six 
years, recently created a two-channel work, 
\Ay Sudamerica! (Oh, South America!), 
which documented a performed action. The 
five-person group dropped 400,000 political 
art leaflets from six planes over Santiago, 
continuing the group's necessarily somewhat 
secretive action/events in which they interact 
with the people of Chile. 

Narrative work, which has its antecedents 
in literature, film and television, is equally 
varied. Michel Cardena's iSomos Libresl 
(Are We Freel), which was produced in 
Amsterdam with de Appel, examines at- 
titudes towards lifestyles outside the social 
norm. The focus of Teodoro Maus' Man on 
the Empire State is an exile, shown first in 
his native country (Argentina), then as a 
"squatter" in the famous New York sky- 
scraper. Tony Labat's Babalu is a parody of 
Ricky Ricardo from the old / Love Lucy 
television show, while his Room Service 
deals with the marielitos (Cuban boat peo- 
ple) living in Miami. 

An example of video work that is both 
poetic and highly visual is Oscar Monsalve's 
Ensaya Para Video # 1 (Video Essay # 1). 
The work is a study of mud bricks, the 
essential Colombian building unit, and 
shows where and how they are made, as well 
as the simple dwellings and large apartment 
buildings that are constructed with them. 
Meta-Mayan II by Edin Velez is a thought- 
ful, romantic portrait of people living in 
Guatemala. Through sensitive edits and 
changes of speed, the work gives insight into 
these proud Central American peoples. In 
his work The Laughing Alligator, Juan 
Downey used a personal style to explore the 
customs of the southern Venezuelan 
Yanomami, with whom he and his family 
lived for seven months. 

13 



THE INDEPENDENT 



Although video documentaries are made 
in Latin America, film is still used more 
frequently for this genre because there are 
more established networks for reaching an 
audience. However, the spontaneity and im- 
mediacy of video makes it appealing for 
non-fiction work. An example is Margarita 
D'Amico and Manuel Manzano's Videos de 
Castillito: Ciudad Guayana (Video of 
Castillito: Guayana), which focuses on an 
old, lower-middle-class neighborhood about 
to be taken over for high-rises. Church 
members, politicians, residents and 
businessmen openly discuss the situation in 
this videotape. 

ART POLITICS 

Latin artists have a long history of using 
newspaper imagery for political purposes in 
print, painting or collage form. Chilean 
artist Catalina Parra has carried over this 
tradition into her recent video installation 
Variations Ornamentales (Ornamental 
Variations), a subtle political work. Four 
wall hangings composed of torn, bold news- 
paper photographs — including Patrice 
Lumumba being forced to eat his 1961 
speech laying claim to the Republic of 
Congo — are painfully sewn together with 
found materials such as plastic and gauze. 
The hangings were flanked by two monitors 
depicting the same silent videotape in which 
similar materials were handled with re- 
pressive overtones. Parra's installation has 
an urgency felt in many other Latin 
American works. 

During the next decade independent video 



in Latin America certainly will be affected 
by the radically changing technologies. In 
most of the countries there are limited 
numbers of television channels, mainly 
government-controlled. As a result, 
numerous home videocassette playback units 
have already been sold, and viewers are pro- 
gramming their taped copies of the latest 
European and American television shows. 
The situation for Latin artists will improve 
when home video cameras can produce finer 
images, and when video is used with greater 
frequency by television stations and film 
companies. Then better video equipment will 
be more readily available, and independent 
videomakers will have greater access. But 
until that time the Latin American video- 
maker's work must be encouraged and ex- 
plored. ■ 

Barbara London is an assistant curator at 
New York Museum of Modern Art, and 
directs its video program. She has taught a 
History of Video course at New York 
University. 



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AFI Documentary Conference 

Continued from page 12 
ceded by a screening of Family Business, 
concentrated more specifically on the 
Muncie films and addressed such (hardly 
new) questions as : Can "facts"— or only 



story line— be dramatic? How can one curb 
the tendency toward focusing on the grotes- 
que in the quest for "visual" material? Is the 
strength of the Muncie films their con- 
centration on "particular" moments, or does 
this lead to what Helena Solberg Ladd 
(From the Ashes: Nicaragua Today) called 
"a kind of claustrophobia"? And, over and 
over again: What is cinema verite and what 
are its limits? 

There was both public and private grumb- 
ling among some participants about the 
issues which were (and weren't) discussed at 
the conference. Alan Raymond (The Police 
Tapes) said he found it "amazing" that film- 
makers were still discussing "this tiresome 
issue of verite"; de Antonio called the 
meeting "regrettably, predictably plati- 
tudinous". But there seemed to be a reluc- 
tance on the part of the conferees as a group 
to substantively address the issues of access, 
marketing, distribution and funding: for in- 
stance, no proposals for any kind of con- 
certed strategy for dealing with PBS or NEA 
were even suggested. Was this reluctance due 
to the difficulty of developing such strate- 
gies, or to many participants simply feeling 
that structural issues were not important? 
Asked if the conference had changed his 
original pessimistic prognosis, Peter Biskind 
replied that, although he found the Muncie 
films "inspiring" as art, documentarians still 
faced "enormous problems" which simply 
weren't being addressed, much less solved. ■ 

Susan L infield directed the documentary 
"Ricky: To Get Where You're Going." She 
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14 



Nightflight Video Art 
Continued from page 11 
— five of the eight original shows featured 
artists who create processed or abstract im- 
ages. More shows should feature issue- 
oriented work, work with broader political 
or aesthetic concerns, like Martha Rosler's 
feminist tapes or Tony Oursler's diaristic ex- 
periments. The show is too involved with the 
revelation of the artist's personality, rather 
than the work itself— a tendency too com- 
mon in the current art world. Theme shows, 
emphasizing the work over the individual, 
are a necessity. Trigg and Shapiro acknowl- 
edge many of the show's weaknesses and are 
receptive to ideas and suggestions. For one, 
I hope they add titles and dates of featured 
works to the end credits. Their willingness to 
look at all work submitted for the show was 
repeatedly emphasized. For those interested, 
Eric Trigg can be reached at EAI, 84 Fifth 
Ave., New York NY 10011; Stuart Shapiro, 
c/o Night Flight, ATI, 888 Seventh Ave., 
New York NY 10019. ■ 

Arlene Zeichner is a video critic, curator 
and producer. In her spare time she goes to 
movies. 

APRIL 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



BOOKS 



GREEN PASTURES: 
GUIDES TO FUNDING 



BARTON WEISS 



GET THE MONEY & SHOOT 

The DRI Guide to Funding Documentary 
Films, by Bruce Jackson and the staff of 
DRI. Published by Documentary Research 
Inc., 96 Rumsey Road, Buffalo NY 14209. 
$15. Also available at AIVF. 



From the top, let me say that every inde- 
pendent filmmaker should read this book, 
and every documentary filmmaker should 
own a copy. I have always been mystified by 
the whole grant process, and more spe- 
cifically that some filmmakers had the knack 
of getting grants, while others with as much 
talent or more struggle and get nothing but 
rejection form letters. 

The crafts of writing grants and fundrais- 
ing in general are quite different from the art 
of making films. A good filmmaker must 
master many disciplines (psychology, ac- 
counting, optics, etc.) that are not directly 
related to camera angles, directing and 
editing; and fundraising is a discipline most 
of us neglect. 

Thinking a good film speaks for itself, 
every year I would apply to AFI, CAPS, the 
Independent Documentary Fund and CPB, 
convinced this year's idea was the most 
brilliant ever. Needless to say, while the idea 
got better the proposals did not, and I have 
a large file of rejection letters. Essentially, to 
get a grant you should spend as much care 
and energy in preparing the proposal as you 
would in, say, editing your film. 

In I Am My Films, Werner Herzog says 
that if you want to make your film badly 
enough you will find the money somehow. I 
always imagined the process as a Holly- 
wood-type montage, with shots (at an obtuse 
angle) of me at the typewriter, calendar 
pages turning, shaking hands, more calendar 
pages, plus dramatic music, and then the 
check arriving in the mail. Well, this book 
shows the hard work and thinking that the 
montage doesn't. 

Essentially, Get the Money and Shoot 
covers: 

• Who has money and how to find them 

• How to write a good grant proposal 

• How to budget 

• How to get hooked up with a non-profit 
(501 .C. 3.) organization 

• How the grant process works after the 
grant is in the mailbox 

APRIL 1982 



Next, in a wonderful section, Jackson 
takes a hypothetical film through the whole 
process: first describing the project and pur- 
suing potential funders; then deciding on a 
foundation, going through the proposal, 
budget and all the correspondence which is 
so critical to foundations. The appendix of 
addresses is only marginally useful because 
the info is neither unique nor extensive. The 
budgeting section, however, is especially well 
done and extremely valuable. 

Jackson mentions four potential sources 
of cash to make films: federal and state pro- 
grams (NEA, NEH and state arts and hu- 
manities councils); foundations; corpora- 
tions; and, of course, your own pocket and 
the pockets of friends, former friends and 
relatives. Naturally, the point is to move 
from source 4 to sources l, 2 and 3. 

Because he is dealing with documentaries 
only, forming limited partnerships and look- 
ing for investors are not even mentioned. At 
first this oversight seems problematic, but 
there is a considerable difference in ap- 
proach when dealing with the prospect of 
raising money so that you and others v/ill 
make money. Not that these films can't 
make money, it's just not the main purpose. 
For animated, narrative and experimental 
filmmakers who work in a noncommercial 
vein, most of the advice still applies to the 
way you should be looking for money. 

The book stresses applying to multiple 
sources for each project, while remembering 
to make sure your film fits the guidelines of 
the funding source. Researching the poten- 
tial funder is as critical as researching the 
film, especially when dealing with founda- 
tions. Since so little is written on corpora- 
tions and foundations, those sections are 
particularly valuable. Most books on the 
subject only list where to look; this one tells 
you how. 

Stories and asides round out the factual 
and other straight informational aspects. In 
one, Jackson tells how after being turned 
down for cash at a corporation ("We just 
don't give money for films"), the executive 
asked him if he could use a truck. Not only 
was the truck useful but other corporations 
then gave money. Remember, the first ques- 
tion an executive asks is who else is giving. 

Jackson draws on the experiences of the 
DRI film group. While the strength of the 
text stems from DRI's successes and failures, 
he doesn't expand his discussion to include 
the smaller documentarian, who would kill 



PRINCIPLES & RESOLUTIONS 
OF THE ASSOCIA TION 



AIVF FOUNDING PRINCIPLES 

1. The Association is a service organi- 
zation of and for independent video 
and filmmakers. 

2. The Association encourages excel- 
lence, commitment and independence; 
it stands for the principle that video and 
filmmaking is more than just a job — 
that it goes beyond economics to in- 
volve the expression of broad human 
values. 

3. The Association works, through the 
combined effort of the membership, to 
provide practical, informational and 
moral support for independent video 
and filmmakers and is dedicated to en- 
suring the survival and providing sup- 
port for the continuing growth of in- 
dependent video and filmmaking. 

4. The Association does not limit its 
support to one genre, ideology or 
aesthetic, but furthers diversity of vi- 
sion in artistic and social consciousness. 

5. The Association champions indepen- 
dent video and film as valuable and 
vital expressions of our culture and is 
determined, by mutual action, to open 
pathways toward exhibition of this 
work to the community at large. 



AIVF RESOLUTIONS 

1. To affirm the creative use of media 
in fostering cooperation, community & 
justice in human relationships without 
respect to age, sex, race, class or 
religion. 

2. To recognize and reaffirm the 
freedom of expression of the indepen- 
dent film and videomaker, as spelled 
out in the AIVF principles. 

3. To promote constructive dialogue 
and heightened awareness among the 
membership of the social, artistic and 
personal choices involved in the pursuit 
of both independent and sponsored 
work, via such mechanisms as screen- 
ings and forums. 

4. To continue to work to strengthen 
AIVFs services to independents, in 
order to help reduce the membership's 
dependence on the kinds of sponsorship 
which encourage the compromise of 
personal values. 



15 



THE INDEPENDENT 



for $10-20,000, instead of the $85-115,000 
range he writes about. There are many docu- 
mentary filmmakers who can't afford to call 
Washington to keep up on their application. 
These survival-level filmmakers will ap- 
preciate the book but might need a mini- 
grant to buy it. (Since DRI publishes it them- 
selves, it's not cheap.) 

Underneath all the specifics, Jackson and 
Co. are saying, fundraising is a full-time oc- 
cupation. To really ensure the necessary 
funding for a film, you can't be in produc- 
tion: both tasks take up too much time. Like 
self-distribution, if you do it right, you can't 
do much else. 

THE INDEPENDENT 
FILMMAKER'S GUIDE 

How to Finance, Produce & Distribute Your 
Short and Documentary Films, by Michael 
Wiese. Published by Michael Wiese Film 
Productions, Box 245, Sausalito CA 94966. 
$14.95. 

The source of production money 
distinguishes independent filmmakers as 
much as the diverse styles of the films we 
produce; indeed, it can dictate the style, 
content and aesthetics of a film. This is why 
we work as independents. There is a sub- 
stantive difference between obtaining funds 
from grants, foundations and corporations 
as a non-profit entity and going after in- 
vestors in the form of limited partners. If 
your approach is non-profit, this book will 
be of only marginal significance to you, and 
I would recommend Bruce Jackson's book. 

Wiese limits his discussion of grants to a 
one-page personal anecdote, informing us 
that he got an AFI grant and was a finalist 
for a CPB grant. The thrust of the book is 
how to find, and produce money from, in- 
vestors, and then pay them back through 
market research and distribution. With grant 
money slowly disappearing, films getting 
more expensive and the economy getting 
worse, we do need to be more financially 
sophisticated. But problems arise when in- 
dependents start turning into hustlers, more 
concerned with the profit potential in a proj- 
ect than the political and aesthetic considera- 
tions. 

It almost seems that Wiese has been forced 
to hustle so long he doesn't realize that he 
may be hustling us in his book. The front 
cover sports logos for his three big films, 
and the inside rear cover hypes his con- 
sulting services and computerized budgeting 
system. Often, it seems that the purpose of 
the book is not to help young independent 
filmmakers, but to show how wonderful it is 
to have produced Hardware Wars and two 
other "award-winning" films. I found 
Jackson's book much more useful without 
being self-congratulatory. 

Wiese's guide offers some very useful in- 
formation, though. When I make my next 
presentation I will know how to rehearse, 
16 



what to say (he gives us a script) and how to 
arrange the chairs in the room. Other sec- 
tions are thoughtful and well-written, but 
more detailed information is available 
elsewhere, which makes this a good starting 
point. The section on contracts was im- 
pressive, but not as much help as the packet 
from the AIVF seminar. The only saving 
grace of the section on self-distribution is 
that he directs you to two worthy texts on 
the subject (Doing It Yourself by Julia 
Reichert and 16mm Distribution by Nadine 
Covert and Judith Trojan). The section on 
electronic distribution is good, but will be 
out of date quickly; here I suggest a packet 
of information compiled by ICAP. Al- 
though short, the material on market 
research is quite good, and a chapter on 



writing the prospectus is also redeeming. 

The sections on budgets is particularly 
uninspiring. This is disappointing, because 
as he states, 'The budget is one of the most 
important pages in your presentation." The 
problem here and throughout the book is 
that he only relates his experience without 
extrapolating procedures and methodology. 
Certainly one needs to be specific to rein- 
force points, but the book contains more 
details about his films than points about 
filmmaking. ■ 

Barton Weiss is an independent filmmaker 
whose credits include The Jocelyn Shrager 
Story. He is president of the newly-formed 
West Virginia Filmmakers Guild, and an 
associate professor in the communications 
department at West Virginia State College. 



FESTIVALS 



SPRING SELECTIONS 

WENDY UDELL 



The Festival Report has been compiled by 
Wendy Lidell and Sian Evans with the help 
of Gadney's Guides and the FIVF files. 
Listings do not constitute an endorsement, 
and since dates and other details change 
faster than we can keep up with them, we 
recommend that you contact the festival for 
further information before sending your 
material. Application forms for some 
festivals are available from FIVF. Lastly, 
many festivals are beginning to accept video- 
tape, although our latest information may 
not reflect this. If a particular festival seems 
appropriate, you should call them and ask if 
they accept video. (Perhaps if they get 
enough calls, they will change their policy!) 

LOCARNO 

Locarno, situated on the Swiss side of the 
Swiss-Italian border, is reputed to be a 
beautiful place to spend early August. 
Locarno showcases feature films exclusively, 
and although a sidebar market does take 
place ($100 participation fee, open to all), 
the main thrust of the festival is not com- 
mercial. This is Europe's oldest film festival, 
and comments by Jean-Pierre Broussard in 
the 34th Festival catalogue (loosely trans- 
lated) reflect its spirit: "We hope that Locar- 
no is and will remain that privileged place 
where one has the pleasure to come to ap- 
preciate a film, and to engage in true and 
fruitful dialogue with its author." 

The Festival has surely earned its repu- 
tation as a worthwhile celebration of film 
art. Both Kathryn Bigelow (director of The 
Loveless) and Sam Firstenberg (director of 
One More Chance), who attended the 1981 
Festival with their films, agreed that Locar- 
no was well-organized, committed and well 



worth the participation. David Streiff, the 
new director, gets nothing but rave reviews. 
(Jan Egelson's Dark End of the Street was 
also featured at Locarno in 1981, but 
Egelson did not attend the festival.) 

Golden, Silver and Bronze Leopards are 
awarded to films in a competition for first- 
time directors only, and Locarno's fine repu- 
tation assures the prestige of these awards. 
The jury process is reputed to be highly 
political, giving preference to Eastern Euro- 
pean and Third World films and stressing 
social and ideological concerns. This would 
seem to be in keeping with the Festival's 
stated purpose of promoting both indepen- 
dent films and emerging national cinemas. 
Last year's winners were Chakra by Indian 
director Rabindra Dharmaraj, Pixote by the 
Brazilian director Hector Babenco and 
Akaler Sandhane (In Search of Famine) by 
Mrinal Sen. (The American representative 
on the 1981 jury was Paul Morissey.) Streiff 
says the Festival will try to add cash prizes to 
the Leopards in 1982. 

Even if you don't win a Leopard, par- 
ticipation in Locarno can be a boon to your 
film: press coverage is quite extensive, and 
facilitated by numerous press conferences. 
Streiff says over 200 critics attend the event. 
So you will probably leave Locarno with lots 
of reviews (Variety sends a stringer), but not 
many buyers. Swiss distributors do attend, 
but in the words of the director himself, 
"Big business is not made in Locarno." 

The event is primarily a high-prestige 
showcase. Filmmakers are invited and of- 
fered two weeks' hospitality. According to 
Firstenberg, parties and banquets every 
night make networking easy. There are three 
programs in the Festival: a retrospective, 
several information sections including one 

APRIL 1982 



dedicated to a national cinema, and the in- 
ternational competition. Participation in the 
competition is limited to films produced 
within the last year and not previously 
shown in Switzerland. Prizewinners at other 
international festivals are ineligible, and 
preference is given to world premieres or 
films that have not participated in any other 
major European festivals. 

Films are accepted in 16 and 35mm. There 
is no entry fee, and the Festival pays return 
postage. Entries are due by May 31st; entry 
forms are available from the FIVF office. 
Contact: David Streiff, Director, Festival In- 
ternazionale del Film de Locarno, PO Box 
186, CH-6600, Locarno, Switzerland. - W.L. 

WELLINGTON 

THE ELEVENTH WELLINGTON FILM 
FESTIVAL, held in June, is open to all en- 
tries in 16 and 35mm. The Festival is 
especially interested in shorts and features 
which are otherwise unlikely to be seen in 
New Zealand, and they carefully scout other 
festivals in an effort to find the most in- 
teresting work. 

The 16-day event is funded entirely 
through ticket sales. The estimated atten- 
dance is about 25,000 people. Complimen- 
tary tickets and specially arranged screenings 
are offered to accommodate critics and 
buyers and to maximize their participation. 
Bill Godsden, the festival director, says that 
if he can hold onto a print for long enough, 
he will even send it to a potential buyer. Al- 
though the New Zealand market may not be 
the largest, this festival seems like a good 
way to break into it. 

Steve Raymen, whose film Luther Metke 
at 94 was shown in the 1981 Wellington 
Festival, said they were cooperative and 
seemed grateful for good material. Raymen 
also recommends contacting New Zealand 
television to let them know your film will be 
at the Festival and to give them permission 
to videotape your print while it's there. 
Broadcast licensing may be negotiated later. 
Luther Metke was purchased for broadcast 
as a result of its Wellington screening, but 
since his print was already returned when 
they made their decision, he had to send 
another one and the ordeal took over six 
months. The local TV contacts are Barry 
Parkin, Head of Program Purchasing, or 
Jane Wrightson and Ray Ferris, Program 
Purchasing Agents, Television New Zealand, 
Avalon TV Centre, PO Box 30945, Lower 
Hutt, New Zealand. 

Other American films shown at the 1981 
Wellington Film Festival include: Board and 
Care, Dinosaur, The Gingerbread Man, The 
Key West Picture Show and Legacy. 

For festival participation contact: Bill 
Godsden, Director, Wellington Film 
Festival, PO Box 9544, Courtenay Place, 
Wellington, New Zealand. There are no 
APRIL 19B2 





Bigelow's The Loveless & Firstenberg's One More Chance at Locarno 



fees; entrant pays all postage; entry deadline 
is May 31. - W.L. 

PHILADELPHIA 

PHILAFILM: PHILADELPHIA 
INTERNATIONAL FILM FESTIVAL 
AND EXPOSITION, July 22-26, occurs in 
three primary public theatres: the Library of 
Philadelphia, the Afro-American Museum 
and the Bell Telephone of Pennsylvania 
Auditorium, with two possible alternative 
locations. Founded in '75 at a symposium of 
independent and network producers, the 
Festival was intended from the first to create 
an advocate — an authoritative international 
organ — for minority producers. 

This symposium recognized the difficulties 
of gaining funding for minority producers in 
the US and on the East Coast in particular. 
They sought to raise the visibility of Third 
World producers and to provide a forum for 
exhibition of work, critique, distribution 
systems, financing, exhibition, training and 
public exposure to such films. Video has 
always been included in the Festival, because 



the organizers were sensitive to the fact that 
many producers work in video as an econo- 
mizing measure. The cost of working in 
video and then transferring to 16mm after 
getting or seeking financing through foreign 
distribution is far more realistic for many in- 
dependents. 

The 1982 Festival takes place as part of a 
citywide celebration of the 400th birthday of 
Philadelphia, whose theme is The 4th Cen- 
tury: Child of the '80s, or a New Birth. 
Sponsors include Bell Telephone, the 
Philadelphia Urban Coalition, Sun Oil and 
other long-term supporters, with advertising 
contributed by Kodak and Capital Cities 
Communications. 

There are two classes of entries — "com- 
petitive" viewings and "non-competitive" 
viewings or "market" showings. These last 
consist of screenings of older (completed 
before '80) and more specialized productions 
and group productions. Last year, market 
films numbered 5 tapes and 10 Super-8 films 
as well as feature films by non-independents. 
"Competitive" viewings numbered approx- 



FEBRUARY MEETING 

AIVF BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

• INDEPENDENT PRODUCER/ 
UNION COMMITTEE: Independent 
Producer/Union Committee formed fol- 
lowing December 15, 1981 panel dis- 
cussion on shooting union. First meeting 
held on February 8, 1982. Focus on 
NABET 15 contract, with Tom Turley, 
NABET 15's Business Manager, attend- 
ing. Next meeting set for February 22, 
with representative of SAG to analyze 
SAG contract. 

• WNET- INDEPENDENT FOCUS: 
AIVF unable to set meeting with Focus 
panelists to discuss their role in program 
selection process. Marc Weiss suggested 
meeting with WNET to assess handling 
of series to date. 

• AIVF MEMBERSHIP DIREC- 
TORY: Board approved publication of 
AIVF membership directory organized by 
state and cross-referenced by skills and 
credits. Directory would be advertiser- 
supported. Board member Manny Kirch- 



heimer expressed concern that such a 
directory could skew membership toward 
non-producing freelancers, and be used 
by the industry as source of non-union 
technical people. However, solicitation 
mailings would be aimed primarily at 
members of producer organizations, as 
well as current AIVF members. 

• NEW YORK STATE COUNCIL 
ON THE ARTS: Board approved grant 
proposal categories submitted by staff in- 
cluding Core Services, Media Access, The 
Independent, Festival Bureau, Seminars 
and Screenings, student outreach pro- 
gram, internship program and publica- 
tions program. 

• CORPORATION FOR PUBLIC 
BROADCASTING: Report on efforts to 
preserve direct funding of independent 
work by CPB. Numerous AIVF members 
have written to CPB in support of direct 
independent funding. AIVF has sought 
unsuccessfully to meet with CPB Presi- 
dent Edward Pfister. Association 
scheduled to address CPB Board on 
March 4, 1982. 



17 



THE INDEPENDENT 



imately 27, including 5 Super-8 films: Tapes 
tended to be documentaries for the broad- 
cast market and factual entries with a serious 
tone — issue-oriented and historical. At least 
11 of the 37 "competitive" viewings were 
from California. Past winners have come 
from Senegal and Brazil, with an increasing 
number of entries from Europe. The Festival 
sponsors are hoping to create a traveling ex- 
hibition program. They envisage focused 
compilations of excerpts, presenting the- 
matic material that is social, community- 
oriented and/or political in nature. 

Fees are stiff, ranging from $25-100. En- 
tries can be on 8, Super-8, 16 or 35mm film 
or V* " video, and should be in by May 31. If 
works are rented or sold by IAMPTP, the 
producers must pay a 10% sales commission 
to the organizers. Over 5,000 people attend 
the 16 screenings, where $1,000 is awarded 
to each of 6 winners. Contact: Lawrence 
Smallwood, International Association of 
Motion Picture and TV Producers, 1315 
Walnut St., Suite 320, Philadelphia PA 
19107, (215) 732-9222. -S.E. 

TORONTO 

1982 TORONTO SUPERS FILM 
FESTIVAL, June 3-6. This seventh annual 
celebration of the S-8 medium grew out of 
the local art school to become a well- 
respected showcase for new work. Back at 
the Ontario College of Art in downtown 
Toronto this year, it follows the same for- 
mat as previous years, featuring open and 
juried screenings, an equipment trade show 
and an expanded workshop program. 
Festival Director Sheila Hill told FIVF that 
Mark Mikolis and Julio Neri (Director of 
the International S-8 Festival in Caracas) 
will premiere portions of their S-8 
Venezuelan TV series, which documents 
their trip down the Amazon from Buenos 
Aires to Venezuela. She also confirmed the 
participation of S-8 Bolivian documentarist 
Alfonzo Dagron, who has just completed a 
film for the UN on Guatemala, Huey Col- 
eman, director of the Maine Student Film 
Festival, and Gunther Hoos, co-author of 
The Super-8 Handbook. Previous fests have 
been well attended by the local community 
with a respectable amount of international 
participation — it's one of a handful that 
treats S-8 with some degree of legitimacy 
and professionalism. 

Prizes of $500 are awarded in four 
categories: fiction/narrative, fact/documen- 
tary, animation and art/experimental. In 
addition, the three-person jury will select 
films for equipment and film stock awards, 
and these films will comprise the jury 
nomination reel for the 3rd annual James 
Blue Award ($300), in memory of the noted 
S-8 advocate and pioneer. Audiences over 
the four days will be balloted, and a final 
winner will be announced. Entries may be in 
16mm or Vt " video as well as S-8, as long as 

18 



the material originated in S-8. (Hill doesn't 
want to know about format mixtures.) Entry 
fees are $l0/first film and $3/each subse- 
quent film — all films will be returned within 
three weeks of the festival by registered or 
insured mail. Non-prizewinners may book 
time in the open screening schedule during 
the festival for a nominal fee, if they haven't 
been included by the jury in the general pro- 
gram. Deadline: May 20. Send for entry 
form to: The 1982 Toronto Super-8 Film 
Festival, Box 7109, Postal Station A, Toron- 
to, Ontario Canada M5W 1X8, or phone: 
(416)367-0590. -J.G. 



NEWS & NOTES 

The American Film Festival Video Com- 
petition has noted that it drew 250 entries, 
representing a 30% increase over last year. 
They also received a record 131 feature- 
length documentaries (50-110 min.). There 
were 1 ,090 entries in all. Entries will be pre- 
screened by 75 committees across the coun- 
try, who will nominate the outstanding 
works to be shown during the finals of the 
Festival competition. This year's finals will 
be held June 14-19 at New York City's 
Fashion Institute of Technology. 
• 

The 28th Westdeutschen Kurzfilmtage 
(Oberhausen Short Fim Festival) has an- 
nounced the members of this year's jury. 
They are: Peter Christian Hall, chief editor 
of the magazine medium from Frankfurt; 
Marion Michelle, France; film documen- 
tarian Nancy Hollander, US; director 
Krzysztof Kieslowski, Poland; director 
Mrinal Sen, India; director Gabor Body, 
Hungary; filmmaker Nico Crama, Holland; 
scriptwriter and filmmaker Edgaro Pallero, 
Argentina; Ernst Schreckenberg, director of 
the communal cinema in Dortmund, West 
Germany; and jurors from the USSR and 
the CSSR. They have also announced that 
the American participants will be Fisheads 
by Art and Artie Barnes, Night on the Town 
by Rick Goldstein, Warriors' Women by 
Dorothy Tod, Daily Chores by Steve James, 
End of Innocence by Stephen Stept, He 
Likes to Chop Down Trees by J. Leighton 
Pierce, Extended Play by David Cresci and 
Pathetique by Michael Chomet. 

• 
This year's judges for the Atlanta In- 
dependent Film and Video Festival, which 
takes place on April 14-18, will be: 

• FILM: Karen Cooper, Director of the 
Film Forum in New York City, the national 
showcase for independent film; and Mark 
Rappaport, producer, writer, and director of 
independent features including The Scenic 
Route and Impostors. 

• VIDEO: John Sanborn, a video artist 
who has, with his partner Kit Fitzgerald, 
won international acclaim for tapes, perfor- 



mances and video installations; and Elke 
Town, curator and distributor of artists' 
videotapes at Art Metropole, an alternative 
artists' space and video distributor in Toron- 
to, Ontario. (Town's appearance as a judge 
is being sponsored in part by the government 
of Canada.) 

The opening night feature will be Soldier 
Girls by Joan Churchill and Nicholas 
Broomfield. Soldier Girls also won the Inter- 
national Critics' Award at the Mannheim 
Film Festival. 



FOREIGN FESTIVALS 

• THE 1ST VIDEO INTERNATIONAL 
ROTTERDAM, September 3-5, will be co- 
sponsored by Kijkhuis (or Video Center) in The 
Hague and the Rotterdam Art Foundation, which 
has been a leader in the development of video art 
since 1970. They are interested in grassroots uses 
of video as well as "epic/lyrical" video and image 
processing. Original plans included hospitality for 
the makers, provisions for screening tapes not of- 
ficially in the Festival, translations and on-the- 
scene dubbing. While lower funding levels will 
not permit all of this, the Festival's organizers still 
seem to emphasize the sharing of ideas as its 
raison d'etre. While there was some talk of cable- 
casting, post-festival distribution and traveling 
shows, it is unclear how much of this will be 
possible. Tapes should be in English or German, 
on V* " U-matic (PAL/SECAM or NTSC) and 
produced since 1980. Rental fees will vary from 
$40-$80 and the Festival will pay all postage, 
returning a $10 reimbursement with your tape. 
Selections begin in mid-April and will continue 
through the end of June. Mark your entry clearly 
with the words "World Wide Video Festival" and 
declare its value at $20 to comply with customs 
arrangements. Contact: Tom van Vliet, Kijkhuis, 
Noordeinde 140, 2514 GP Den Haag, Nederland. 

• FESTIVAL DE LA ROCHELLE, June-July, 
is a multi-arts festival featuring contemporary 
work in the fields of music, dance, theater, 
cinema and the visual arts. The cinema section, 
directed by Jean-Loup Passek, generally includes 
retrospectives featuring the work of several direc- 
tors, and a section called Le Monte Tel Qu'il Est 
(The World As It Is) showcasing new works from 
around the world. Recent retrospectives or Hom- 
mages have included: Richard Lester, Richard 
Brooks, Andrzej Wajda, Joris Ivens, Kurt Raab 
and Satyajit Ray. The other section has featured a 
number of American independents since the 
Festival's inception in 1973. Among them are: 
Karen Arthur, Barbara Kopple, Henry Jaglom 
and Robert Young. This is a small festival with 
no competition, but it seems to be serious and 
committed to the exchange of ideas and the pro- 
motion of film art. There is also a separate sec- 
tion called Cinemarge, directed by Jacky Yonnet, 
which concentrates exclusively on avant-garde, 
experimental and political independent films. 
Yonnet perused the FIVF films file for potential 
1982 participants when he was in New York about 
six months ago, but entries are being received until 
May for both sections. All entries should be in 16 
and 35mm, French subtitles preferred. No entry 
fee. Entrant pays postage. Contact: Jean-Loup 
Passek or Jacky Yonnet, Festival de la Rochelle, 
11 rue Chef-de-Ville, 17000 La Rochelle, France. 

APRIL 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



Tbronto Super Eight Festival 

June 3-6, 1982 Entry Deadline May 20 

Competitive/open screenings, 

trade show, workshop/seminars 

with international filmmakers. 




Information: Box 7109, Postal Station A, Toronto, 
Ontario Canada M5W 1X8 (416) 367-0590 



• INTERNATIONAL FESTIVAL OF 
ECONOMICS AND TRAINING FILMS, 
November, is co-sponsored by the Free University 
of Brussels, Cercle Solvay and the Union of Com- 
mercial Engineers. The purpose of the Festival is 
to showcase film and video as a teaching tool. 
There is a competition which accepts Super-8 and 
16mm; entrant pays all postage, but there is no 
entry fee. Entries due in May. Contact: Didier 
Cloos, President, Cercle Solvay, Avenue Franklin 
Roosevelt 48, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium. 



DOMESTIC FESTIVALS 

• AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL FOUN- 
DATION (APF) NATIONAL MEDIA 
AWARDS, August, will be presented to selected 
16mm films and tapes which contain references to 
psychology or psychologists or which depict find- 
ings and applications of psychological science. No 
"textbook-like" entries will be accepted. Tapes 
and films should be longer than 60 minutes and 
by US residents. No fees are required. Since 1956 
this organization has been presenting media 
awards at the APF convention, which yearly at- 
tracts some 15,000 participants, with an average 
of 345 film and video submissions and 6 winners. 
Over $1000 is awarded in each category. Entries 
due by May 14. Contact: APF, 1200 17th St., 
NW, Washington DC 20036, (202) 833-7881. 

• CINE DE LAS AMERICAS: 1st LATIN 
AMERICAN FESTIVAL OF ANIMATION, 
May 1-9, is a presentation of Cine Accion, the 
Hispanic filmmakers' organization of northern 
California, together with the Film Arts Founda- 
tion and ASIFA-San Francisco. The Festival will 
promote excellence in Hispanic-American produc- 
tion of artistic, avant-garde, experimental, social 
and commercial animation. Entries are being in- 
vited from animators in the US, Mexico, Latin 
America, the Caribbean and Spain, as well as 
animation dealing with the Latin American ex- 
perience, regardless of origin. Super-8, 16, 35mm 
and videocassettes will be accepted. Although the 
deadline is April 1 to accommodate the printing 
of a catalogue, you may still make the Festival if 
you call immediately. A traveling show is also 
being planned. Contact: Luis Perez, Cine Accion, 
480 Potrero, San Francisco CA 94110, (415) 
552-9838. 

• NAM AC CHICAGO CONFERENCE/ 
MARKET, Apr. 28-May 2. The National Alliance 
of Media Arts Centers will be conducting a 
film/tape market in conjunction with its Chicago 
conference. All works submitted will be included 
in the conference catalogue and screened on re- 
quest for the media art center programmers in at- 
tendance. Makers are limited to jio more than 
three films/tapes, and/or no more than two hours 
(total) of material. 16mm and V* " will be ac- 
cepted. Due by April 10. Contact: Robert Haller, 
NAMAC Market, 80 Wooster St., New York NY 
10012, (212) 226-0010. 

APRIL 1982 



• NEVADA CITY FILM FESTIVAL, May, in- 
vites entries in all genres by amateurs working in 
8, Super-8 and I6mm. Festival sponsored by the 
Sierra Film Society, offers cash prizes. Entries 
due May 10. Entry fee: $5. Contact: Nevada City 
Film Festival, PO Box 1387, Nevada City, CA 
95959. 

• 7th ANNUAL NEW ENGLAND FILM 
FESTIVAL will take place at the Boston 
Film/Video Foundation on June 4-5 and at the 
Pleasant Street Theater in Northampton, Massa- 
chusetts on June 9- 14. The purpose of the Festival 
is to provide a forum for filmmakers to gain ex- 
posure and exchange ideas. The organizers will at- 
tempt to increase its audience this year by en- 
couraging production, distribution and program- 
ming professionals to attend and meet winning 
filmmakers. Students and independents working 
in Super-8 and 16mm compete for cash prizes in 
four categories: narrative, documentary, anima- 
tion and experimental. Work must have been 
completed within the last three years. Deadline 
for entries is May 10. Contact: NEFF, Arts Ex- 
tension Service, Division of Continuing Educa- 
tion, University of Massachusetts, Amherst MA 
01003, (413) 545-2360. 

• PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY OF 
AMERICA- MPD- AMERICAN INTERNA- 
TIONAL FILM FESTIVAL, October, is accept- 
ing work in 8, Super-8 and 16mm for a competi- 
tive viewing at the three-day PSA convention. 
Awards of $1000 will be given to "young film- 
makers", and the PSA may wish to copy winning 
films for non-profit showings to amateur groups. 
Fees range from $5 to $7. Past judges have in- 
cluded George Pearson, Roland Cecchettini and 
Edvard Kentera. Speakers at the multi-media con- 
vention have included such film professionals as 
Laura White and Helen Welsh. Entries are due in 
May. Contact: James Meeker, 1329 Hilltop 
Drive, Milan IL 61264, (309) 787-1291. 

• PLANNED PARENTHOOD FEDERATION 
of America Film Festival is held at their national 
Annual Meeting in November. They seek films 
dealing with "reproductive health, sexual 
behavior and attitudes, family life and sexuality 
education, population education and related 
topics." Competition is for inclusion in the 
Festival only; no prizes are awarded. However, 
more than 1000 educators and health profes- 
sionals from all over the US attend the Annual 
Meeting, so many sales and rentals of screened 
films are arranged here. Entries must have been 
made since 1980; no entry fee. Prescreening is 
ongoing from now until mid-September. For 
more info contact: Nancy Casas, Education Divi- 




MAIN TITLES • END CREDITS • ROLL UPS 

SPECIAL EFFECTS • ANIMATION • MOTION GRAPHICS 

SLIDES TO FILM • IMAGE EXPANDER • ROTOSCOPING 

COMPUTERIZED OXBERRY STAND PHOTOGRAPHY 

ART • TYPE • KODALITHS • STATS • DROP OUTS 

LINE CONVERSIONS • COLOR KEYS • POSTERIZATIONS 



DARINO FILMS • 222 PARK AVE. SOUTH 
NEW YORK, NY. 10003 • (212) 228-4024 



sion, PPFA, 810 Seventh Ave., New York NY 
10019, (212) 541-7800 ext. 388. 

• SECOND NATIONAL LATINO FILM 
AND VIDEO FESTIVAL, May 7-9, invites en- 
tries in all genres from Latinos/as living and 
working in the US and Puerto Rico. The event 
takes place at El Museo del Barrio in New York 
City and last year featured a retrospective of the 
works of Jose Garcia of La Cinematica de Puerto 
Rico. Awards will be given in the form of acquisi- 
tion of material or donation of equipment, de- 
pending upon the availability of funds. Works 
may be in Spanish or English, with preference 
given to subtitled works. Entries in 16mm, 
Super-8 and V* " are due by March 3 1 . Readers 
of The Independent will be granted an extension 
but you should call immediately. Contact: John 
Narvaez, El Museo del Barrio, 1230 Fifth Ave., 
New York NY 10029, (212) 831-7272. 

• 12th MARIN COUNTY NATIONAL FILM 
COMPETITION, July, is held in San Rafael, 
California, during the 5-day Marin County Fair. 
All US independent filmmakers working in 16mm 
are welcome to enter works under 30 minutes. 
Awards totaling $3000 are given for best works in 
categories of Independent, Animated and Stu- 
dent. Critics serve as judges this year, including 
Sheila Benson of the Los Angeles Times and 
Peter Stack of the San Francisco Chronicle. 
Because the Competition takes place at the Coun- 
ty Fair, the organizers may choose to eliminate 
films considered offensive or unsuitable for 
children. Says one of the organizers, "The Fair 
does not wish, however, to discourage experimen- 
tal or avant-garde works of artistic merit." En- 
tries should be in by May 31, and should include 
a $10 fee. Contact: Marin County Fairgrounds, 
San Rafael CA 94903, (415) 499-6400. 

• WAVE (Wes Francis Audio-Visual Ex- 
cellence) NATIONAL CONTEST FOR AUDIO- 
VISUAL RESOURCES (sic), Summer, is a com- 
petitive showing of 16mm films and } A " tapes 
about recreation, parks, conservation and leisure. 
Each year the awards are presented at the three- 
day annual Congress, held in varying sites 
throughout the US. Named after Mrs. George T. 
(Wes) Francis, a National Recreation and Park 
Association Trustee from Philadelphia, the Con- 
test attracts over 7,000 viewers. Entries should be 
no more than 25 minutes long, whether on film or 
video. Submitters must be able to release their 
work to the University of Missouri, Columbia 
Media Center, for rental on a non-profit basis to 
park and recreation professionals. Entries are due 
by May 31. Contact: Martha Winsor, 1601 North 
Kent St., Ste. 1100, Arlington VA 22209, (703) 
820-4940. 

• WORKS BY WOMEN, Fall, is sponsored by 
Barnard College of Columbia University in New 
York City. The purpose of the festival is to show 
what women are doing on film and tape, and 
works in any genre are invited as long as they are 
on 16mm, Vi " U-matic, VHS, or Vi " open reel. 
Their audience of students and other academics, 
distributors and press people has grown steadily 
over the five years of the festival's existence. 
There are no prizes but they do pay rental fees to 
selected films/tapes. No entry fee. Festival pays 
return postage. Enter by May 1. Contact: Gareth 
Hughes, Wollman Library, Barnard College, Co- 
lumbia University, 606 West 120 St., New York 
NY 10027. ■ 

19 



THE INDEPENDENT 



NOTICES 



NOTICES are listed free of charge. AIVF members receive first priority; 
others included as space permits. Send notices to The Independent c/o 
FIVF, 625 Broadway, 9th Floor, New York NY 10012. For further info, call 
(212) 473-3400. Deadline: 15th of second preceding month (e.g. March 15 
for May). Edited by Odessa Flores. 



BUY*RENT»SELL 

• FOR RENT: 6-plate 16/35mm Steenbeck. 
For more info contact: Ernest Hood, (212) 

533-7157. 

• FOR SALE: Paillard Bolex H-16 (16mm) 
movie camera, Elgeet 13mm F1.5 wide-angle lens, 
Cine Kodak f4.5 150mm telephoto lens, Yvar f2.8 
75mm telephoto lens, Switar fl.4 25mm lens (nor- 
mal), Bolex pistol grip, Som-Berthiot paris pan 
cinor lens, filter adaptor for same, cable release, 
Bolex cine fader plus case, Riso binoculars. For 
prices & more info contact: Ms. Wolf, (212) 
573-3118 or 3226. 

• FOR RENT: BVU 100, Sony 1640 w/ 
experienced cameraperson, $175/day. For info 
call (212) 982-2627. 

• FOR SALE: Arri 16BL, custom converted 
for hand-held use. Equally suited for tripod. 
Recent factory overhaul & new lacquer, mint con- 
dition. Package includes 12 x 120 Ang, 2 mags, 
Xtal unit, power belt, 24 t 25 FPS gears, camera 
case. Price $7500. For info, contact: Blackwood 
Productions, (212) 247-4710'. 

• FOR RENT: 16SR camera w/Angenieux 
10-150 zoom & complete accessories; tripods; 
light kits. Substantial discount below commercial 
rates. For info contact: Coleen Higgins or 
Ghasem Ebrahimian, (212) 787-5715. 

• FOR SALE: Sony 8400 portable deck w/ 
color boards, AC adaptor, cables, mint condi- 
tion, $600; Sony 3400 camera, good condition, 
$200. Both, $700. Also Sony SEG II w/genlock, 
matte & auto-phase adjust capability, synch 
generator w/2CMAs for portable cameras, 
cables, $500. All above $1100. For info call, (212) 
925-6059. 

• OFFICE SPACE available for rent in build- 
ing with other film/videomakers (Adair Films, 
Cinelight). Parking great, sunny, quiet, share kit- 
chen and shower; 225 square feet. $150/month. 
Location: 2051 Third St., San Francisco. For 
more info contact: Gayle or Peter, (415) 
621-6500. 

• FOR SALE: IKEGAMI ITC 350 camera 
w/AC adaptor, 2 on-board batteries & charger, 
25 ft. VTR cable, Saticon tubes, Fujinon 11-110 
power zoom lens. Sony VO 4800 deck w/porta- 
brace carrying pack, 2 batteries, AC supply. JVC 
TM 41 AU 5 " color monitor w/battery & charger. 
Beyer DT 48 stereo headphones. Entire package: 
$10,000. For info contact: Ralph Rugoff, 134 
Benefit St., Providence RI 02909, (401) 274-2493. 

• WANTED: Sony or Uher 5" reel portable 
recorder. For info contact: Dan Klugherz, (212) 
595-0058. 

20 



• $350 VIDEO CREDIT with EUE/Screen 
Gems available at 15% reduction. Credit good for 
all video goods & services offered by EUE. For 
info contact: Steven Jones, (212) 928-2407. 

• FOR SALE: Mitchell 1200' magazine, $400; 
Anvil case for 2 1200' Mitchell mags, $125; Frezzi 
F-30 EXF 30vdc fast-charger power belt & Frezzi 
BC-30 fast-charger, $600; Frezzi double-shoulder 
body brace for 16mm cameras, $100; Sony pro- 
fessional mixer Mx-670 w/6 microphone inputs, 2 
channel output, $300. For more info contact: 
(716) 885-9777. 

• FOR SALE: COMPLETE 16MM editing 
bench, nearly new, w/M-50 viewer, rewinds, 
amplifier, 5-gang synchronizer w/mag reader; 
Rivas razor-edge frameline splicer. Entire outfit: 
$1000 or best offer. Contact: Carol Ritter, (212) 
499-4661 . 



CONFERENCES • SEMINARS 

• UCLA EXTENSION Spring calendar offers 
courses in video/cable TV industry. Apr. 27-May 
18, Labor Relations Perspective of the Motion 
Picture & TV Industry, $150; May 7-8, Producing 
Educational Media for the '80s, $75; June 12, a 
day-long program, The Video Revolution: Oppor- 
tunities & Prospects for Pay TV, Videocassettes, 
Videodisc, $125. For details contact: UCLA Ex- 
tension, (213) 825-7031. 

• AFI Spring workshops: April 17, Film 
Graphics: Titles, Special Effects & Commercial 
Animation, $50 (members), $65 (non-members); 
Apr. 24, Financing the Independent Film, $90 
(members), $105 (non-members). For info con- 
tact: AFI, John F. Kennedy Center for the Per- 
forming Arts, Washington DC 20566. 

• TEATOWN VIDEO offering a hands-on 
course, Introductory Video Editing, w/JVC V* " 
system. Fee: $750 (includes tapestock, syllabus & 
personalized attention). For info contact: Tricia 
Burke, (212) 245-2821. 

• INTERNATIONAL VIDEO MARKETS 
conference scheduled for June 2-3 in New York 
City. Focus on distribution worldwide to cable, 
pay TV, videodisc markets. Sponsored by 
Knowledge Industry Publications, known for 
Video Expo every fall in NYC. For info contact: 
Peter Caranicas, (914) 328-9157. 



EDITING 

• VIDEO/FILM Pos'tproduction services 
available for 3 A " Betamax or 16mm & Super-8. 
Also 24-hr. access to 16mm film editing suites. 
For details contact: Young Filmakers, (212) 
673-9361. 



• FOR RENT: 8-plate KEM Universal by the 
month $600, 3 16mm picture heads, 2 16mm 
sound heads. For more info contact: Pat Russell, 
(212) 581-6470, leave message. 

• VIDEO editing facility for V* " Panasonic 
NV9600. Also complete film editing room w/ 
16mm 6-plate Steenbeck & sound transfers 
available. For more info contact: Nugent, (212) 
486-9020. 

• EDITING SERVICE A VAILABLE, quick & 
efficient synching of 16mm dailies & track. 
Equipment provided. For info contact: Terry, 
(212) 658-5270. 

• FOR RENT: Complete 16mm editing room 
w/Moviola flatbed on Upper West Side. Avail- 
able 9 am-6 pm Mon-Fri only. For info contact: 
Susan, (212) 724-0847, leave message. 

• EDITING & POSTPRODUCTION facilities 
available, fully-equipped rooms. Two 6-plate 
Steenbecks, 1-16/35 KEM, sound transfers from 
Vi " to 16mm & 35mm mags, narration record- 
ings, extensive sound effects library, interlock 
screening room. Contact: Cinetudes, 295 West 4 
St., NY NY 10014, (212) 966-4600. 

• FOR RENT: Fully equipped 16mm editing 
room w/6-plate Moviola table; also office space. 
Both in midtown Film Center building. Editing 
room alone $600/month; office alone $500/ 
month. Both $1000/month. For info contact: 
Steve or Joe, (212) 855-4042 or 875-9722. 



FILMS & TAPES WANTED 

• MAIL ART/FILM WORK seeks any pro- 
jectable Super-8 or 16mm films (frame, outtake, 
clip, fragment or complete work). Individual 
piece will be spliced in order received. Scheduled 
to premiere Sept. '82 as closing program of series 
of Dada & Surrealist films. No films returned, 
but catalogue will be sent to participants. Dead- 
line June 1. Mail film to: Pasadena Filmforum, 
PO Box 5631, Pasadena CA 91107. 

• WINNERS, produced by WTBS of Atlanta, 
seeking 5 or 10 min. broadcast quality tapes for 
30 min. weekly program. Send format, length & 
synopsis to: Winners, WTBS, 1050 Techwood 
Drive NW, Atlanta GA 30318. 

• THIRD EYE FILMS seeks children's enter- 
tainment shorts & energy/conservation documen- 
taries for distribution to non-broadcast & TV 
markets. Contact: Jamil Simon, Third Eye Films, 
12 Arrow St., Cambridge MA 02138, (617) 
491-4300. 



• SPECIALIST IN LATE-NIGHT/VERY 
EARLY MORNING TV seeking independent 
films & videotapes for network & cable program- 
ming. Send descriptions of films/tapes to: Laird 
Brooks Schmidt, Television Ideas, 2710 West 110 
St., Blomington MN 55431, (612) 884-7262. 

• FOOTAGE WANTED: Independent pro- 
ducer seeks 16mm color footage of flea markets 
considered for use in documentary. Contact: 
Richard Chisolm, 2802 Maryland Ave., Baltimore 
MD 21218, (301) 467-2997. 

APRIL 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



• BARNARD COLLEGE LIBRARY looking 
for interesting films/tapes for annual fall 
film/video festival, Works By Women. Women 
interested in having work screened contact: 
Gareth Hughes, (212) 280-2418. 

• AVANT-GARDE THEATRE ON FILM 
seeking Super-8, 16/35mm & sometimes video- 
tapes for future programs. Contact: Milos 
Stehlik, Facets Multimedia Inc., 1517 West 
Fullerton Ave., Chicago IL 60614, (312) 
281-9075. 

• NEW FILMMAKERS SHOWCASE at Col- 
lective for Living Cinema seeking independent 
films for screening. Super-8 & 16mm welcome. 
Screenings: 3rd Wed. of every month. For info 
contact: Andrea Sacker, (212) 989-5045 or Adam 
Zucker, (212) 966-0624. 

• RADICAL HUMOR: Conference needs rele- 
vant films & tapes that burst our bureaucracies' 
bubbles — from intensely personal to explicitly 
political, we want acerbic wit and biting commen- 
tary. April 22-27 at New York University's Loeb 
Student Center. Write for more info: Cultural 
Correspondence, 505 West End Avenue #15-C, 
New York NY 10024; or call Jim, (212) 787-1784. 



FUNDS • RESOURCES 

• CPB Office of Training & Development Ser- 
vices awarded 41 Minorities' & Women's Training 
Grants to 25 public radio stations & 16 public TV 
stations. The grants are designed to upgrade & 
improve skills of minorities & women through on- 
the-job training for 1 year. Application deadlines: 
Apr. 15 & Oct. 15. For info contact: Tom Otwell, 
CPB, 1111 16 St., NW, Washington DC 20036, 
(202) 293-6160. 

• CORPORATION FOR PUBLIC BROAD- 
CASTING announced the termination of their 
Minority & Women's Telecommunications Feasi- 
bility Grant Program. Financial cutbacks and 
budget constraints are cited as reasons. 

• NEED A LOAN? Art Loan Fund may be 
able to help your organization with cash flow 
problems. Short-term loans (less than 12 months) 
of no more than $10,000 available to any non- 
profit organizations in Alameda, Contra Costa, 
San Francisco, Marin & San Mateo counties. 
Terms either no or low interest. For info contact: 
Steve Liberman, (415) 981-6596. 

• NEA grant application deadline: for Dance 
Video, May 1; Arts Centers, May 3; Video Exhi- 
bition, June 1; Video Production, Sept. 15. For 
more info contact: NEA Media Arts, (202) 
634-6300. 

• CCH GRANT deadlines for funding pro- 
gram for media projects to increase public 
understanding & appreciation of the humanities 
has been established by California Council for the 
Humanities & the California Public Broadcasting 
Commission. Deadlines: Sept. 30. Applicants 
should discuss project ideas w/CCH staff first. 
Proposals for Humanities & Community Pro- 
grams by Apr. 30 & July 31. For info contact: 
CCH, 312 Sutter St., San Francisco CA 94108; or 
CPBC, (916) 322-3727. 

• FEATURE FILM ATTORNEY willing to 
APRIL 1982 



provide legal representation for participation in 
low-budget feature film w/commercial potential. 
Also available: editing facilities, distribution & 
limited capital. For info contact: Carl Person, 
New York Institute, 132 Nassau St., NY NY 
10038, (212) 349-4617. 

• PROFESSIONAL CONFERENCES can be 
good marketing opportunities for special interest 
films and tapes. Harve C. Horowitz & Associates, 
Exhibits and Marketing Consultants, 10369 
Currycomb Court, Columbia MD 21044, (301) 
997-0763, represents the conferences listed below. 
Can arrange literature displays for single or 
cooperative exhibitors, display booths, conference 
catalog advertising, screening facilities. Call or 
write for more info. Upcoming conferences in- 
clude: International Society of Political 
Psychology, 6/12. Society for the Study of Social 
Problems, 8/26. Society for the Study of Alter- 
native Lifestyles, 8/26. American Assocition for 
Marriage & Family Therapy, 10/21. National 
Council on Family Relations, 10/5. Society for 
the Scientific Study of Religion, 10/14. American 
Society of Criminology, 10/28. Society for the 
Scientific Study of Sex, 10/21. Minnesota Council 
on Family Relations, 11/15. 

• THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT for the 
Humanities' (NEH) Media Program announces a 
special extra deadline on April 23, 1982 for pro- 
duction proposals only. In addition, the previous- 
ly announced deadlines of June 1, 1982 and 
December 6, 1982 for all types of requests (plan- 
ning, scripting, production) remain in effect. For 
more information: (202) 724-0318. 



ATTORNEY 

FOR FEATURE FILM 
PRODUCERS 

WILLING TO PROVIDE LEGAL 

REPRESENTATION IN 

EXCHANGE FOR PROFIT 

PARTICIPATION IN LOW 

BUDGET FEATURE FILMS 

HAVING COMMERCIAL 

POTENTIAL 

EDITING FACILITIES, 
DISTRIBUTION & LIMITED 
CAPITAL ALSO AVAILABLE. 

CARL E. PERSON 

NEW YORK FILM INSTITUTE 
132 NASSAU STREET 
NEW YORK NY 10038 

(212) 349-4617 



HANDS-ON VIDEO WEEKEND 

VJO RKSHOPS 



Mai. 19-21 

Mai. 26-27 
i4pril 2-4 
Api. 16-18 
Api. 23-25 



ABSTRACT VIDEO 

SHALOM GOREWITZ 

ROCK VIDEO 

PAT IVERS 

DOCUMENTARY 

GEOFF O'CONNOR 

SPORTS VIDEO 

ESTI MARPET 

DANCE VIDEO 

JOHANNES HOLUB & 
SUNDANCE CO. 



Call for information: 
757-4220 




ocus 



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21 



THE INDEPENDENT 



IN & OUT OF PRODUCTION 

• THE BEAT GENERATION -NOW & 
THEN, a film directed/produced by Janet 
Forman with Director of Photography Thomas 
Houghton, awarded $40,000 from NYSCA. The 
grant goes through Renaissance Motion Pictures, 
a non-profit organization. 

• SOLDIERS OF FORTUNE, a film directed/ 
produced by Stephen Dreher & Kevin Cloutier, 
now in postproduction. The documentary pre- 
sents portraits of American mercenaries attending 
Soldier of Fortune convention in Arizona. A seg- 
ment has been completed for Mixer, Italian TV 
(RAI) news magazine program. For info contact: 
Basic Issue Films, 71 East 3 St., NY NY 10003, 
(212) 228-9270 or 673-4543. 

• A WARD- WINNING PRODUCERS Barbara 
Kopple, John Reilly, Hart Perry & Julie Gustaf- 
son announced production of video documentary, 
The American Writer in Crisis. The film explores 
the economic, political & aesthetic concerns of 
American writers. Film scheduled for completion 
May '82 & is a project of the Nation Institute. For 
distribution & more info contact: Laurie Lipper 
or Jon Glascoe, (212) 242-8400. 

• PRODUCER /DIRECTOR Joel Foreman, 
professor at George Mason Univ., to produce 
documentary on Virginia novelist William Styron. 
The 30-min. documentary, scheduled for comple- 
tion Fall '82, concentrates on Styron's last novels, 
The Confessions of Nat Turner & Sophie's 
Choice. Foreman is the producer of 2 NBC 
educational series & 2 documentaries, Women's 
Work & Refugee. For info contact: Joan Ziemba, 
(703) 323-2134. 

• KPTS, Kansas' PBS affiliate, is now produc- 
ing independently of PBS. In progress: F r om the 
Beginning, doc on American Ballet Theatre sta r 
Rebecca Wright directing a piece for Wichita 
Metro Ballet. 



OPPORTUNITIES • GIGS 

• CINEMATOGRAPHER w/16mm equip- 
ment available. Fiction & documentary. 
Negotiable package deal. For info contact: Al 
Santana, (212) 636-9747. 

• YF/VA TV STUDIO seeks talented & ex- 
perienced freelance crew people (camera, lights, 
audio, switcher, floor mgr) to work on non- 
profit/non-commercial productions in studio & 
remotes w/broadcast quality equipment. Non- 
steady work but good $. Send resume to: Roy 
Misonznick, Studio Manager, YF/VA, 4 Riving- 
ton St., NY NY 10002. NO PHONE CALLS 
PLEASE. 

• EXPERIENCED, dependable agent to repre- 
sent creative consultant/producer for film/video 
programming in the arts wanted. Commission 
basis. Contact: Marian Oken, (516) 938-9567. 

• PRODUCER /DIRECTOR seeks individual 
to help produce & raise financing for quality low- 
budget feature slated to lens this summer in NYC. 
Contact: Frank Nugent, PO Box 412, Radio City 
Station, NY NY 10019, (212) 884-2966. 

• CREATIVE ARTIST-FILMMAKER, title 
22 



designer, animator, strong communications skills 
seeks challenging work. Contact: Multi-Arts 
Workshops, 3 Wood Lane, Plainview NY 11803, 
(516) 938-9567. 

• EXPERIENCED CINEMATOGRAPHER 
available immediately. Fiction & documentary. 
Reel available. Access to 16mm equipment. Con- 
tact: Igor Sunara, (212) 249-0416. 

• EXPERIENCED DIRECTOR, writer, editor 
seeks work in film or otherwise. Contact: James 
Khlevner, 143 Mercer St., Jersey City NJ 07303, 
(201) 451-1319. 

• COMPOSER AVAILABLE, experienced in 
film & video. Specializing in electronic music & 
synthesized sound design. Contact: Robert Fair, 
(212) 966-2852. 

• EDITING/PRODUCTION ASSISTANT 
available to work w/film/video artist or organiza- 
tion any time. Contact: Dorsey Davis, (212) 
431-8045. 

• YOUNG FILMAKERS has chief video 
engineer position available. Requirements: 2 yrs. 
in similar position; completion of technical train- 
ing program in Video Maintenance or equivalent 
experience, familiarity with electronic test/ 
monitoring equipment & 16mm/Super-8 film 
technology. Duties include: repair & maintenance 
of film, audio & TV equipment, supervising tech- 
nical interns & technicians, inventory, instituting 
regular preventive maintenance plan for organiza- 
tion. Salary negotiable. Good benefits. Contact: 
David Sasser, (212) 673-9361. 

• IMAGE FILM /VIDEO CENTER has Work- 
shop Coordinator position open. Responsibilities: 
Setting up workshops & production equipment. 
Requirements: 1 year commitment. For info con- 
tact: IMAGE, 972 Peachtree St., Atlanta GA 
30309, (404) 874-4756. 

• MARYMOUNT MANHATTAN COLLEGE 
library seeks applicants w/thorough knowledge of 
video equipment, maintenance, production to run 
Media Center. Duties: carry out daily operations, 
conduct AV workshops, produce instructional 
materials, assist students & faculty & equipment 
circulation. Requires: ability to work w/non- 
technical people & experience w/AV software 
reference/rental & microcomputers. Send resume 
to: Lynn Mullins, Marymount Manhattan Col- 
lege, 221 East 71 St., NY NY 10021. 

• CAMERAMAN w/equipment available. 
Ikegami HL-77, Sony deck, 2 full rigs, editing. 
For more info contact: Paul Allman, (212) 
477-6530. 

• NEH PROPOSAL WRITER experienced in 
all phases of proposal preparation for documen- 
tary films. Research, editing, writing & advisor 
correspondence. References. For more info con- 
tact: Regina Sackmary, (212) 474-6729. 

• DEVELOPMENT DIRECTOR needed to 
develop & execute long-term fundraising plan for 
individual corporate & gov't giving. Require- 
ments: major in Arts Administration or related 
field, MBA or MFA or 1 year experience in Arts 
Management. Knowledge of non-profit budgeting 
& skills in interpersonal relations, analytical & 
organizational ability preferred. Salary: 



$15,000-18,000 plus benefits. Send resume, 
references & personal statement to: Faith Raiguel, 
PCPA Theaterfest, PO Box 1700, Santa Maria 
CA 93456, (805) 922-6966, Ext. 325. 

• INDEPENDENT PRODUCER seeks spon- 
sors for exciting film/video project in visual arts 
area. Contact: Ms. Oken, (516) 938-9567. 

• COMMUNITY ART CENTER DIRECTOR 
sought to expand program & membership. Un- 
limited opportunities & challenge for development 
& use of creative talents. Administrative skills 
desired. Mail resume to: Wassenberg Art Center 
Association, 643 South Washington St., Van 
Wert OH 45891, Att: Search & Review Commit- 
tee. 

• WANTED: Experienced arts grant writer to 
assist in proposal writing. For info contact: Ms. 
Oken, (516) 938-9567. 

• BLACK VETERANS FOR SOCIAL 
JUSTICE need volunteer filmmakers to edit & do 
some sound work on 2 anti-draft 16mm films. 
For more info contact: Ron Punnett, BVSJ, 1119 
Fulton St., Brooklyn NY 11238, (212) 789-4680. 



PUBLICATIONS 

• FILM FUND FUNDRAISING KIT now 
available. Designed for film/video & slide show 
producers, kit includes foundation, corporate, 
gov't & individual donor fundraising information. 
For beginners it includes extensive & comprehen- 
sive bibliography. Send $3 check to: Janice 
Sakamoto, The Film Fund, 80 East 11 St., NY 
NY 10003. 

• CPB'S Independent Video & Filmmakers Direc- 
tory now available. Request your copy from: 
CPB, Broadcast, 1111 16 St., NW, Washington 
DC 20036. 

• VOLUNTEER LAWYERS for the Arts an- 
nounces 3rd edition of Fear of Filing: A 
Beginner's Handbook on Record Keeping & 
Federal Taxes, for performers, visual artists & 
writers. The handbook provides instructions on 
income, deductions & tax credit for artists, in- 
cluding those self-employed. Fee: $8, plus $1 for 
postage & handling (first copy; 50<t postage each 
additional copy). Send check to: VLA, 1560 
Broadway, Suite 711, NY NY 10036, (212) 
575-1150. 



SCREENINGS 

• MUSEUM OF ART presents films of Oskar 
Fischinger, Apr. 15. Discussion led by scholars 
William Moritz & Elfriede Fischinger, the film- 
maker's widow. Program includes Fischinger's 
abstract works from 1920s & '30s, & his classic 
Composition in Blue. Admission: $2.50 at 8 pm. 
For info contact: MOA, 4400 Forbes Ave., Pitts- 
burgh PA 15213. 

• CORNELL CINEMA scheduled to screen Blow 
Up, Apr. 14; Zabriskie Point, Apr. 21; The 
Passenger, Apr. 28; The Mystery of Oberwald, 
May 5 as part of retrospective of films by Italian 
director Michelangelo Antonioni. Admission: $2. 
For details contact: Cornell Cinema, (607) 
256-3522. 

APRIL 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



HEALTH INSURANCE 

FOR AIVF MEMBERS 

• 

AIVF now offers its members an excellent 

Group Life & Medical Insurance Plan. 

Highlights include: 

• $1,000,000 Major Medical Plan, which 
pays 85% of all eligible expenses not 

covered by the Basic Plan 

• $10,000 Group Life and $10,000 Group 
Accidental Death or Dismemberment 

Insurance 

• Partial psychiatric coverage 

• Reimbursement for illness, injury & 

hospital expenses 

• 

If you are a member, write: 

AIVF Health Plan, TEIGIT, 551 Fifth Ave., 

New York, NY 10017. If you're not, call 

AIVF at 473-3400 and ask for free 
membership & health plan brochures. 



• COMMUNICATIONS UPDATE, a weekly 
cable program, shown on Public Access Channel 
D: Wed. at 7:30 pm & Fri. at 3 pm. Spring series 
from March-May includes documentary & dra- 
matic programs on media topics of current in- 
terest. Schedule: Apr. 7-9, Dancing on Dead 
Rock, produced by Sharon Grace; Apr. 14-16, 
New Thoughts on Thinking by Matthew Geller; 
Apr. 21-23, Crime Tales by Robert Burden, 
Dictelio Cepeda, Frank Resto, music by E. J. 



Rodriguez; Apr. 28-30, Swan Song by Mary 
Heilmann, & Lighter Than Air by Mark Magill. 
For info contact: Liza Bear, (212) 431-7191. 

TRIMS & GLITCHES 

• CAROL BRANDENBURG, co-director of 
WNET/Thirteen TV Lab, has been named execu- 
tive producer of the National Independent An- 
thology series. Matters of Life & Death, scheduled 
to premiere in Spring, provides independent pro- 
ducers opportunity to explore issues of American 
society through documentary, drama & anima- 
tion. For info contact: Liz Emmett, (212) 
560-3017. 

• SUSAN EENIGENBURG, former Executive 
Director of Independent Cinema Artists & Pro- 
ducers (ICAP), named Project Director at Coe 
Film Showcase. Ms. Eenigenburg's new job in- 
cludes enlarging Overseas Division & developing 
specialized marketing campaigns for domestic 
distribution at Coe. Congratulations from AIVF. 

• INDEPENDENTS invited to Media Showcase, 
a cable talk show focusing on the arts. This inter- 
view show offers artists opportunity to discuss & 
present works. Send inquiries to: Media Show- 
case, 250 Mercer St., Suite 1003B, NY NY 10012. 

• 7000 WATT Lowell DP Light created by 
Lowell Light Manufacturing, Inc. available now. 
The DP light is to replace the Lowell Quartz D. 3 
7/8 lbs., interchangeable reflectors, wide range of 
light control. Portable kits, $975; suggested price 



ATTENTION 
PRODUCTION FACILITIES 

We are updating our Directory of Film/ 

Video Editing Facilities & Screening 

Rooms. Our 1200 members use this 

directory daily. Those interested in getting 

listed should send detailed information to: 

Odessa Flores, AIVF, 625 Broadway, 

New York NY 10012, or call (212) 

473-3400. 



for the light, $138. Those who owned Quartz D 
can purchase package for $950. For brochure 
contact: Lowell Light Manufacturing Inc., 475 10 
Ave., NY NY 10018, (212) 947-0950. 

• SORRY, DAVE: The byline for the January 
In Focus column on the 123 rd SMPTE Technical 
Conference was inadvertently omitted. David 
Leitner authored the article. The Independent 
apologizes. 

• APOLOGIES: In the February Independent, 
the photos on pages 10 & 1 1 from the Austin Com- 
munity Movie Company's production Psycho- 
drama were incorrectly credited to Peter Markle. 
The editors apologize for any confusion that may 
have resulted. 

• THE INDEPENDENT REGRETS . . . Jamie 
Walker holding the camera on the March cover of 
The Independent was incorrectly identified as 
Julio Worcman. Sorry to both. 



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LAURIE ANDERSON, PANELIST IN HYBRIDS 

HYBRIDS: INTERDISCIPLINARY ARTISTS WORK WITH VIDEO 

FIVF at The Kitchen, 484 Broome Street. New York • 7:30 
$2.50/AIVF & Kitchen Members, $4/ Non-members 

Panel Discussion & Screening featuring Laurie Anderson (media artist). Lee Breuer (Mabou Mines), 
Kenneth King (dancer). Roy Trakin (MTV) and Tony Whitfield (critic). Moderated by Arlene Zeichner 
(curator & critic). Following screening of their tapes, panel will critically discuss how they cross disciplines 
to video: what they take with them and what they leave behind. 

AN EVENING WITH THE SUNDANCE INSTITUTE 

FIVF, 625 Broadway, 9th floor (between Bleecker & Houston) New York • 7:30 
$2/Members, $5/Non-members 

Panel Discussion featuring Sterling VanWagenen, Executive Director of Sundance. Pablo Figueroa. 
Sundance Fellow & others. Moderated by Jane Morrison, AIVF Director of the Board. Robert Redford's 
Sundance Institute has two distinct phases for 1982. the Script Development Program (Winter) and the 
Pre-Production Planning & Development Program (Summer), where selected filmmakers work with 
directors, screenwriters, actors and technicians to develop their creative skills. An opportunity for the 
independent community to find out how the program worked last summer, and what the Institute's goals 
are for the future. 

COPYRIGHTS & WRONGS: FROM ACQUISITION THRU FAIR USE 

FIVF. 625 BROADWAY. 9th floor. New York • 7:30 
$6/AIVF Members. $10/Non-members 

Workshop featuring Barbara Zimmerman (copyright agent & consultant) and Leonard Easter (copyright 
lawyer, Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts). What every producer should know about obtaining the rights to 
music, archival footage and literary properties. How to find the material, the conditions under which you 
can use it, and the ins and outs of fair use. 



FOUNDATION FOR 
INDEPENDENT 
VIDEO AND 
FILM, INC. 
625 Broadway, 9th Floor, New York, N.Y. 10012 




NON-PROFIT ORG 
US POSTAGE 

PAID 
New York, N.Y. 
Permit No. 7089 



If you have an idea for a program, or need more information, call 473-3400 
Drop by our office and use our reference materials & information resources 



THE 



FILM & VIDEO MONTHLY 



MAY 1982 



INDEPENDENT 






HOENIX-B 



Award winning American films 

Finest foreign productions 

All lengths, genres + subject areas 



Let us be your television representative 



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THE INDEPENDENT 



THE 



INDEPENDENT 

MA Y 1982 • VOLUME 5, NUMBER 3 



Publisher: Lawrence Sapadin 

Editor: Kathleen Hulser 
Assistant Editor: Fran Piatt 

Contributing Editors: Mitchell W. 

Block, Suyapa Odessa Flores, John 

Greyson, David W. Leitner, Wendy 

Lidell, Susan Linfield 

Contributors: Joseph B. Sparkman, 

Kenneth Stier, Marita Sturken, Joe 

Waz, Sian Evans, Marina Obsatz, 

Joseph Piazzo 

Designer: Deborah Thomas 

Art Director: John Greyson 

Advertising Director: Michelle Slater 

Staff Photographer: Sol Rubin 

Typesetting: Skeezo 



The Independent is published 10 times 
yearly by the Foundation for Independent 
Video and Film, Inc. (FIVF), 625 Broadway, 
9th Floor, New York NY 10012, a non- 
profit, tax-exempt service organization 
dedicated to the promotion of independent 
video and film. Publication of The Indepen- 
dent is made possible, in part, with public 
funds from the New York State Council on 
the Arts and the National Endowment for 
the Arts, a Federal agency. 

Subscription is included in the Association 
of Independent Video and Filmmakers, Inc. 
(AIVF), the trade association sister of FIVF. 
AIVF is a national association of indepen- 
dent producers, directors, technicians and 
supporters of independent video and film. 
Together, FIVF and AIVF provide a broad 
range of educational and professional ser- 
vices and advocacy for independents and the 
general public. 

Articles in The Independent are con- 
tributed by our members and supporters. If 
you have an idea for, or wish to contribute 
an article to, The Independent, contact the 
Editor at the above address. 

All contents are copyright of the authors 
and The Independent, except when otherwise 
noted, and reprints require written permis- 
sion from both. ISSN 0731-5198. 



AIVF/FIVF Staff Members: Lawrence Sapadin, 
Executive Director; Wendy Lidell, Assistant Direc- 
tor; John Greyson, Media Coordinator; Sol Hor- 
witz, Short Film Showcase Project Administrator; 
Susan Linfield, Short Film Showcase Administra- 
tive Assistant; Fran Piatt, Membership Developer; 
Suyapa Odessa Flores, Administrative Assistant. 

AIVF/FIVF Board of Directors: Jane Morrison, 
President; Marc Weiss, Vice President; Kathy 
Kline, Secretary; Matt Clarke, Treasurer (FIVF 
Board); Richard Schmiechen, Chair; Eric Breitbart, 
Pablo Figueroa, Jessie Maple, Kitty Morgan, Judy 
Irola, Manny Kirchheimer, Robert Richter, 
Lawrence Sapadin (Ex Officio). 



A PUBLICATION OF 

THE FOUNDATION FOR 
INDEPENDENT VIDEO&FILM 



CONTENTS 



Columns 

Goldwater Introduces Comprehensive Cable TV Bill 

Media Clips • John Greyson 

A Tale of Two Festivals: Edinburgh & Mill Valley 

Festivals • Wendy Lidell & Sian Evans 

Film-to Tape: The Transfer Process 

In Focus • David W. Leitner 

Unions & Indies Roundtable: Part 2 

Labor • Lawrence Sapadin 

"The Electronic Nightmare" Reviewed 

Books • Kenneth Stier 

More Festivals 

Wendy Lidell • Sian Evans & Marina Obsatz 

Notices 

Editor • Odessa Flores 

Features 

Film & Photo League Vet Still Creating 

A Profile of Leo Hurwitz • Marita Sturken 

An III Wind Blows on the Fairness Doctrine 

A Concept Defined & Defended • Joe Waz 

Tracking Down the Right Rights 

Music Copyright • Joseph B. Sparkman 



4 

6 

7 

9 

17 

21 

24 



11 
13 
15 



COVER PHOTO: Civil rights demonstration from Strange Victory, (1948) a film written, 
directed and edited by Leo Hurwitz 



CORRESPONDENCE 



END TO FLUFFINESS 

Dear Independent: 

It is with great pleasure and interest that I 
have read the article A Call for Democratic 
Communications, and the Willow Declara- 
tion which followed. (The Independent, Feb. 
'82) I find the article and the endorsed 
declaration a positive recognition of interna- 
tional information realities. However, it does 
not go far enough to reccommend positive 
action to effectuate the endorsed change. I 
sincerely hope that challenging step will be 
taken soon. It will only be through real ef- 
forts and not a lot of fluffy talk that present 
inequities in the world information order (or 
disorder) will change. 

It is a great pleasure and challenge for me 
to be presently contracted through Lutheran 
World Relief (360 Park Ave. South, New 



York NY), whose farsighted policies and 
strategies for development in the world's 
poorest nations has led them to send me to 
the Republic of Niger's Ministry of Informa- 
tion to help change existing inequities in in- 
formation production and distribution, 
which in turn will change the economic order 
for positive development. 

As an American fedup with the single- 
minded profiteering from our media services 
as their one and only raison-d'etre, I've 
cheered the MacBride Commission report 
from its inception and praise Lutheran World 
Continued on page 18 

The Independent welcomes letters to the 
editor. Send them to The Independent, 
FIVF, 625 Broadway, 9th Floor, New York 
NY 10012. Letters may be edited for length 
and clarity. 



MAY 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



MEDIA CLIPS 



Gold water Introduces 
Cable TV Bill 



JOHN GREYSON 

Last summer, Republican Senator and 
Chair of the Senate Subcommittee on Com- 
munications Barry Goldwater got very angry 
when the Commerce Committee attempted to 
attach several cable provisions to S. 898, the 
telecommunications bill. At that time he pro- 
mised his own, and on March 4 he delivered 
S. 2172, a comprehensive cable TV bill whose 
far-reaching implications have sent ripples of 
guarded reactions through the entire in- 
dustry. 

It is doubtful whether it will clear Congress 
this session since the House of Represen- 
tatives has introduced no comparable bill, 
notwithstanding indications by Represen- 
tative Timothy Wirth that he would consider 
adding cable provisions to his telecom- 
munications bill. S. 2172 will face hearings 
before the Senate Communications Subcom- 
mittee in April, and Goldwater has promised 
ample opportunity for public comment on its 
provisions. (Promises, promises). 

The controversial aspects of the bill in- 
clude a mandatory requirement for systems 
with twenty or more channels to provide 10% 
capacity for public, government and educa- 
tional access and 10% for leased access. In 
addition, cities or states would be permitted 
to continue regulatory basic cable rates, and 
the bill would allow for the municipal owner- 
ship of a system. Predictably, the industry 
has been less than ecstatic about these 
clauses. According to Tom Wheeler, Presi- 
dent of the National Cable Television 
Association: "Cable operators will be con- 
cerned about provisions for municipal 
ownership of systems and requirements for a 
mandatory channel leasing plan." Stephen 
Effros, executive director of the Community 
Antenna Association, echoed his cautious 
concern while allowing that the bill is at least 
a step forward. 

Reaction on both sides of the issue has 
been restrained, primarily because of the 
complexity of S. 2172. It seems that 
Goldwater was most concerned with creating 
a jurisdictional framework for the cable in- 
dustry. In essence, it gives that authority to 
the FCC. While it exempts cable from the 
equal time, reasonable access and Fairness 
Doctrine provisions of the Communications 
Act, it encourages the FCC to promote equal 
employment opportuntiy by cable operators. 
In addition, it attempts to protect the privacy 
of cable subscribers, establishes criminal 
penalties for piracy of programming, and sets 
ceilings on the franchise fees that com- 



munities may charge cable operators. 

A definitely mixed bag — still, we've come 
to expect worse from the Republicans. 

Panel to Monitor Boston's 
Cable Access Package 

In the absence of national guidelines a la 
Goldwater, city and state authorities con- 
tinue their regional role as watchdogs over 
local cable developments. Mayor Kevin 
White of Boston is one public official gaining 
a national reputation for his relatively pro- 
gressive demands on the local system 
operator, Cablevision. The system, which 
may become operational next year (and 
hopes to reach 200,000 homes), must return 
5% of its annual gross to Boston's public ac- 
cess cable TV corporation. Estimates place 
this figure at $4 million by the fifth year (!) 
Obviously, Bostonians are looking closely 
(and critically) at the access corporation's 
viability, and are currently taking steps to 
make sure it goes in the right directions. 

To this end, a fifty-member panel is being 
developed to oversee the access corporation 
board's policy decisions. White has ap- 
pointed Peggy Charren of Boston-based Ac- 
tion for Children's Television and Richard 
Taylor, a black real estate developer, to take 
part in the formation of this watchdog panel. 
Critics like Jack Bernsteen of Cable Access 
Coalition, however, have stated their 
dissatisfaction with this panel's role, using 
the local public TV station WGBH's advisory 
board as an example: "They're powerless as 
to the day-to-day operation. They can only 
look at what the Board of [WGBH's Board of 
Directors] wants them to look at." Others 
feel encouraged by the creation of this over- 
sight group, but feel independence from the 
mayor is the vital first step toward credibility. 
Obviously, the months ahead won't be easy, 
since their primary tasks will be to guarantee 
cable access to all segments of the city, and to 
provide the widest possible range of pro- 
gramming operations available. 

Independents Rally to 
Preserve Program Fund 

The Corporation for Public Broadcasting has 
bigger things on its mind than the independent 
producing community. Reagan's Office of 
Management & Budget (OMB) is using the same 
chainsaw surgery method on the CPB's ledger 



books that it pioneered on social services. The 
OMB's recommendation of $85 million for fiscal 
year 1985 constitutes a 40% reduction from the 
original amount; in addition, the OMB wants Con- 
gress to reduce the 1983 allocation to $116.5 
million. The original amount was $172 million. 
Celebrities like Pearl Bailey have testified before 
the House Telecommunications Subcommittee, 
staring: "There are hungry brains out there and the 
government has a responsibility." CPB President 
Edward Pfister told the Senate in February that 
the cuts coupled with rising inflation could "signal 
the beginning of the end of public broadcasting." 

When the CPB Board met last January 7 and 
considered a proposal which would restructure the 
Program Fund (see last issue) through a rerouting 
of Fund grants to outside 'entities', it was in- 
terpreted by some as a move, albeit an oblique 
one, to confront this crisis (the public TV "adver- 
tising experiment" of this year is a more obvious 
example). 

At the same meeting, WGBH in Boston was 
awarded $5 million from the Program Fund to 
develop and continue its World series — and this 
was touted as independent programming by CPB 
at that time. Many independents viewed the award 
as an illustration of the proposal. 

The independent community responded prompt- 
ly — and strongly. AIVF mounted a nationwide 
protest, resulting in a flood of hundreds of letters 
to the various Board members. In addition, phone 
calls and some personal visits to particular Board 
members were accomplished. Overwhelmed by the 
sheer range and urgency of the campaign, CPB 
management withdrew the proposal. Program 
Fund director Lewis Freedman acknowledged with 
some understatement at the March 4 Board 
meeting that "Since Option Three [the "other en- 
tities" proposal] has been put forward, the 
responses have not been entirely positive. The in- 
dependents have seen it as a total rejection of their 
independence, financial and editorial" He went on 
to recommend the continuation of the Program 
Fund as it now exists, stressing nevertheless the 
need to "explore further possibilities to solve the 
problems that have arisen and that simply will not 
go away." 

ArVFsenl a contingent of independents to that 
meeting to urge improvement of the Fund, stress- 
ing: /. that programs should be packaged as series 
after they are chosen, not before; and 2. that half 
of the national program monies of the Fund 
should be reserved for indies, as required by the 
1978 legislative mandate which established the 
Fund. Indies Dorothy Tod and Ralph Arlyck 
spoke from experience, having both recently pro- 
duced programs with CPB funds. Documentarist 
Frederick Wiseman affirmed the importance of 
direct funding of independent work: "Documen- 
tary filmmaking is more than just reporting. Per- 
sonal expression in documentary film is as impor- 
tant as it is in writing or painting." 

Speaking for AIVF, Executive Director 
Lawrence Sapadin successfully argued that the 
WGBH documentary series was not independent 
programming, a fact Lewis Freedman finally con- 
ceded after questioning from the Board. Freedman 
confirmed that CPB would continue funding Mat- 
ters of Life & Death, (see a list of Round II awards 

MAY 1982 



in Notices section) a series designed to bring lesser- 
known independents into the public system. Other 
proposals not fitting this framework would be ac- 
cepted within the 'unsolicited proposals' category. 
The meeting concluded with the Board voting to 
continue the current Fund structure, but with 
direct operational control transferred to CPB 
President Pfister's hands. This unexpected move 
reflected the concern voiced by several Board 
members that the Fund had not been sufficiently 
responsive to the Board's will. 

This lobbying effort succeeded because AIVF- 
producers likeyou sat down at a typewriter and 
licked a few stamps. Without those letters and 
phone calls, the Program Fund could well have 
become another fond memory gathering dust 
(remember CETA?) As producers, we 
demonstrated conclusively that our independence 
is one of the key factors that keeps public TV 
public. The CPB now understands clearly that gut- 
ting the Program Fund is the wrong way to con- 
front the OMB's butchery. "Our meeting with the 
Board was a productive one," Jane Morrison said, 
following the March 4 meeting'.' We look forward 
to sitting down with representatives of CPB and 
PBS to figure out how the public television system 
can not only survive but flourish during this dif- 
ficult period, benefiting from the fresh perspec- 
tives that independents can bring to a system'.' 

Final Rules Adopted 
For Low Power TV 

For those interested in filing a Low Power 
TV application, the FCC freeze on applica- 
tions instituted last April has only been 
abated by a few degrees on the telecom- 
munications thermostat. (While the freeze 
has not been lifted, the FCC is still accepting 
over 100 applications per month from parties 
exempt from the freeze — specifically those 
processing rural or mutually exclusive 
systems most likely to meet FCC approval.) 

However, for the some 6,500 applications 
now pending the FCC adoption of final rules 
for LPTV service on March 4 seemed to 
signal a long-awaited opening of the 
bureaucratic ice box, with warmer climes in 
sight. 

Larry Harris, FCC Bureau Broadcast 
chief, says they hope to process 30-50 ap- 
plications per year and then, with the aid of a 
micro computer, attempt to eliminate the 
backlog by late 1985. The Commission has 
opted for a three-tiered system, giving first 
priority to applications for rural stations out- 
side the 55-mile radius of all 212 TV markets 
(15% of the applications on file); second 
priority to those inside the 55-mile radius 
(15%); and third to the remaining 70% which 
propose locating in the larger urban areas. 

The final LPTV rules adopted at the 
March meeting differ only slightly from the 
proposals approved by the Commission in 
September, 1980. The highlights include: 
• No restrictions on the ownership of LPTV 
stations — making them fair game for cable 
systems, newspapers, TV and radio stations 
and the three networks, among others (even 
MAY 1982 




MIKE KEEFE 

in communities they might already service). 

• Preference accorded to applicants with no 
other media interests and/or more than 50% 
minority ownership (a discretionary clause 
that might be no more effective than liberal 
doubletalk). 

• A "trafficking" rule, requiring a LPTV 
recipient to hold the station for a year before 
selling it, presumably to prevent opportunists 
from selling immediately to larger entities 
(FCC Chairman Mark Fowler opposed this 
rule unsuccessfully, claiming it would hinder 
the formation of a potential fourth network.) 

• Few programming rules (an obvious ex- 
ception already covered by the criminal 
code — no obscenity or lotteries); no restric- 
tions on subscription TV service; no local 
origination requirements; a 'sliding scale' 
based on origination capability for Fairness 
Doctrine obligations — in short, an almost 
total lack of regulation in keeping with the 
'cuts' of this year's fashions. 

At the meeting, Commissioner Abbott 
Washburn was alone in maintaining that 
there should be ownership limitations and 
that the rules should have accorded non- 
commercial broadcasters a comparative 
preference. Terrell Lamb, editor of LPTV 
Reporter, asserts that the muddled condition 
of the rules is "tantamount to rejecting the 
whole idea of non-commercial 
broadcasting." He speculates that the rules 
are not yet completely written, and that the 
FCC was not so much embracing the in- 
evitability of LPTV by voting on the rules so 
much as responding reluctantly to pressure 
from Congress. In short, there is still time to 
act. As Lamb says: "Everyone concerned 
about the fate of LPTV should understand 
that this is no time to relax. The pressure 
must be kept on the FCC to act in the public 
interest while the final rules are being 
prepared." 



Representation of Unions 
On TV Getting Worse 

"Conformity in broadcasting leads to 
boredom and complacency. But more 
dangerous is the insidious form of censorship 
and a total defilement of democratic prin- 
ciples growing out of that conformity. This 
study confirms our greatest concerns and 
cries out for immediate action to reverse this 
pattern." 

John DeConcini, president of the Bakery, 
Confectionary and Tobacco Workers Inter- 
national Union (BC&T), is referring to 
Television: Corporate America's Game, a 
study conducted by the BC&T, the Interna- 
tional Union of Operating Engineers. The 
study found that "Unions — almost invisible 
in our last monitoring period — were even 
less visible this year on the tube. More than 
2000 volunteer monitors from the three 
unions dutifully endured two months' worth 
of TV viewing in 1981 to produce this incisive 
analysis of labor's representation on the air. 
Typical reactions from these committed 
videophiles included: "Hope I'll never watch 
that show again," (reacting to The Incredible 
Hulk); "Too repulsive to watch," (Vegas); 
and "Worth Whose Time?" (a retitling of 
What's My Line). The ennui was worth it. 
Proving what we've long known but never 
had the statistics to prove, they found that: 

• Network news is uniformly biased in favor 
of corporate positions on issues vs. union 
positions, to the tune of 6 to l (CBS), 5 to l 
(ABC), and 3 to l (NBC). 

• Union activity ranks seventh out of eight 
as a general news topic, securing only 7% of 
the action and barely maintaining a margin 
over the eighth place loser — disasters. 

• The most "important" (most often pro- 
trayed) jobs in TV are: 
Policemen/Guard — 84; Houswife — 78; 
Singer/Entertainer — 62; Doctor — 59; and 
Military Personnel — 56. Two non- 
occupational categories are footnoted: 
Child/Adolescent/Student — 123; and Non- 
Human Characters — 51. (Amounts are bas- 
ed on monitors' findings during their two- 
month viewing period.) 

• Lou Grant was predictably singled out as 
the only series that consistently presented an 
intelligent and accurate view of labor and 
union issues. 

• Good News: Coverage of labor's top 
priority issues (inflation, energy, job losses, 
tax reform and medical care) has increased at 
least 25% since February, 1980 for all three 
network news programs (when the last survey 
was done). Bad news: The viewpoints ex- 
pressed on the issues were almost always cor- 
porate America's. 

Indeed, the cumulative effect of the fin- 
dings is so grim that there seems only one 
viable option left: the unions must band 
together and launch a fourth network. (Are 
you listening, John DeConcini? Because we 
happen to have a lot of programming you 
should probably see ...) ■ 



THE INDEPENDENT 



FESTIVALS 



A Tale of 
Two Festivals 



WENDY UDELL & SI AN EVANS 

This month's featured festivals, Edinburgh 
and Mill Valley, both focus on independent 
cinema, with a resultant number of in- 
teresting parallels. Both festivals apparently 
look at the available body of filmwork first 
and then build their programs around what 
emerges as current trends. This is a refreshing 
departure from the pre-ordained 
"categories" of most festivals, and is natural- 
ly the best and only fair way to deal with the 
anarchic universe that is "independent" film 
and video. 

Both have recently included Super-8 
shows. Both invite features, shorts and 
documentaries, showcasing an unlikely mix- 
ture of political, artistic and commercial in- 
dependents. Mill Valley has recently added 
video programs, although we are still waiting 
for Edinburgh to accept the future. For the 
time being, Edinburgh continues to ghettoize 
video in a concurrent television event which 
focuses specifically on broadcast television. 

Mill Valley and Edinburgh have both also 
become popular gathering places for pro- 
ducers to share ideas. As part of a larger and 
well-respected arts festival since 1947, Edin- 
burgh has developed a strong critical reputa- 
tion, hosting serious aesthetic and theoretical 
conferences at the Festival and publishing the 
conference papers annually. After 5 years of 



steady growth, Mill Valley has yet to develop 
any such reputation, but a good time is said 
to be had by all. — W.L. 



MILL VALLEY 

5THMILL VALLEY FILM AND VIDEO 
COMPETITION, Aug. 5-11, is for non- 
competitive and retrospective viewings of 35 
and 16mm film and 3 A "videotape. Staffed by 
many, many volunteers, and funded by the 
San Francisco Foundation and local 
businesses, this event has moved from small 
screenings of the work of Imogene Cunning- 
ham, John Korty, David Myers and James 
Broughton to recent presentations of over 
100 films and tapes. These have included 
Flaherty's Nanook of the North, Coppola's 
Masters thesis, You're a Big Boy Now, and 
Renoir's Indian classic, The River. The 
Festival actively imports film and video 
makers, and runs year-round workshops for 
children, senior citizens and disabled in- 
dividuals. These efforts have attracted a 
geometrically-increasing audience, yet 
Festival organizers Rita Cahill and Mark 
Fishkin steadfastly emphasize their com- 
munity orientation, soliciting and lauding 
their local volunteers, backers and audience, 
even as they become more and more national 



Jonathan Kaplan's Over the Edge was "discovered" at Edinburgh. 



COURTESY FILMMAKER 




and international in appearance. They brave 
the pop conception of "class" with their 
own — honoring so-called "schlock" film- 
makers, and producers in such genres as hor- 
ror and science fiction. 

The Mill Valley Festival consistently scorns 
the obvious. Past retrospectives have saluted 
the work of such unlikely luminaries as Jack 
Arnold, Bob Clampett and Roger Corman. 
Arnold, the grandfather of filmic special ef- 
fects, created the 3-D effects for The Incredi- 
ble Shrinking Man and The Creature from 
the Black Lagoon; animator Bob Clampett 
created Bugs Bunny, Porky Pig and Daffy 
Duck for Warner Brothers. Corman, the 
well-known producer and director of a string 
of quick and totally unique horror films like 
Bucket of Blood and Wild Angels, moved on 
to a series of Poe stories in the '60s. At that 
time he was hiring stars-to-be like 
Bogdanovich, Coppola, De Niro and 
Nicholson, giving them their starts with small 
morsels of work. He put up the distribution 
guarantee for Mean Streets, arranged financ- 
ing for Easy Rider, and has since, as Presi- 
dent of New World Pictures, imported and 
distributed My Brilliant Career and Breaker 
Morant among others. 

The Festival shows film from all over the 
world, but emphasizes its Bay Area consti- 
tuents with about 30% of festival viewing 
time at the Sequoia Theatre. Last year's pro- 
grams, numbering over 30, included San 
Francisco New Wave Films; San Francisco 
Visionaries — a series of local experimental 
works; a Screenwriters' Workshop with 
Don Carpenter (Payday), Sam Shepard 
(Zabriskie Point), Tom Rickman (Coal 
Miner's Daughter) and John Kaye (American 
Hot Wax); and Industrial Light and 
Magic — a presentation given with models and 
films by six professionals from Lucasfilms on 
the production of effects for Raiders of the 
Lost Ark, The Empire Strikes Back and Star 
Wars. 

This will be the second year of the video 
component with 8 major programs over two 
days. Last year Mike Nesmith (formerly of 
the Monkees) spoke on his rock videotapes, 
and James Blinn of NASA explained the 
techniques and potentials of computer 
graphics. Over 8,000 people attended last 
year's festival, and that figure is expected to 
be far surpassed this year. All genres are in- 
vited. No entry fee, entrant pays postage. En- 
try deadline is in June. Contact: Rita Cahill, 
80 Lomita Dr. #20, Mill Valley, CA 94941, 
(415)383-5256. — S.E. 



EDINBURGH 

EDINBURGH INTERNA TIONAL FILM 
FESTIVAL, Aug. 20-Sept. 3, is dedicated to 
the growth of contemporary cinema, and in 
this pursuit has been responsible for the 
"discovery" of a significant number of new 
filmmakers including Jonathan Kaplan (Over 
the Edge, 1979), Amos Poe (Subway Riders, 
1981), and Karyn Kay (She, Overlooking, 

MAY 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



(Overworking) While. . ., 1979, and So- 
meone Else's Clothes, 1980). This penchant 
for new and "rare" works is something the 
Edinburgh festival has become famous for, 
and a tradition which former director Linda 
Myles is currently continuing in her new 
capacity as director of the Pacific Film Ar- 
chive in Berkeley, California. We hope new 
Festival Director Jim Hickey, formerly 
Myles' assistant, will carry on her fine work 
while adding his own touch. Unfortunately, 
he was hit with major budget cuts in 1981 
which forced a contraction of the festival to 
nine days. But apparently they are returning 
to the two-week format this year. 

The Festival welcomes features, shorts and 
documentaries completed within the last year 
in all film gauges, and preference is given to 
world premieres. According to Karyn Kay, 
New York filmmaker and critic, Edinburgh is 
loyal to filmmakers: once you have shown 
there, they will watch for your next work. 
While more of a critical celebration of film 
art than a marketplace, there are reportedly 
buyers and press people from as far away as 
Japan. Kay says it's a good place to have 
your film picked up by other festivals. Ulrich 
Gregor saw her film at Edinburgh and 
brought it to the Berlin Festival; and the 
Arsenal, an alternative cinema in Berlin, and 
the London Filmmakers Coop, a distribution 
group, both invited her film as a result of its 
exhibition at Edinburgh. 

The Festival's conference series has created 
the locus for a lively exchange of ideas among 
critics, independent and experimental film- 
makers and the public. Conferences in the 
early '70s were built around restrospective 
programs at the Festival, such as those 
featuring Douglas Sirk and Jacques 
Tourneur. Then, as critical interest at the in- 
fluential British Film Institute shifted from 
auteur theory to structuralism, the con- 
ferences took themes such as 
Psychoanalysis/Cinema/ Avant-Garde in 
1976 and History/Production/Memory in 
'77. A very large 5-day conference on 
feminist film theory in 1979 invited 
Americans Bette Gordon and Michelle 
Citron, who also showed their films in a pro- 
gram of women's films that year. 

The Festival provides hospitality and air- 
fare to some of the invited filmmakers, but 
there doesn't seem to be a fixed policy. The 
rather large entry fee of £5 per 10 minute reel 
is also waived for "invited" films. The FIVF 
Festival Bureau will be handling a group 
shipment to Edinburgh this year. See Box on 
page 23. 

At the moment, the closest thing Edin- 
burgh has to an American contact person is 
Linda Myles at the Pacific Film Archive. En- 
tries are due in June. Contact: Jim Hickey, 
Director, Edinburgh Film Festival, The 
Filmhouse, 88 Lothian Road, Edinburgh 
EH3 9BZ, Scotland. 011-44-31-228-6382/3. 

— W.L. 

For additional festival listings, turn to the 
Notices section. ■ 

MAY 1982 



IN FOCUS 



Film-to-Tape: The 
Transfer Process 



DAVID W.LEITNER 

Since the introduction of videotape in 
1956, the film industry has quietly considered 
the possible applications of video recording 
to motion picture postproduction and 
distribution. Practical constraints such as the 
inability to relate a film frame to a video 
frame easily have stymied most efforts in this 
area. Today, with the advent of crystal 
synch, microprocessor technology, digital 
signal processing, SMPTE video timecode 
and timecode on film, the techniques 
necessary to exploit videotape fully vis-a-vis 
film are at hand. 

At first glance, the transformation of a 
frame of film into a frame of video would 
seem straightforward. A projector aimed into 
a video camera should suffice. In Great Bri- 
tain and Europe, for instance, film-to-tape is 
almost this simple. By fortuitous cir- 
cumstance, the European alternating current 
(AC) line frequency, by which video fields 
were originally clocked, is 50 cycles/second; 
at a rate of two interlaced fields per frame, 
this obtains a convenient 25 frames per se- 
cond. All film, whether exposed at 24 fps or 
25 fps, is transferred at 25 fps — the 4% 
speedup of the former deemed impercep- 
tible — and one film frame corresponds to one 
video frame. 

In the United States, Canada and Japan, 
where the AC frequency is 60 cycles/second, 
the video frame rate is 30. Any cameraperson 
who has filmed a television receiver is well 
aware of the consequence. The discrepancy 

DAVE MOORE 



between film's 24 fps and video's 30 fps is 
seen as a succession of dark horizontal bars 
rolling down the screen. A similar effect, 
equally undesirable, is to be had from the 
transfer of film to tape, unless there is some 
compensation for the out-of-phase frame 
rates. 

TELECINES 

Given the advantage of frame rate com- 
patibility enjoyed abroad, it isn't surprising 
that Europeans are responsible for the 
elegant state-of-the-art film-to-tape devices 
on the market today. Continuous motion 
telecines are to be found in television stations 
across the Continent; in contrast, the flying 
spot scanner was introduced to the US as late 
as 1975, and less than 70 have been installed. 
It is therefore useful to examine European 
film-to-tape technologies to highlight their 
operative principles, which can then be 
adapted to the complications of NTSC 30 fps 
video. 

The projector-type telecine has existed in 
Europe since the dawn of television. It is in- 
deed a projector aimed into a video camera, 
but the apparent simplicity of this arrange- 
ment masks a fundamental problem. Film 
frames comprise a series of stills, each 
representing approximately one fiftieth of a 
second at 25 fps. Since only 25 frames are 
projected in any one second, the video 
camera sees a checkerboard of still images 
and black intervals. Video frames, at 25 per 




THE INDEPENDENT 



second, consist of two interlaced fields, each 
representing almost a complete fiftieth of a 
second. The video image is scanned constant- 
ly, point by point, and can be said to con- 
stitute a frame only insofar as the signal is 
turned off for microseconds as the electron 
beam is driven back to the top of the image to 
begin the next entire scan. How does the 
video camera obtain a second field from each 
film frame? A special vidicon pickup tube 
with the ability to store an image in its target 
layer is utilized. This memory effect permits 
the tube to preserve a projected image so that 
two fields can be scanned even as the projec- 
tor is advancing its next film frame. 

A similar method is widely employed in 
television stations across the United States, 
where 24 fps film is transferred to 30 fps 
video. A special projector, running at 24 fps 
overall, projects even frames at a slightly 
speeded-up rate and odd frames at a slightly 
slowed-down rate. With the aid of a storage- 
type vidicon tube, the even frames are 
scanned by two fields and odd frames by 
three fields — hence the expression 2:3 
pulldown. The resultant fields are then com- 
bined so that every four film frames will yield 
five video frames. This effectively stretches 
24 frames into 30. 

The main drawbacks of projection-type 
telecines are two: First, an intermittent 
mechanism is required to yank a frame of 
film in and out of the aperture at least 24 
times a second, and faultless registration is 
mandatory to guarantee freedom from jitter 
and horizontal weave. In principle, this is not 
the preferred way to transport negative film. 
Secondly, vidicon pickup tubes are limited to 
a contrast reproduction ratio of 40:1, 
whereas film can provide a contrast in excess 
of 100:1. Shadow detail is usually the victim. 

FL YING SPOT SCANNER 

An alternative to reshooting film frames 
with a video camera is the flying spot scan- 
ner. Available in Great Britain since the se- 



cond World War, flying spot technology 
features unmatched resolution, contrast 
reproduction of at least 150:1 and, in the 
configuration most common today, capstan- 
driven continous motion. The heart of the 
flying spot scanner is its light source. Instead 
of a xenon projection lamp, a small 
monochrome cathode ray tube (CRT, several 
inches square, is mounted under the length of 
film to be scanned, which is traveling 
horizontally. Unlike the common television 
screen, however, the flying spot CRT is 
coated with phosphors that luminesce only 
when struck directly by the tube's sweeping 
electron beam; the glow decays instantly 
thereafter. The result is a bright pinpoint of 
light, tracing a conventional raster pattern as 
it races back and forth across the CRT 
screen. This is the "flying spot," and it is 
projected in sharp focus onto the film surface 
by means of a lens. Color density variations 
from point to point in the film image act to 
filter the spot of light, and photosensors on 
the side of the film opposite the CRT read the 
red, green and blue components of the light 
transmitted, converting them to analog varia- 
tions in voltage. Since the exact position of 
the flying spot is known for every instant of 
time, a color video signal reconstructing the 
film image electronically is generated. In 
practice, the film images flow in continuous 
motion over the flying spot raster, and as a 
passive sprocket keeps track of the frame 
lines, frames are scanned on-the-fly. 

In the United States, flying spot 
technology did not gain a foothold until the 
mid-'70s, largely due to the complications of 
frame rate disagreement. Current flying spot 
telecines manufactured by Rank Cintel of 
Great Britain utilize digital processing to 
overcome this barrier. Film frames are 
scanned sequentially instead of one field at a 
time. That is, all 525 lines of video are traced 
in one scan. The resultant red, green and blue 
analog signals then undergo a digital stan- 
dards conversion and are written into 



microprocessor memory at 24 fps. To obtain 
30 fps interlaced video, even lines are read 
out as field one and odd lines as field two. 
Since every other film frame requires a third 
field in order to stretch 24 fps to 30 fps, the 
first field read out of memory for that frame 
is repeated. 

NEW EUROPEAN DEVICE 

Certainly the newest film-to-tape 
technology is represented by the CCD 
telecines introduced in 1981 by Bosch of West 
Germany and Marconi of Great Britain. 
CCD is an acronym for "charge coupled 
device," a diminutive solid-state unit that's 
going to have increasing impact on the world 
of telecommunications in the approaching 
years. Essentially, it is to the video camera 
pickup tube what the transistor was to the 
vacuum tube. (Sony's Mavica camera for 
electronic still photography is based on the 
CCD.) As applied to the telecine, film driven 
smoothly by capstan over a tungsten light 
source is focused on three linear array CCDs, 
one each for red, green and blue 
chrominance values. Each CCD array 
samples 1024 points in a line across the image 
at a frequency of 20 MHz, or 20 million times 
a second. The continuous motion of the film 
itself provides the vertical scan, and 
framelines as well as speed can be registered 
by optically sensing the perforations. The 
digital signals that result are then organized 
into fields and frames and manipulated in a 
manner similar to those of the digital flying 
spot telecine. 

VIDEOLA 

There is an additional film-to-tape avenue 
that seems to be finding a niche in today's 
world, despite a history of mixed reviews. 
Moviola has introduced a flatbed intended 
for film-to-tape transfer based on the 
polygon prism principle. Tagged Videola, it's 
nothing more than a high-quality color video 
Continued on page 18 



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MAY 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



LABOR 



Unions & Indies Rap At 
FIVF Roundtable: Part 2 



LAWRENCE SAPADIN 

An important trend in independent pro- 
duction has been the movement of docu- 
mentations toward dramatic narrative 
forms, and an increased interest in feature 
production generally. These trends make the 
question of whether a low-budget producer 
can shoot union even more urgent. At the 
same time, high unemployment has prodded 
many of the creative unions and guilds to 
seek some basis for working with inde- 
pendents. 

In an effort to bridge the gap between in- 
dependents and the unions and guilds, AIVF 
invited representatives of the major unions 
and guilds to meet and address the local pro- 
ducer community on December 15, 1981 on 
the prospects and limits to shooting union 
on a low budget. In speaking order were 
Leonard Wasser, Executive Director of 
Writers' Guild East; Stanley Ackerman, 
Assistant Executive Secretary of Directors' 
Guild East; Douglas Hart, Vice President of 
IATSE Local 644; Larry Racies, Business 
Manager of IA TSE Local 644; and Thomas 
Turley, Business Manager of NABET 15. 
Questions are from both audience members 
and moderator Lawrence Sapadin, Executive 
Director of AIVF. 

In Part I of the roundtable, Wasser 
described the functioning of the union, 
stressing that deferred payment or 
speculative writing was absolutely taboo for a 
union member working as an employee of the 
producer. 

• 
QUESTION: How do you pay the writer: by 
hour, day or for the piece. And how do you 
locate a writer for a specific subject? 

LEONARD WASSER: First: the Writers' 
Guild is not a hiring hall. We do not maintain 
lists of people in the sense you mean. We do 
have directories available with writers' credits 
(if the writer wishes to have his or her credits 
listed). 

How a writer is paid really depends upon 
what the writer is employed to do. Generally 
speaking, a freelance writer is hired on what 
we refer to as a non-exclusive basis. He or she 
doesn't belong to the producer, and may 
write for someone else as well. However, we 
also represent staff people who work for CBS 
or ABC as newswriters and are paid on a 
weekly basis. That is a different category en- 
tirely; we have separate contracts which 
govern their relationship with their 
employers. 
MAY 1902 



Q: What other obligations would a producer- 
employer have towards a writer? Are there 
benefits that have to be paid? 

LW: Yes. In our freelance area, as of March 
2, 1982, the producer pays 6% into the Guild 
pension fund and 4% into the health fund, 
over and above what the writer has con- 
tracted for. 

Q: What kind of qualifications does one have 
to have to become a member? 

L W: You must either be employed to write 
material which is covered by our collective 
bargaining agreements or have sold material. 



STANLEY ACKERMAN (Directors' Guild): 
The Directors' Guild is one organization 
with offices in Los Angeles, New York and 
Chicago. We represent directors working in 
TV, radio and motion pictures. Besides 
directors, we have production managers, 
assistant directors and camera coordinators. 
The camera coordinator actually coordinates 
camera like an assistant director when multi- 
ple cameras shoot at the same time. We also 
have assistant unit production managers, 
who work as location managers in the East. 
And we have a training program. 

We negotiate contracts for minimum con- 
ditions for our categories: minimum salaries, 
working conditions and benefits. Why 
would an individual who works as a director 
want to be a Guild member? To be among 
your peers. 

And can we shoot low-budget? It depends 
on your project, what you call low. Pictures 
have been made for $500,000. Hester Street 
was made for $335,000 with a union crew. 
But for you, $335,000 may be an astro- 
nomical figure. 

Nevertheless, we can accommodate you in 
some areas. Our staffing on features and 
episodic television is: director, production 
manager, first assistant and second assistant 
director. Below $500,000 we will waive the 
production manager and first assistant, and 
have one individual do both jobs. 

If you are making a 90-minute film for 
$50,000, I think you shouldn't come to the 
Guild. If you come to us with actual facts, 
give me your budget, talk to me, I will work 
something out for you. But I can't make a 
film for $50,000: it's impossible. You can, 
and I know you can and I want you to do it. 



Your next film may be $75,000, then 
$100,000, and when you reach $200,000, 
we'll have something to talk about. 

Our membership will not work for non- 
signatories. If you do, you allow someone 
who has not signed a bargaining agreement 
to have the benefit of your expertise. There 
are other people out there whom the 
employer can hire, who may have less exper- 
tise but may serve his or her purpose. 

• 
DOUG HART (IATSE Local 644): IA 
is short for International Alliance of 
Theatrical Stage Employees. It represents 
not only people involved in motion pictures 
and TV, but also stagehands and projec- 
tionists. IA is probably 200 years behind the 
rest of the world, especially in the motion 
picture branch. The IA leadership are the 
people who told many 644 members that TV 
was not important, that it would fade away. 
As a result, IA — at least on the East Coast — 
is floundering. NABET was formed because 
IA never really took a realistic attitude 
towards what 30 years ago was the equiva- 
lent of independents. They denied them 
membership. And, wanting the representa- 
tion of a responsive progressive union, they 
formed their own. 

The failure of IA to take a realistic at- 
titude towards independents means there is 
no such thing now as a low-budget contract 
for any of the IA production locals in New 
York. 

IA, on the West Coast, has longstanding 
collective bargaining agreements with the 
major studios: Paramount, MGM, Warner 
Brothers, etc. These will continue until IA 
finally collapses from internal cancer, maybe 
in ten years. The question is: Will Local 644 
last out the full ten or die sooner? 

Local 644, fortunately, is one of the more 
progressive groups within IA. However, on 
a feature set you have a minimum of five 
union members on a job, including opera- 
tor, first assistant, second assistant and still 
photographer. Multiple cameras mean 
another operator and assistant. 

Different locals have different functions 
and different jurisdiction. Local 644, 
representing camera, has 16 states on the 
East Coast. There are three camera locals in 
IA: one in Chicago, one in LA and us. The 
West Coast Local 659 has 12 states. The 
bulk of the middle part of the country is 
Local 666. Most of the work, obviously, is 
in LA. 

On the West Coast, each of the other 
crafts— grips, props, sound — has a separate 
local because there are so many people. On 
the East Coast, Local 52 represents those 
five crafts. There's a separate local for con- 
tinuity and for production office coordina- 
tors. There's a separate local for editors, lab 
technicians, makeup and hair, animation 
and so on. So on a feature set you find five 
members of 644, one scriptperson, two or 
three makeup and hair and anywhere be- 

9 



THE INDEPENDENT 



tween 10 and 200 members of Local 52. 
When The Wiz shot in New York they had 
something like a record — 200 people, I 
think. 

Q: What do you think of the practice of 
an independent with a low budget hiring a 
union member to work on a non-union pro- 
duction on the sly? 

DH: Well, no union officer is going to tell 
you to go ahead and hire our members il- 
legally. There are two reasons why a union 
member would take non-union work. First, 
it pays the rent. Local 644 has about 20% 
employment now. Second, 644 has the at- 
titude that an assistant cameraperson must 
work five years before becoming a camera 
operator. Now anybody with anything other 
than oatmeal between the ears knows that is 
nonsense. There's no provision for an assis- 
tant shooting anything while still an assis- 
tant. So any young, ambitious member 
wanting to advance is forced to do so under 
another name. I've used a pseudonym be- 
fore; everybody's done it. 

But if someone is stupid enough to shoot 
a non-union picture and then have his or her 
name listed in a full-page ad in Variety when 
it opens, the unions cannot ignore it. The 
union has to have some kind of rule struc- 
ture or it will fall apart. 

Q: Where are the accommodations made? Is 
it in scale, crew size? What exactly are the 
negotiable points when someone walks into 
your office and says, "I'm shooting for 
under $100,000,"? 

DH: Anything is negotiable. Nowhere in 
any union contract will you find something 
that says the minimum number of people is 
x; what they say is, you need as many people 
as it takes to do the job. The difference of 
opinion comes up in the question of how 
many people you need. An electrician should 
not also have to be a prop handler, a 
carpenter, a grip, and maybe hold the boom. 
We all have worked on pictures where peo- 
ple wear more than one hat but the unions 
are saying that you are paying for expertise 
which shouldn't be diluted in that kind of 
situation. 



LARRY RACIES (IATSE Local 644): We 
are imperfect organizations in an imperfect 
world, and we're trying to do better. Local 
644 has in the past made arrangements for 
low-budget productions. In 644 we have had 
situations with one, two, up to five people 
on a crew. 

Why should independents shoot union? 
The answer is very simple: you get profes- 
sional people. And you would expect, I 
guess, to pay a little more for them. Like the 
Writers' Guild, we are not willing to enter 
into a "spec" situation, because that possibly 
means no money. However, we are willing 
to enter a scale situation. 

10 



Q: Instead of negotiating every deal from 
scratch, why can't the union print up its 
guidelines on low-budget arrangements? 

LR: Very good question. All our contracts 
have a so-called "favored nations" clause. 
Our contracts with the large studios and the 
networks contain a clause that says if we 
give any other producer more favorable con- 
ditions than are contained in that agreement 
then he or she has the right to the same 
ones. If you were going to make a $5 million 
picture and we gave you a break because 
Columbia Pictures made a $40 million pic- 
ture, then Columbia Pictures would then be 
entitled to the deal we gave you. 

However, we have contracts with small 
producers. We are contracted with the 
George Meany Center for Labor Studies, for 
instance. The contract and the pay scales are 
quite different. If we can set up parameters 
that the major feature producers rarely, if 
ever, go into, then we protect the "favored 
nations" clause. 

• 
TOM TURLEY (National Association of 
Broadcast Engineers and Technicians 
[NABET] Local 15: NABET works with in- 
dependents—we have worked on almost any 
decent dramatic feature done by indies: 
Heartland, The American Short Story, 
Girlfriends. I negotiated the Heartland con- 
tract. I sat down with Michael Houseman, 
the producer, and he said "We want to go 
out to Montana." And we figured out a way 
to send fifteen NABET people from New 
York out there, and that film was made with 
a full union crew, under union conditions, 
with a whole lot of latitude. Girlfriends was 
done with a partial NABET crew because it 
was put together with five cents here and ten 
cents there over three years. 

If you need a script supervisor but only 
have $50 — I'll be very blunt. Our members 
don't work on those films. By joining the 
union they have made a contract with the 
union and with the other members of that 
union that there is a minimum rate. There is 
an absolute bottom scale below which they 
won't work. If someone joins NABET or IA 
or any guild, it's because they are saying 
"I'm a professional, I have obtained a cer- 
tain level of professional expertise and I feel 
the unions are the place that I want to be." 
Suppose we all agree to work for $100. That 
means you have to pay $100 for the quality 
and competence you want. And if on your 
$15,000 film you don't have $100 to pay, 
then hire a non-union person. 

Individually, although a member may 
believe in a project, and might want to work 
on it, he or she has an unbreakable obliga- 
tion to the other union people. In my ex- 
perience with nine out of ten independent 
features we've made it happen. The 
American Short Story was done at scale. 
That in and of itself was a major concession; 



NICARAGUA COMMUNICATES! 

Film production in Nicaragua is severely 
hampered by the lack of adequate equip- 
ment. The newly founded Nicaraguan Film 
Institute (INCINE) lacks editing facilities. 
There is one flatbed table in the country, and 
it belongs to an independent production 
group. 

Nicaragua Communicates (Comu-Nica) is 
a group of North American and Latin 
American filmmakers who have come 
together to channel support for INCINE. 
We are now raising funds to purchase a 
16-35 8-plate Steenbeck as our further con- 
tribution to the development of Nicaraguan 
cinema. To achieve this goal, we are asking 
all of our friends and supporters to send con- 
tributions of $25. Whatever you can give will 
be appreciated by the people of Nicaragua. 

Contributions are tax-deductible, and 
should be made out to Nicaragua Com- 
municates — The Film Fund, Box 612 Cath- 
edral Station, New York, N.Y. 10025. 



that was already working for, say, $100 a 
day instead of the $150 that a commercial 
would pay. We took that contract and bent 
it where it was flexible, so that it could be 
done by a union. 

Q: Is it possible to shoot with a mixed crew, 
union and non-union? 

TT: Most producers will hire a union 
cameraperson and sound person. But in- 
evitably on low-budget jobs, they least want 
to deal with union art direction, property, 
hair and makeup — because they always have 
a friend who can do it. Unlike IA, NABET 
lets its people work without necessarily hav- 
ing a union contract for the whole produc- 
tion. If you had a documentary and wanted 
to hire a NABET Director of Photography, 
but do the sound yourself, and you were 
willing to pay the NABET cameraperson 
and assistant camera the going union rates, 
we would conceivably enter into an agree- 
ment for that. If the cameraperson makes 
what the union wants, then the union pro- 
tects him or her to that extent. 

We've done tremendous deals to make poli- 
tical films because we believe there is a need 
for an independent voice in America, espe- 
cially now. My concern is that most indepen- 
dent filmmakers don't use the unions. 

To carry the discussion further, an in- 
dependent producer /union committee has 
been established. For more information, call 
the AIVF/FIVF offices at (212) 473-3400. ■ 



GIFTS YOU CAN 
GIVE FOR FREE 

If you send us the names of three 

friends (plus addresses) we'll send 

them a complimentary copy of THE 

INDEPENDENT. . . along with a note 

telling them who this little surprise is 

from. Sound easy? It sure is . . . fust 

choose people who aren't members 

but might be interested. Take us up on 

this offer today— it could solve your 

gift list problems. 



j 



MAY 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



PROFILE OF LEO HURWITZ 



For Every Film 
There Is a Season 



MARITA STURKEN 



There is a tendency among contemporary 
independent filmmakers to think of 
themselves as part of a new phenomenon. 
Looking back, they see only years of com- 
mercial filmmaking and artistic compromise 
until, in the early seventies, the present move- 
ment began to coalesce. Obscured from view 
by years of war, Cold War and McCar- 
thyism, however, is a vital movement of in- 
dependent political films which began with 
the Workers' Film & Photo League in the ear- 
ly thirties and was later led by a collective 
called Frontier Films. 

Leo Hurwitz is a filmmaker whose work 
spans all these decades of filmmaking, ex- 
emplifying the poitical atmosphere of each 
period. He began by filming the Hunger Mar- 
ches and Scottsboro trials for the Film and 
Photo League and was a central member of 
Frontier Films. Blacklisted in the 1950s, he 
continued to work as an independent, and 
recently premiered Dialogue with a Woman 
Departed at the Public Theater in New York. 
Dialogue combines sections from his early 
films with a protrait of his late wife, film- 
maker Peggy Lawson, to present a lyrical 
essay on four decades of political movements 
and events. 

What is most striking about Hurwitz's 
career (and distinguishes him most from con- 
temporary independent filmmakers) is how it 
was shaped, and at times almost ended, by 
political events and repression throughout his 
lifetime. His style is forceful and lucid, his 
early films combine documentary footage 
with powerful enacted scenes to clarify and 
give individual faces to social issues. 

Speaking intensely as he chain-smokes, 
Hurwitz is a striking figure with long silver 
hair. One realizes that it is the nature of his 
passion for film which enabled him to con- 
tinue to work despite immense odds. Like 
many of his colleagues of the radical left of 
the 1930s, it is apparent that he looks back to 
that time as a fertile, exciting period which 
outshines all subsequent decades of political 
filmmaking. 

VALUE OF SHARED EXPERIENCE 

"One of the important differences between 
independent filmmaking now and then," 
says Hurwitz, sitting in his cluttered Broad- 
way studio, "is that now, independents don't 
talk to each other about filmmaking. They 
distrust each other and only talk about funds 
and distribution, guarding their little projects 
MAY 1982 



to their chests. That is very different from the 
open, candid attitude of Frontier Films; we 
believed talking together would help us learn 
and grow." 

Frontier Films, which grew out of the 
rather haphazard film producton of the Film 
and Photo League, was a collective in the 
truest sense. Its filmmakers, who included 
Paul Strand and Ralph Steiner among others, 
were not only bound by a common medium, 
they were dedicated to producing politically 
aware social documentaries. Frontier Films 
produced films from 1936-1941 in a prewar 
and pre-nuclear political atmosphere which 
was more accepting of leftist films than the 
following decades. 

The collective screened their works-in- 
progress constantly to raise funds and rouse 




Leo Hurwitz: "Independents don't talk to each other 
about filmmaking. " 

support, managing to raise most of their fun- 
ing from individuals and groups who had a 
particular interest in their films, such as trade 
unions. "One woman formed a committee of 
1000," says Hurwitz, "she had parties and 
picnics and roused people in various suburbs 
to raise funds for the film. Some money also 
came in the form of a laboratory that gave us 
a lot of credit because it knew we were doing 
important work. We made ourselves a salary 
schedule that we thought we could live on, 
which was $35 a week. We paid everyone 
equally no matter what they were do- 
ing — unit manager, director, producer. But 
we only had $35 a week sometimes, and that 
indicates our passion about films and the 
substance of these films. People wanted to 
work regardless of whether they were paid or 
not." 



Frontier Films produced several films in its 
early years: Heart of Spain, about the 
Spanish Civil War; People of the 
Cumberland, about a progressive labor 
school; and China Strikes Back, about the 
Chinese Red Forces fighting Japan, before it 
began Native Land. Directed by Hurwitz and 
Strand, Native Land is a powerful film which 
combines documentary footage with enacted 
scenes to expose union busting and 
union/business conflicts in the US. The film- 
makers began with $7000 and a feature- 
length script, stopping production many 
times to raise funds. The film took three 
years to complete. 

NA TIVE LAND 

"Native Land would have been able to 
plow its way in a new form of distribution," 
says Hurwitz. "We knew that it had to battle 
a distribution monopoly in the theaters which 
was even stronger then than today." The 
group planned to stimulate interest in union 
communities sympathetic to the film's 
theme, thereby demonstrating to the theaters 
that the film would make money for them. 
"It was a matter of building a network of 
neighborhood theaters from the bottom," 
explans Hurwitz. 

There is a significant reason why Native 
Land did not help to foster this new breed of 
distribution. Frontier Films received its 
answer print on December 8, 1941, the day 
after Pearl Harbor. While it defends the Bill 
of Rights and American ideology, Native 
Land is a critical film. Its portrayal of fascist 
forces within the US and the struggle for civil 
liberties did not mesh well with the national 
feeling. "There was a creative national 
unity," Hurwitz states, "and the most mili- 
tant trade union people who would have been 
the active force behind such an organization, 
felt we shouldn't disturb things too much." 

The fate of Native Land was thus a 
political one. In an effort to save the film, the 
filmmakers added an epilogue which 
attempted to relate the content of the film to 
the Allied struggle against Germany and 
Japan, yet the film was not widely shown. 
According to Hurwitz, Native Land was 
removed from distribution by the film's 
trustees, who were, in fact, investors who 
were still owed money in the early 1950s. The 
major reason for this, he says, was that one 
of these trustees, who was a rather pro- 
gressive businessman, had been denied a 

11 



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Southern vigilantes and sharecroppers in Native Land , Hurwitz's portrayal of fascist forces within the USA. 



passport and had apparently then made a 
deal with Immigration to have the film 
withdrawn from circulation. While the 
details, according to Hurwitz, are vague, the 
political atmosphere is obvious, and the film 
was not returned to him and Paul Strand un- 
til the early 1960s. It then recommenced the 
typical independent route of occasional 
screenings and back-shelf status. 

PROJECTORS IN THE NIGHT 

Distribution always remained at a 
grassroots level for the films made by the 
Film and Photo League and Frontier Films. 
"We were making films in order to get them 
out," says Hurwitz, "while dealing with 
an environment uninterested in our work. So 
making the film was also part of the struggle 
to distribute. In the Film and Photo League, 
we used 35mm, inflammable stock (16mm 
was not a viable medium yet for anything but 
amateur work). Yet people in the Film and 
Photo League in New York and in other 
places took portable projectors, which were 
damn heavy, around to clubs, churches and 
union halls as well as some special theaters. 
So distribution was primitive and gritty. 
When we made political films later with 
16mm in Frontier Films, we built a translu- 
cent screen onto the back of a truck and pro- 
jected films on the street at night. 

We knew that to become good filmmakers, 
somebody else had to do the nuts and bolts of 
distribution. Otherwise we couldn't get from 
one film to another. At that time, there was a 
growth of alternative distribution, first 
within the Worker International Relief 
(WIR), which then became Garrison Films 
and then Brandon Films. Unfortunately, a 
contradiction developed (which exists now as 
well): in the beginning the distributor works 
in relation to the intentions of the filmmaker, 
but then the activity gets separated off as a 
business." 

12 



DAMPENED SPIRITS 

In the aftermath of World War II, the situa- 
tion for independents changed drastically, 
and Frontier Films was disbanded after the 
release of Native Land. "With the growth of 
the Cold War and the McCarthy period, peo- 
ple tended to run for cover," recalls Hurwitz. 
"It became very difficult to gather a group 
again with the same kind of spirit as Frontier 
Films, and the vacuum lasted into the Sixties. 
People didn't know that these films, which 
could have taught them a great deal about 
how to make films, existed." 

Hurwitz worked as a producer for CBS 
directly after the war, and then made Strange 
Victory in 1948, a documentary film on 
racism in postwar America and its relation to 
the Allied victory over Nazi Fascism. Strange 
Victory was made independently and was 
shown for a while in the art theater circuit 
(allotted at that time mostly to foreign films, 
which were not as popular as they are now). 
In the early Fifties, Hurwitz was blacklisted 
for his outspoken position on political 
repression even before being named by Elia 
Kazan in the HUAC hearings of 1952. He 
managed to work on projects where that 
status was not an issue. "When people had 
insoluble film problems," he says, "they 
came to me." Thus, he made a film for Pan 
American which is not credited to him, and 
several other films which are. He also made 
The Young Fighter for CBS, the producer 
concealing Hurwitz's identity from the net- 
work executives in order for him to work on 
the film. This documentary of a young boxer 
is one of the first examples of cinema-verite 
with the use of a portable synch-sound I6mm 
system. 

In 1956, Hurwitz made The Museum and 
the Fury, a film concerned with the concen- 
tration camps and the socialist reconstruction 
of Poland, for Filmpolski. The film was 
never released because it was too radical for 
the US film market at the time, though it was 



probably shown in Poland. In the Sixties, he 
went on to make films for public television, 
and produced a series on art with Peggy 
Lawson before heading the Graduate Pro- 
gram of the Institute of Film and Television 
at New York University. 

TEACHING EACH OTHER 

"During the Fifties and Sixties," says Hur- 
witz, "a lot of people were trapped in com- 
mercial jobs, including Manny Kirchheimer, 
Larry Silk, Peggy Lawson and many others. 
We thought if we couldn't make films, we 
could at least learn about them. So we 
organized the Seminar for Professional Film- 
makers. We met weekly and studied film, and 
some films got born in that seminar. It went 
on for years, a response to the hunger of 
filmmakers. Some of these people became in- 
dependent filmmakers, and some went back 
into their commercial craft as better film- 
makers." The seminar members reviewed 
scripts, reworked ideas, discussed editing as 
form of function and did exercises to increase 
their perceptiveness. Many filmmakers 
screened and discussed their past work and 
their works-in-progress. 

After these years of collaboration, Hurwitz 
worked on Dialogue with a Woman Departed 
for eight years, mostly by himself. He is now 
trying to distribute it on a grassroots level in a 
way similar to the originally planned distribu- 
tion of Native Land. In its lingering collage 
style of present/history, fiction/documen- 
tary, this latest film is an extraordinary at- 
tempt to encompass 40 years of political 
repression, and to summarize decades of 
filmmaking by a man who continued to prac- 
tice his craft even in the most adverse 
political circumstances. ■ 

Marita Sturken is a freelance film and video 
critic who has contributed to many publica- 
tions, including Afterimage Millennium Film 
Journal and American Film. 



THE INDEPENDENT 



FAIRNESS DOCTRINE DEFINED & DEFENDED 

III Wind 

Blows on Fair Air: 

A Doctrine Under Attack 



JOE WAZ 

Imagine that the government decided to 
grant an exclusive license for the use of the 
Mississippi River to one company. The 
license allowed that company to send 
anything it wanted up or down the river. And 
it didn't have to carry cargo for anyone it 
didn't want to. 

Many people had no reasonable alternative 
to using the river to move their cargo, and 
they complained. "The river belongs to the 
public," they said. "It is a scarce public 
resource." But the river licensee ignored 
them all, saying, "The government has 
recognized my right to use this river ex- 
clusively. And besides, if you really want to 
move your cargo, you have plenty of alter- 
natives. You can build your own river!" 

Now that sounds like an implausible 
scenario. But compare it with the way broad- 
casting stations are run in the United States: 
The airwaves are a scarce public resource, 
just like the Mississippi River. The govern- 
ment grants a radio or TV licensee exclusive 
control over its frequency. The licensee exer- 
cises complete discretion over what its station 
sends "downriver" to the public. 

Because the government gives the broad- 
cast licensee monopoly control over a public 
resource — and because the "cargo" sent 
downstream on the public airwaves, free 
speech, is itself an invaluable com- 
modity — the government requires a quid 
pro quo: the licensee must operate as a 
"public trustee," serving the needs of its 
listeners and viewers in accordance with 
various laws and regulations. Without a 
doubt, the most important obligation on 
broadcasters, from a First Amendment 
perspective, is the modest legal requirement 
called the "Fairness Doctrine." 

CONTROVERSY AND BALANCE 

The Fairness Doctrine requires broad- 
casters to cover "controversial issues of 
public importance," and to do so in a "fair 
and balanced" manner. The FCC defines 
"controversial" by asking "whether an issue 
is the subject of vigorous debate with 
substantial elements of the community served 
by the station in opposition to one another." 
Evidence of such controversy might be sup- 
plied by newspaper and magazine editorials, 
letters to the editor, news stories, transcripts 
of public speeches and evidence of rallies, in 
determining balance, the major considera- 
tion is whether there has been a reasonable 
MAY 19B2 



opportunity to present contrasting views. 
The broadcast licensee is given the greatest 
discretion in deciding which issues it will 
cover, and in deciding in what fashion it will 
accord these issues balanced coverage. 

The Fairness Doctrine is not an "equal 
time" obligation. Simply because the licensee 
devotes 30 minutes to one side of the nuclear 
power issue, for example, it need not grant 
precisely 30 minutes to the other side. Nor 
does the Fairness Doctrine create a right of 
access to the station for any particular per- 
son. The licensee is given broad latitude in 
selecting spokespersons for various points of 
view. 

The purpose of the Fairness Doctrine is to 
assure that the public is served by broad- 
casters, who are using a public resource (the 
airwaves) at no charge. The Fairness Doc- 
trine fosters the critical goal of having "an in- 
formed electorate," and helps assure that the 
"right to speak," which broadcasters enjoy 
as licensees, is exercised consistently with the 
public's "right to know." The Supreme 
Court has recognized that those rights are 
complementary elements of the First Amend- 
ment. 

"Well, that sounds benign enough," you 
might say. "And besides, how could anybody 
possibly be against "fairness?" But the 
Federal Communications Commission 
(FCC), along with major broadcast industry 



lobbyists, has declared that the Fairness Doc- 
trine must go. 

"CHILLED" BROADCASTING? 

These days, the broadcast industry is cloak- 
ing its opposition to the Fairness Doctrine in 
the mantle of "First Amendment parity." 
They point out that newspapers have no com- 
parable obligation to be "fair." The Fairness 
Doctrine has had a "chilling effect" on the 
broadcasting industry, they contend. Broad- 
casters eschew controversial issues, fearful of 
subjecting themselves to charges of failing to 
provide "balanced" coverage. And what's 
this about TV and radio being "scarce?", 
they ask. There are only about a thousand 
daily newspapers in the US, compared with 
nearly 1000 TV and 9000 radio stations. 

Some tough arguments. Let's consider why 
they're flat wrong. 

First of all, the number of "slots" in the 
broadcast spectrum remains limited, so not 
all those who wish to broadcast can. When 
the FCC announced the planned authoriza- 
tion of a new low-power television (LPTV) 
service, which could create up to a thousand 
new "neighborhood" TV stations nation- 
wide, the Commission was swamped by some 
6500 applications before it ordered a freeze 
on new filings. 

Second, the barriers to starting a broadcast 



On January 27, ES Info, In conjunction with AIVF, hosted a preview screening of The Decision to Win at 
AIVF. Produced by the Colectivo de Cine Cero a la Izquierda, the film portrays the day-to-day struggles of the 
El Salvadoran guerillas in their hill camps. The audience of filmmakers and organizers in the Hispanic com- 
munity talked with Lucio lleras, one of the filmmakers, about the making of the film; the live translation was 
done by Ana Maria Garcia, filmmaker (La Operacion) . Now subtitled, the film is available from: ES Info, El 
Salvador Film/Video Project, 799 Broadway, Rm. 325, New York NY 10003. 

ES Info, a group of volunteer journalists providing up-to-date, accurate information on the current situation 
in El Salvador, previously co-sponsored Glenn Silber's El Salvador: Another Vietnam with AIVF in 1981. They 
will be presenting The Decision to Win . ..atP.S.41, 6th Ave. & 11th St., on May 15 (7 & 9pm), May 16 (5 & 
7pm) and June 4(7& 9pm). Donation: $4. For more information, contact Terry Santana at ES Info— (212) 
674-5363. 




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On January 7, FIVF presented TV Guides , a panel discussion addressing the social implications of new video 
technologies, and how they will affect current video art production. Panelists Included: (top row, I. to r.) Video 
artists Dara Birnbaum, Tom Bowes, Nam June Paik and (bottom row, I. to r.) critics Larry Kirkman (the late 
Televisions) , Les Brown (Channels Magazine) and Brian Winston (the late Soho News ). Arlene Zeichner (her 
arm appears in front of Birnbaum) moderated. 



station are not simply economic (as is the case 
with newspapers and other print 
media) — they are technological and 
political. Congress has chosen to give broad- 
casters monopoly rights over broadcast fre- 
quencies, rather than making them "com- 
mon carriers" (like telephones, available to 
all) or requiring that time be "shared." This 
results in an artificial limit on how many may 
"speak" electronically. And the FCC has re- 
jected some initiatives which would expand 
the number of channels available. The Com- 
mission recently reversed an earlier decision 
which would have reduced the space between 
AM radio frequencies, creating many new 
outlets, on the grounds that it would cost too 
much. (The decision was based on informa- 
tion which many called ill-substantiated, 
demonstrating that not just the laws of 
nature operate to limit broadcast oppor- 
tunities.) 

And the "chill" that some broadcasters 
feel from the Fairness Doctrine? That pro- 
bably blows in from another direction: the 
advertising department, which cautions that 
controversy reduces audiences, ratings, and 
therefore ad dollars. 

HO T IND USTRYL OBB Y 

So we find that a simple legal requirement 
meant to protect the public's right to know is 
now confronted with a well-funded industry 
lobbying effort in opposition (with a former 

14 



industry attorney — FCC Chairman Mark 
Fowler — leading the attack from inside the 
fort). 

Why is the Fairness Doctrine worth preser- 
ving? Because it assures access for ideas on 
the most pervasive medium in America, im- 
poses a minimal burden on licensees, and 
compensates in part for the fact that a few 
"gatekeepers" control the medium. 

Why should preserving the Fairness Doc- 
trine be of particular importance to indepen- 
dent producers? Because indies, unlike those 
inside the production industry, are often ex- 
cluded from the airwaves, and thus should be 
sympathetic to any provision which en- 
courages diversity. And in order to 
disseminate these diverse views to the widest 
possible public, it is often necessary to cajole 
the broadcaster into recognizing its obliga- 
tions to inform the public, and to treat issues 
of importance fully and fairly. (Of course, 
while the Fairness Doctrine does require 
transmission of diverse viewpoints, it doesn't 
imply that a specific show will be broadcast.) 

Furthermore, the more the independent 
producer knows about the Fairness Doctrine, 
the better he or she can respond to broad- 
casters who attempt to use it as a shield 
against controversy. The Doctrine is intended 
to enhance debate, not suffocate it. 

The indie with something to say should 
look upon the Fairness Doctrine as an ally, 
not a foe. It creates an opportunity for 
dialogue with broadcasters. It gives the pro- 



ponent of a viewpoint the necessary clout to 
assert the public's First Amendment rights. It 
assures that broadcast stations will not be 
turned into personal megaphones for 
licensees to use at their whim and caprice. It 
helps facilitate creative solutions for the 
handling of "difficult" issues on the air. 

WHAT YOU CAN DO 

The Fairness Doctrine is the single slender 
thread by which hangs the public's right to 
know all sides, even the unpopular. How can 
you help preserve the Doctrine, and assure 
that the public debate remains an open one? 

• Understand what the Fairness Doctrine is, 
and what it is not. A new booklet, A 
Citizens' Primer of the Fairness Doctrine, 
published by the National Citizens' Commit- 
tee for Broadcasting (Box 12098, Washington 
DC 20005, $2.00), explains in plain English 
the history and uses of the Fairness Doctrine. 

• Join the Friends of the Fairness Doctrine, 
a nationwide coalition of some 70 citizens' 
groups, labor unions, religious organizations 
and concerned individuals working to pro- 
mote public understanding of what the 
Fairness -Doctrine is and why it's worth 
preserving. Address same as NCCB above. 

• Let key decision-makers in Washington 
know where you stand on fairness in broad- 
casting. Rep. Timothy Wirth of Colorado 
(2454 Rayburn House Office Bldg., 
Washington DC 205 15) chairs the House 
Telecommunications Subcommittee, and 
Rep. John Dingell of Michigan (2221 
Rayburn House Office Bldg., Washington 
DC 20515) chairs its parent Energy and Com- 
merce Committee. Both have endorsed the 
Fairness Doctrine, and have indicated their 
resolve to thwart any effort towards its 
repeal. They deserve your support. Sen. 
Barry Goldwater of Arizona (337 Russell 
Senate Office Bldg., Washington DC 20510) 
chairs the Senate Communications Subcom- 
mittee, and Sen. Bob Packwood of Oregon 
(1321 Dirksen Senate Office Bldg., 
Washington DC 20515) chairs its parent 
Commerce Committee. Both have expressed 
their opposition to the Fairness Doctrine, 
and Packwood has gone so far as to propose 
a constitutional amendment that would 
guarantee broadcasters "First Amendment 
parity" (and forget about the rest of us). 
These Senators should hear your views on the 
need to preserve fairness in broadcasting. 
Finally, FCC Chairman Mark Fowler (1919 
M St. NW, Washington DC 20554) now en- 
joys a conservative majority at the Commis- 
sion, and has persuaded that agency to go on 
record in opposition to the Fairness Doc- 
trine. Chairman Fowler should be reminded 
in whose interest broadcasting is regulated. ■ 

Joe Waz is deputy director of the National 
Citizens' Committee For Broadcasting 
(NCCB), a not-for-profit telecommunica- 
tions research and action center head- 
quartered in Washington DC. 

MAY 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



A LOOK AT MUSIC COPYRIGHT FOR FILM 

Legal Harmony: 
Tracking Down 
The Right Rights 



JOSEPH B. SPARKMAN 

The following article is reprinted from the 
March 1982 issue of Printed Matter, a 
quarterly newsletter published by the Media 
Project (PO Box 4093, Portland OR 97208). 
The Media Project sells a Copyright Primer 
for Film and Video, also by Sparkman, for 
$3.50 (plus $1 postage). Thanks to both for 
permission to republish. 

A Filmmaker needs background music for 
a number of poignant scenes for a motion 
picture he is planning to make. He is drawn 
to a copyrighted musical composition, Blue 
Blackwater, recently written and subsequent- 
ly recorded by Nan Grew, a popular 
composer-vocalist. While Filmmaker likes 
the recording Nan Grew made of her own 
music, he much prefers Dick Brown's record- 
ing of the same music, which Dick was able 
to produce, for only a few cents per record 
paid to Nan, under the compulsory license 
provision of the copyright law that applies to 
sound recordings. 

Filmmaker is puzzled about how to pro- 
ceed, what rights he needs, where to get 
them, what happens if he does not, etc. 

1. First, he wonders if he can get by 
without obtaining any permission, by merely 
giving credit in the film to the copyright 
owner. 

Answer: Giving credit is not nearly 
enough. Permissions must be obtained. 

2. He has heard of Dick Brown's com- 
pulsory license and wonders if he can get 
such a license for film use, and thus have to 
pay only a few cents for each copy of his 
film. 

Answer: No. The compulsory license pro- 
vision for sound recordings does not apply to 
motion pictures, but only gives the right, 
after a music owner makes a recording of his 
music, for another to make a "similar" 
recording or tape, not a motion picture 
soundtrack. By "similar," it is meant in the 
style or manner of the copier, but without 
changing the basic melody of the copyrighted 
musical work [sec. 115(a)(2)]. Also note: the 
compulsory license provision of the copyright 
law for sound recordings does not give a per- 
son the right to dub or transfer the sound 
recording of another. 

PERFORMANCE RIGHTS 

3. Filmmaker knows that the rights given the 
copyright owner of a sound recording are 

MAY 1982 



more limited than those possessed by other 
copyright owners in that the sound recording 
owner has no "performance rights." That is 
to say, he knows that a sound recording 
owner cannot prevent a record purchaser 
from playing it on the radio or in dance halls, 
etc. Filmmaker reasons that "performing" a 
motion picture must mean exhibiting it (he is 
correct) and thus concludes that he does not 
need Nan's permission because he is not us- 
ing her sound recording. Is he right? 




Answer: No. Filmmaker might argue that 
if Dick has no right to prevent the exhibition 
(performance) of a motion picture, he 
logically can have no right to prevent the in- 
corporation of Dick's recording in Film- 
maker's film, because there could be no 
reason for using the recording in the film if it 
was not to be exhibited. Filmmaker's logic 
may be admirable, but the copyright law is 
otherwise. He needs Dick's permission to 
make use of his sound recording. He also 
needs Nan's consent. While he has not used 
her recording, he has used her music, since 
Dick's recording is only Dick's version of 
Nan's music. That is, but for the compulsory 
licensing provision, Dick's sound recording 
would be an infringement of Nan's 
copyright. Since Dick's license is a limited 
one — to make a "similar" recording — and 
since a motion picture soundtrack is not a 
"similar" recording (in the eyes of the courts 
and the copyright law), Filmmaker needs the 
permission of both Dick and Nan. 

4. When Filmmaker approaches Dick for a 
license, he finds that Dick asks too high a 
price. Filmmaker knows that anyone else is 



free to simulate Dick's recording without a 
license from Dick, so Filmmaker takes Dick's 
recording and rearranges and remixes the 
sounds and prepares to use the resulting 
altered recording. Can he do so without 
license from Dick? 

Answer: No. He will need both kinds of 
permissions, because there are practically no 
"implied" rights in the copyright law. That is 
to say, obtaining one right does not carry 
with it any of the others. Thus, merely 
because a person buys an artistic work, such 
as a painting, gives no right to make copies of 
it; the right to make copies of a film does not 
give the right to exhibit the film; the right to 
perform does not carry with it the right to 
make copies, etc. Thus, he must obtain a 
license from Dick as well as Nan. In addition, 
if Filmmaker wants to make a sound record- 
ing disc or tape of the film soundtrack, he 
will need three licenses: a synchronization 
license from Dick, and both synchronization 
and performance licenses from Nan. 

5. Filmmaker gets some unexpected finan- 
cial help, so he will be able to pay for the 
needed licenses. In addition to his planned 
usage of Dick's sound recording of Blue 
Blackwater, he also wants to make use of a 
sound recording of another piece of music 
entitled Last Monday. While he knows where 
to go to obtain licenses regarding the Blue 
Blackwater recording, he knows nothing 
about the ownership of the various rights in 
Last Monday, except the name of the phono 
record company. He queries where he should 
go. 

STALKING THE REAL OWNER 

Answer: It is rare that a filmmaker will 
know the owner of the copyrighted music he 
wants to use. In fact, it is rare that a 
songwriter retains title. Usually it has been 
assigned to a publisher. Most often, the 
publisher will have assigned its performance 
rights to one of the performing rights 
societies (ASCAP, BMI or SESAC). Because 
of an injunction in an antitrust decree, while 
ASCAP and BMI are allowed to license per- 
formance rights for television, they cannot 
do so for theatres, insofar as concerns the 
United States. 

The publisher, typically, will have trans- 
ferred the "mechanical" rights to an agency 
for licensing the right to make records, tapes 
and soundtracks. The largest agency for 
these purposes is The Harry Fox Agency, 

IS 



THE INDEPENDENT 




Inc. (1 10 East 59 St., NY NY 10022). Smaller 
ones are the American Mechanical Rights 
Association and the Copyright Service 
Bureau. One of these "mechanical rights" 
agencies will usually hold the US theatre per- 
formance rights. Among the publishers who 
have not transferred their mechanical rights 
to an agency (and thus must be dealt with 
directly) are: Criterion Music Corp., Maclen 
Music, Inc., and Acuff-Rose Publications, 
Inc. But start with Harry Fox. If it does not 
handle the music, you will probably be 
started on the right track to finding the firm 
who can grant the license. 

For simplicity in explanation, assume that, 
considered as a musical composition, 
ASCAP holds the television performance 
rights in Last Monday, while Harry Fox 
holds not only the mechanical rights, but also 
the US theatre performance rights. Further 
assume that, considered as a second record- 
ing, XYZ Records, Inc. holds the mechanical 
rights in Last Monday. Note that record 
companies typically retain the mechanical 
rights in their sound recordings. 

Where Filmmaker goes depends on 
whether the film is to be shown on television 
or in the theatres. Suppose it is both. What 
he does is the following. For television show- 
ing, he gets: A. a performance license from 
16 



ASCAP; B. a musical composition syn- 
chronization license from Harry Fox; and C. 
a sound recording synchronization license 
from XYZ Records. For the theatre, Film- 
maker will follow the above procedure except 
that he will go to Harry Fox for both the 
musical composition synchronization and 
performance rights. 

In addition, Filmmaker should check into 
any required union "re-use" or "new-use" 
fees with the American Federation of Musi- 
cians [address below]. These fees are typically 
established in the contract leading up to the 
recorded performance of the music by union 
musicians. 

Remember, if any licensor is in error and 
does not have the right to grant the license it 
purports to grant, some independent check- 
ing is advisable, because the licensor's liabili- 
ty is usually limited in its contract to the fee 
paid by the filmmaker for the license. 

From an overall standpoint, Filmmaker 
will, at least theoretically, usually need the 
permission of A. a music publisher, B. a 
music union for re-use rights, C. record com- 
panies and D. artists (composers). Typically, 
however, a publisher will have obtained the 
artists' rights, ASCAP the television perfor- 
mance rights and Harry Fox the synchroniza- 



tion and US theatre performance rights. So 
for theatre showing, Filmmaker will need 
licenses only from Harry Fox and the music 
union. For television showing, add ASCAP. 

ALL CLEAR 

6. "Now," Filmmaker says, " I am in the 
clear, am I not, and can't I use the music in 
the film any way I want?" 

Answer: Not quite. Usually the clearance 
(license) will protect the composer against 
such changes that would be disparaging. And 
if Filmmaker is to make dramatic usage of 
the sound, he must go to the publisher, not 
ASCAP or BMI, because they do not license 
"grand" rights, i.e. dramatic rights. 

7. Filmmaker asks, "Is there any good 
reading material on music and film?" 

Answer: Yes. Refer to This Business of 
Music by Billboard Publications, Inc., 1515 
Broadway, New York NY 10036. The book 
has several chapters on the relationship of 
film and music. 

8. Filmmaker asks, "What about the small 
producer, who knows the songwriter and per- 
former, like Nan, and needs only her music 
and sound recordings. Does he have to go 
through all of the above legal hocus-pocus?" 

Answer: No. He can get all the necessary 
rights from Nan. 

9. Finally, Filmmaker asks, "What can 
happen to me if I fail to obtain the necessary 
licenses and permissions?" 

Answer: All sorts of horrible things, such 
as an injunction, "statutory" (specified 
amount) damages, or at the copyright 
owner's option actual damages and profits, 
attorney's fees and costs. There is even a 
possibility of being criminally charged if the 
infringement is deliberate. Filmmaker com- 
ments that he knows a number of friends 
who have gotten by without getting permis- 
sions and licenses, or if they have been 
caught, have received only a rap on the 
knuckles. It is true that a number of in- 
dependents have gotten by with unlicensed 
usage, either because it has gone undetected, 
or the big companies prefer to ignore the 
situation. However, if they should change 
their minds, the fat would really be in the 
fire. 

• 

Editor's Note: Information regarding 
musical publishers and authors can be ob- 
tained from the American Federation, of 
Musicians, 1500 Broadway, New York NY 
10036, (212) 869-1330; ASCAP, 6430 Sunset 
Boulevard, Los Angeles CA 90028, (213) 
466-7681, and Broadcast Music, Inc., 320 
West 57 St., New York NY 10019, (212) 
586-2000.) ■ 

Joseph B. Sparkman is a practicing 
copyright, trademark and patent lawyer 
based in Portland, Oregon. He writes a legal 
column for Printed Matter, and also con- 
tributes to numerous other publications. 

MAY 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



BOOKS 



Communications 
Fever 



KENNETH STIER 

THE ELECTRONIC NIGHTMARE 

by John Wicklein. Viking Press. 1981. $14.95 

Technology is the most important new 
feature of life in our times. No longer the 
product of basement tinkerers, technological 
advances arrive through massive corporate 
research and development efforts. Its very 
genesis in commercial and military 
laboratories taints technology's purported 
neutrality. To cite one example, nuclear 
power and its spin-offs is a technology with 
irresistible military and commercial benefits 
which only constitutes a threat to the rest of 
us. If we manage to avert a radioactive end, 
communications technology may radically 
alter our personal and political landscape, 
swiftly moving us toward either greater cen- 
tralization or decentralization and 
significantly reinforcing authoritarian or 
democratic aspects of our society. Describing 
the shape of the foreseeable future and mak- 
ing recommendations to democratize com- 
munications is the purpose of John 
Wicklein's timely and topical book, The 
Electronic Nightmare. 

The author has had a long career in print 
and electronic media in both public and 
private organizations, and is currently in 
charge of funding for public affairs and news 
programming for the Corporation for Public 
Broadcasting. In this lucid and remarkably 
ingenuous book, his concern for democratic 
communications is evidently heartfelt. 

PROMISE OR THREAT? 

In eight chapters Wicklein describes the 
broad promises and threats of the new com- 
munications technology, illustrating his 
arguments with glimpses of systems already 
implemented across the globe. In sometimes 
sketchy treatments, he examines the potential 
of two-way cable, using examples in Japan, 
the QUBE system, and Reading, Penn- 
sylvania, paying particular attention to the 
video-text experiments in England. He offers 
a valuable elucidation of journalistic issues 
surrounding the birth of the 'electronic 
newspaper,' and a chronicle of the 
outrageous rip-off of the public (by now a 
hallowed American tradition) in the develop- 
ment of publicly-funded but privately- 
enriching satellites. Also included are a 
survey of the model Sweden offers for pro- 
tecting privacy, and a look at Brazil's history 
of censorship, with an unsettling scenario of 

MAY 1982 



how it might operate if technologically 
enhanced (a prospect which dispels any suspi- 
cion that the title of this book is too lurid). 
As Wicklein threads his way through the 
maze of new technologies and their applica- 
tions, he remains unbeguiled by hype, con- 
cluding that the new communications con- 
stitute a "clear and present danger." What is 
really disturbing is that his sometimes alarm- 
ist portrayal seems more accurate each time 
one looks at the industry. 

Wicklein imagines a monolithic electronic 
web as our likely future, rather than the 
various disjointed hardware strands that we 
have today: "All modes of communication 
we humans have devised since the beginnings 
of our humanity are coming together now in 
a single electronic system, driven by com- 
puters." The focal point will be the home 
communication set (HCS), a TV linked to a 
computer by a keyboard. Plugged into socie- 
ty in such a manner, we will be able to con- 
duct virtually the entire range of human ac- 
tivities through the electronic magnetic spec- 
trum. This is the wonder and the root of the 
threat. 

TOTAL SURVEILLANCE POSSIBLE 

An integrated network would offer virtual- 
ly complete control of content to those own- 
ing and operating the telecommunications 
system. This control of content — both that 
flowing from information providers to the 
home, and that flowing out of the home to 
various corporate and governmental destina- 
tions — remains the crucial issue. Will the 
already narrow range of information sources 
dwindle further? Will privacy as we know it 
effectively become obsolete, as advertisers, 
political strategists, inquisitive governments 
and those in power rifle the computer files 
which would store the substance of every 
transaction on the HCS? 

The most disturbing trend is the merger of 
content providers and transmitters: witness 
the coup AT&T engineered so that it now can 
also be an information vendor, or the 
telepublisher status sought by the cable 
operators. Monopolistic or oligopolic control 
is a threat anywhere, though in this country it 
is less likely to come from the government 
than from corporations. 

Separating ownership of the technology 
from control of the content is the principle 
that should be incorporated in communica- 
tions systems and, in fact, guides the Western 
European public telecommunications car- 



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17 




Emile de Antonio will screen Underground (his 1976 
portrait of the Weather Underground and their 
analysis of revolutionary struggle) and discuss his 
experiences as a documentary filmmaker on May 5 at 
the Collective for Living Cinema, 52 White Street, 
8pm. An FIVF Screening/Discussion. Call 473-3400 



THE INDEPENDENT 



riers, effectively guarding against otherwise 
tempting abuses. Regrettably, just as the 
foundation for an extended electronic ner- 
vous system is being laid in the US, our 
government, seized by supply-side fever, is 
loosening the few remaining restraints on 
corporate pursuit of total telecommunica- 
tions control. 

COWBOY CAPITALISM & THE FCC 

Recently, in the new communications 
magazine, Channels, editor Les Brown (a 
former New York Times TV critic) 
characterized FCC chairman Mark Fowler as 
dangerously unaware that "his actions could 
affect the quality of our lives, or ... the 
future of the American democratic system. 
He is a regulatory nihilist in control of an 
agency that is supposed to look after the 
public's stake in electronic communications, 
an ideologue who believes that free markets 
are the answer to everything." At this crucial 
phase of moving into the "information age" 
cowboy capitalism rides particularly 
roughshod over the public interest. 

Wicklein is concerned that private in- 
tiatives in telecommunications be harnessed 
to ensure the public's interest. Curiously 
missing in his discussion is the role the Con- 
gress might play, and is beginning to, in the 
formulation of policy. Instead, Wicklein 
looks to the President for guidance. He 
acknowledges that "as a practical mat- 
ter — given the American form of govern- 
ment, media and education — the public is not 
likely to become sharply aware or concerned 
about this [communication issues] unless it is 
brought to its consciousness by the President. 
To do this the President must himself under- 
stand what is at stake in the communications 
system and be determined to shape its 
development in the public interest." This 
blithe suggestion is ironic considering the 
"broadcast as business" philosophy of our 
current presidential media mannequin. 

It is probably a measure of his earnestness 
and sense of urgency that along with this, 
Wicklein advocates the establishment of a 
Cabinet-level Department of Communica- 
tions that would formulate a coherent na- 
tional policy. While he's at it, he also sug- 
gests a reconstitution of the FCC to "make it 
responsive to the public's need rather than 
commercial needs." These are noble but 
slightly chimerical notions, considering the 
weight of precedents that they would have to 
shrug off. 
IS 



In his conclusion Wicklein offers many 
specific recommendations which go far 
beyond the current range of debate. For one, 
he advocates the establishment of a "non- 
profit public interest news organization on 
the model of Ralph Nader's consumer in- 
terest research organizations in DC," this to 
"guarantee that non-corporate, non- 
establishment points of view are included in 
the public's electronic information systems." 
He also urges us to consider something still 
largely unthinkable in the US: a non-profit 
public telecommunications corporation that 
would run a user-controlled "National Infor- 
mation Utility" to ensure inclusion of all in 
the benefits of the "information age." If it is 
true that it takes about thirty years for a pro- 
gressive idea to be implemented, we may have 
to wait until the situation becomes quite dire 
before much is changed. 

I hope it is plain that I consider this an im- 
portant book, written for the general public 
in an accessible if sometimes lackluster style. 
The subject matter is profound and the treat- 
ment far-reaching. This overview of telecom- 
munications and its social implications 
deserves wide recognition. ■ 

After a flirtation with a particularly nasty 
Fortune 500 company, Ken Stier has commit- 
ted himself to the freer and purer (though 
more precarious) pastures of the freelancer. 

In Focus, continued from page 8 

camera joined to the optics of the familiar 
flatbed. The video camera sees a stream of 
film frame images seamlessly lap-dissolving 
into one another, dispatching frame rate pro- 
blems altogether! The film can be 
transported at any speed, and the video 
camera, regardless of video frame rate, will 
reproduce clear images. This provides an ap- 
pealing alternative to stretching 24 film 
frames over 30 of video, but there is a price to 
be paid. The images dissolve into one another 
through a process of optical compensation 
whereby parts of three frames are always pre- 
sent in the perceived single image. Further- 
more, distortion of image geometry increases 
in the peripheral areas during interframe 
dissolves. Over the years, film chain projec- 
tors have been devised in this country based 
on the polygon prism, and Rank Cintel in the 
late 1950s adapted the principle to a flying 
spot design. None of these efforts were com- 
mercially successful. It will be interesting to 
follow the fortunes of this current manifesta- 
tion, for despite the endorsement of Francis 
Coppola, it is questionable whether 
broadcast-quality transfers are possible with 
this method. 

FILMING AT 30 FPS 

In NTSC 30 fps countries like the United 
States, the frame rate problem could also be 
entirely avoided by filming at 30 fps. This 
would facilitate all film-to-tape applications 
and provide a bonus in image definition. 



Transferring images from 24 fps to 30 fps by 
extracting an additional video field from 
every other frame of film renders two out of 
every five video frames false. In other words, 
two out of five are a composite, an interlace 
of fields scanned from adjacent but separate 
film frames. Transferring film to video on a 
1:1 basis, as is the practice in Europe, is felt 
by many to offer significantly enhanced 
results. Of course, film exposed at 30 fps 
would be consigned to telecine and could not 
be projected conventionally as film. Practical 
problems include the increased consumption 
of film at the higher frame rate, the cor- 
responding rise in camera noise, and the lack 
of 30 fps crystal synch in available cameras. 
The Bosch linear array CCD telecine and the 
digital Rank flying spot scanner, however, 
are outfitted to transfer 30 fps film. 

As film-to-tape increasingly makes its 
presence felt, those involved will recognize 
that different systems and combinations of 
systems will yield a variety of outcomes in the 
areas of color and contrast. No image record- 
ing medium, including film, is linear in 
response. Each "contributes" something to 
the image, usually something undesirable. 
Silver halide film emulsions are inordinately 
sensitive to blue wavelengths, and CCDs in- 
sensitive. Telecine color correction systems, 
moreover, range widely in approach and 
sophistication. All of this suggests an analogy 
to an (imaginary) multiplicity of motion pic- 
ture print stocks, each representing a choice 
in latitude, saturation and color. Undoubted- 
ly there is plenty of fodder here for future 
controversy. 

FOOTNOTE 

While it is not the intent of this column to 
endorse products or publications, it is strong- 
ly felt by the author that the March 1982 issue 
of American Cinematographer — typically a 
house organ of the Hollywood-based com- 
mercial motion picture establishment — is 
particularly worthwhile. Addressing the topic 
of Electronic Cinematography, this substan- 
tive issue is a primer that will serve as a 
thorough introduction to the frontiers of 
video and film. Subjects include high- 
definition television, video lighting, elec- 
tronic cinematography cameras, digital 
video, video-assisted film editing, post-audio 
processing, etc. Not to be missed. ■ 

David W. Leitner is an independent pro- 
ducer who works at DuArt Film Labs in New 
York. Next month: Film Color vs. Video 
Color. 

Correspondence, continued from page 3 

Relief for their courage in committing 
themselves to straightforward action. I hope 
v4/KFwill follow suit! 

I shall be so bold as to be prophetic. The 
American and European dominance of infor- 
mation resources will end. The so-called 
Third World will become equal partners in 

MAY 1982 



information wealth and those who stand to 
block this inevitable change will be left far 
behind. There will be no bandwagon to con- 
veniently jump upon for those lagging. 

Mark A. Hukill 
Niamey, Niger 



HOWL FROM THE NORTHWEST 

Dear Independent: 

Another howl from the hinterlands: we're 
in postproduction on our no-budget feature 
film, an R-rated 100-minute 16mm color. 
Things are starting to shake in Portland. 
Penny Allen's just completed her second 
feature and is being test-marketed in 
Honolulu. We're looking for a distributor. 
Dave Ling has a two-thirds completed 
feature. Don Gronquist is in post on a 35mm 
low-budget horror-type movie. Small Win- 
dows, a 16mm blow-up, was completed long 
ago and still seeks distribution. Tom Shaw, 
whose equipment makes many of the above 
films, has shelved The Great Oregon Kidnap 
Caper for lack of a distributor, and another 
half dozen have prospectuses circulating. Not 
much coordination of efforts though. Every 
filmmaker for itself and the government 
against all. Well, my time is up on this electric 
typewriter so it's back to the pyrite mines. 
Just wanted to touch base. I find your pub 
helpful, Steve Lustgarten 

American Taboo Productions 



NEW OPTION 

Dear Independent: 

I'm currently making frantic efforts in 
relation to gaining finance from Channel 4, 
the new channel broadcasting in England 
since November '82. My group, Co-option, is 
battling to get funding for a women's film 
and video project, which not only looks at 
the interface between the two media but also 
takes as its theme "Woman as subject, 
creator and audience." We intend to set up a 
project that will teach practical skills in film 
and video production, alongside theoretical 
seminar/screenings which will engender 
critical feminist practice. Eventually, we en- 
visage a series of productions (on tape, film 
or whatever) which will involve women who 
either have had precious experience in media 
or have started with no practical experience 
at all and have developed their practice 
through involvement with the project. As 
you will understand, all this is taking up a 
large amount of time/energy and financially 
is at a very critical stage. Fuller details to 
follow. Jini Rowlings 

• 
Editor's Note: Jini Rowlings is a member of 
London Video Arts, and is also on the 
editorial collective of Undercut, the 
magazine of the London Filmmakers' 
Cooperative. She is working on an article on 
British video for The Independent, but has 
been so busy that for now, she sent this letter 
instead. ■ 

MAY 1982 



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Bilora light-weight tripod 


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Sony DXC-1610. color 


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Camera extension cable 


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Hitachi FP-3030. color 


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19 



THE INDEPENDENT 



PRINCIPLES & RESOLUTIONS 
OF THE ASSOCIATION 



AIVF FOUNDING PRINCIPLES 

1. The Association is a service organi- 
zation of and for independent video 
and filmmakers. 

2. The Association encourages excel- 
lence, commitment and independence; 
it stands for the principle that video and 
filmmaking is more than just a job — 
that it goes beyond economics to in- 
volve the expression of broad human 
values. 

3. The Association works, through the 
combined effort of the membership, to 
provide practical, informational and 
moral support for independent video 
and filmmakers and is dedicated to en- 
suring the survival and providing sup- 
port for the continuing growth of in- 
dependent video and filmmaking. 

4. The Association does not limit its 
support to one genre, ideology or 
aesthetic, but furthers diversity of vi- 
sion in artistic and social consciousness. 

5. The Association champions indepen- 
dent video and film as valuable and 
vital expressions of our culture and is 
determined, by mutual action, to open 
pathways toward exhibition of this 
work to the community at large. 



AIVF RESOLUTIONS 

1. To affirm the creative use of media 
in fostering cooperation, community & 
justice in human relationships without 
respect to age, sex, race, class or 
religion. 

2. To recognize and reaffirm the 
freedom of expression of the indepen- 
dent film and videomaker, as spelled 
out in the AIVF principles. 

3. To promote constructive dialogue 
and heightened awareness among the 
membership of the social, artistic and 
personal choices involved in the pursuit 
of both independent and sponsored 
work, via such mechanisms as screen- 
ings and forums. 

4. To continue to work to strengthen 
AIVFs services to independents, in 
order to help reduce the membership's 
dependence on the kinds of sponsorship 
which encourage the compromise of 
personal values. 



AIVF FORUM 




Members show appreciation for staff reports. From left: Jane Morrison, President; Lawrence Sapadin, Executive 
Director; Sol Horwitz, Short Film Showcase Project Administrator. 



MEMBERS MEET 

AIVF held its annual membership meeting 
on March 23, 1982. Opening remarks were 
delivered by President Jane Morrison and 
Executive Director Lawrence Sapadin, with 
the Association staff reporting further on the 
highlights of 1981, and goals for 1982. 

Discussion was then opened up to the 
membership, with one member signalling the 
need for greater minority representation on 
the AIVF staff. 

The most extensive discussion was reserved 
for the question of whether it is proper for 
the Association Board to take or endorse 
positions on social or political issues which 
are not directly related to independent film or 



video production (i.e. the military budget, El 
Salvador, abortion). After extensive discus- 
sion on both sides, a consensus was reached 
that the general question should be placed 
before the entire membership through a 
referendum vote accompanying ballots for 
new Board members. 

Following the open forum, nominations, 
including several received in advance by mail, 
were made and seconded: 
Ayoka Chenzira, Daniel Edelman, Lillian 
Jimenez, Peter Kinoy, Robert Richter, Tom 
Turley, William Greaves, Manny Kirch- 
heimer, Denise Oliver, Matthew Clarke, 
Martha Rosier, Jackie Shearer, Marc Weiss. 

The meeting closed with food, drink and 
a party that took us into the next business 
day. ■ 



MINUTES OF MARCH MEETING 
AIVF BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

• CPB — AIVF addressed the CPB 
Board at its March 4, 1982 meeting in op- 
position to a proposed restructuring of the 
Program Fund. In response, at least in 
part, to pressure from the independent 
community, the CPB Board voted to re- 
tain the current Program Fund structure. 
(For details, see Media Clips, this issue.) 

• WNET: AIVF has received word that 
the Independent Focus series selection 
process went well, with the panel having 
played a strong role in selecting the series' 
films and tapes. 

• THE INDEPENDENT: Kathleen 
Hulser, new editor of The Independent, 
discussed her plans for the FIVF magazine 
and sought ideas from the Board for new 
development. Areas for growth include 
expanded coverage of foreign markets, 
cable and minority issues. The publication 
is currently seeking a new advertising 
representative, and is expected to grow to 
32 pages with the Summer issue. 



20 



• UNION COMMITTEE: Has met with 
Tom Turley (NABET 15) and John Sucke 
(SAG) to analyze union contracts and 
discuss closer working relationship be- 
tween indies and the unions. Scheduled to 
meet with Doug Hart (IATSE Local 644) 
on March 22. For more information on 
upcoming meetings, call AIVF at (212) 
473-3400. 

•FESTIVAL BUREAU: Bureau chief 
Wendy Lidell reported that the fest pro- 
gram has been growing, and will be run- 
ning an expanded column in The Indepen- 
dent. Bureau is seeking membership feed- 
back on quality of festivals attended. 

• ED ASNER SUPPORT: Board re- 
solved to send a letter of support to Ed 
Asner affirming his right to speak out — in 
his individual capacity — on political issues 
without imperiling his position as presi- 
dent of the Screen Actors' Guild. 

AIVF Board meetings are scheduled for 
7:30pm on the second Wednesday of each 
month. Meetings are open to the public. 
Members are encouraged to attend and 
share their views with the Board. ■ 



MAY 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



MORE FESTIVALS 



MORE FESTIVALS has been compiled by Slan Evans, Marina Obsatz and 
Wendy Udell with the help of Gadney's Guides and the FIVF files. 
Listings do not constitute an endorsement, and since some details 
change faster than we do, we recommend that you contact the festival 
for further information before sending your prints or tapes. Application 
forms for some festivals are available to members on request from the 
FIVF office. If your experience with a particular festival is different from 
how we report it, please let us know so we can improve our reliability. 



FOREIGN 

• BRAZIL SUPERS FILM FESTIVAL, 
August, is held in Sao Paulo for one week. The 
contest invites entries in Super-8 and 8mm, no 
more than 20 minutes in length, in the categories 
of Fiction, Documentary, Animation, Experimen- 
tal, Educational and Humor. Awardees win a six- 
month tour of Brazil, which begins after the 
festival. Entry fee not required; festival pays 
return postage. Entries are due in June. Contact: 
Abrao Berman, Grife-Acao Super-8 Center of 
Cinema Studies, Rua Estados Unidos 2240, 01427 
Sao Paulo-SP, Brazil. 

• OTTAWA INTERNATIONAL ANIMATION 
FILM FESTIVAL, August 13-18, was established 
in 1976 by the Canadian Film Institute to celebrate 
world animation art. Along with the Zagreb 
Festival which takes place in May, Ottawa alter- 
nates biennially with Varna and Annecy. These 
four festivals are generally recognized as the major 
animation festivals. Entries in 70, 35 and 16mm 
which have premiered within the last year are in- 
vited for competition in the following categories: 
under 3 Minutes, 3-30 Minutes, Promotional 
(commercials, PSAs and fillers), Student's First, 
Independent Filmmaker, For Children and In- 
structional. Festival may show one minute on 
television for publicity. No entry fee; entrant pays 
postage. Entry deadline: June 1; films by June 15. 
Contact: Kelly O'Brien, Director, Canadian Film 
Institute, 75 Albert Street, ste. 911, Ottawa, On- 
tario KIP 5E7, Canada, (613) 238-6748. 

• SALERNO INTERNATIONAL FESTIVAL 
OF CINEMA FOR CHILDREN AND YOUTH, 
July-August. Established ten years ago, this 
festival is sponsored by the Ministry of Tourism 
and recognized by UNICEF and UNESCO. Its aim 
is to deal with youth and childhood-oriented 
themes, and also to give young people a chance to 
show work that they have produced themselves. 
Categories include: Story, Animation, Teaching- 
Information, Documentary and Problems of 
Childhood. Medals, certificates and sponsored 
prizes are awarded to selected films. Films are 
selected by juries of children and youth. No entry 
fee; entrants pay all postage. Entry deadline: June. 
Contact: Claudio Gubitosi, Artistic Director, 
84095 Giffone Valle Piana, Salerno, Italy. 

• SAN SEBASTIAN INTERNA TIONAL FILM 
FESTIVAL, September. Since 1953, San Sebastian 
has stressed the importance of film as an art form, 
and offers a showcase for international producers, 
directors, technicians and artists. Once one of the 
world's leading festivals, it has suffered from time, 
political strife and the fickleness of popularity. 
However, "old soldiers never die," and last year 
40,000 people were estimated to have attended this 
12 day annual event. (A maximum of 23 features 

MAY 1982 



are accepted into the festival with a limit of 4 per 
country. The other categories are: Short, up to 35 
minutes; Experimental-Artistic, for "limited- 
exhibition independent, marginal, underground 
films"; and New Directors. Prizes are given out to 
selected works in all categories, the most coveted 
being the "Donostia Prize" ($10,000) awarded in 
the New Directors section. Films are accepted in 
any gauge but may not have been commercially ex- 
hibited in Europe except for the country of origin. 
Work must have been completed within the last 1 2 
months. No entry fee; entrant pays postage. Entry 
deadline: June. Contact: Pilar Olascoaga, General 
Secretary, Reina Regente s-n, PO Box 397, San 
Sebastian (Guipuzcoa), Spain. 

• TOURFILM INTERNATIONAL FESTIVAL 
OF TOURIST FILMS, October. Established in 
1968, this festaval is held in Karlovy-Vary, 
Czechoslovakia for one week. Its purpose is to 
promote tourism through a broad international 
screening to an expected audience of 10,000 
viewers and it is recognized by all Government 
Committees for Tourism of socialist states. The 
festival accepts entries in 16 and 35mm to a max- 
imum of 25 minutes in length, and awards several 
prizes to selected entrants. Categories are: 
Documentary, Reportage, Animated and Acted. 
There is an entry fee of $50, but the festival pays 
return postage. Entry deadline: June. Contact: 
Ing. Lidmila Vaiglova, Director, Government 
Committee for Tourism, Staromestske Namesti 6, 
11001 Prague 1, Czechoslovakia. Second Contact: 
Jiri Mikes, Mekur, Vaclauseke Nanestriz 8, 11213 
Prague 1, Czechoslovakia. 

DOMESTIC 

• CHICAGOLAND EDUCATIONAL FILM 
FESTIVAL, October, is a growing competitive 
film festival held annually in Chicago. Sponsored 
by the Division of Visual Education of the Chicago 
Board of Education, Northeastern University and 
St. Xavier College, the Festival views independent 
and commercial films which are suitable for the 
educational market. This subject limitation does 
not, however, restrict the quality and variety of 
films entered and viewed here. Started in 1976 with 
just over 100 entries, the Festival has expanded to 
nearly 400 entries sent primarily from the coastal 
and stylistic extremes of New York City and 
California. Entries, due by late June, are pre- 
viewed by teaching professionals and the public at 
Northeastern University. Final judging is done by 
film producers at the two-day screenings, which 
are held at two separate locations on opposite sides 
of Chicago in order that more of the public may 
attend. Winning entries are actively distributed to 
schools and libraries. Submissions should be 
16mm film, under 30 minutes long. Entry fee is 
$15. Contact: Fred Rosengarden, 1849 West Per- 
shing Rd., 3rd floor, Chicago, IL 60609, (312) 
254-4550. 




We need your assistance to monitor 
festivals accurately and keep producers 
apprised of the most up-to-date 
developments in this quickly changing 
area. 

Use this checklist to evaluate each 
festival you enter, and write us with your 
responses. Both good and bad impres- 
sions or experiences are valuable in 
tracking a festival's performance. 

The Festival Bureau's effectiveness 
depends on your participation. Thanks! 

1. Was the selection process fair? If 
not, how was it unfair? The rate struc- 
ture? 

2. How accessible/inpenetrable/helpful 
was the festival's office and staff? 

3. How was your print/tape handled? 
Was it returned promptly? Damaged? 

4. Was the festival well attended by: 

• critics/press people? 

• the public? 

• buyers (exhibitors, distributors, 
TV programmers)? 

5. Did you get enough press? Sufficient 
exposure? Did you make any sales? 

6. How was the festival set up to en- 
courage or discourage these results? 

• Were press conferences held? 

• Were exhibitions conveniently 
scheduled and located? 

• Was there sufficient publicity? 

• Were private screenings pos- 
sible? 

7. What was the best thing about the 
festival? 

8.What was the worst thing about the 
festival? 

9.Did you have a good time if you went? 

lO.Did the festival live up to its pro- 
mises? Was it worth entering? 

Send your reports to: 

FIVF, 625 Broadway, 9th floor, New 

York NY 10012, or call: (212) 473-3400 



21 



THE INDEPENDENT 



SHIPMENT TO 

OTTA WA 

ANIMATION FESTIVAL 

IN ORDER to help you avoid hassles with 
strict Canadian customs regulations on film 
"imports, " the FIVF Festival Bureau will be 
shipping entries to the Ottawa International 
Animation Festival. (See listing in this issue 
for festival description.) 



ALL ENTRIES must arrive in the FIVF office 
no later than May 31. 

ENTRY FORMS will be available from the of- 
fice on request, and must be mailed directly 
to the Ottawa Animation Festival by June 1. 
Our film shipment will not reach Ottawa until 
June 15, so this is important! 

REQUIRED with your film entry: 

• Return address (and phone if) on FILM 
CAN and CASE! 

• Synopsis of film 

• Three stills 

• Animator's biography 



HANDLING FEE: 




AIVF members 


Non-members 


Up to 5 minutes $5 


$8 


5-15 minutes 6 


9 


15 - 30 minutes 7 


10 



ADDITIONAL PRESS MATERIAL beyond the 
requirements are always advisable. For entry 
forms and more information call Marina Ob- 
satz at FIVF, (212) 473-3400, or Kelly O'Brien 
in Ottawa, (613) 238-6748. 



PLANNING 

TO MO VE? 

It takes 4 to 6 weeks to process changes 

of address, renewals and other changes in 

your mailing status. Don't wait until after 

you have moved to send AIVF your new 

address. Give us as much advance notice 

as possible and include your current mailing 

label, and you'll keep on receiving The 

Independent without interruption 



HAVEN'T YOU JOINED YET? 

AIVF membership brings you services, 

health insurance, 10 issues of The Independent, 

and a voice in Washington. $25/year. 

AIVF, 625 Broadway, NYC NY 10012. (212) 473-3400 



No Go Video? 

Many festivals are beginning to accept 
videotape, although our most recent informa- 
tion may not reflect this. If a particular 
festival seems appropriate for your tape, you 
should call them and ask if they will accept 
video. If they don't, encourage them to start. 
Enough requests may begin to influence their 
policy! 



• CINDY COMPETITION, September, is spon- 
sored by the Information Film Producers of 
America, and occurs at their annual Conference 
and Trade Show. Eastman Kodak also supports 
the event, which is oriented towards audiovisual 
material for communication as opposed to enter- 
tainment. From an average of 800 16mm and 
videotape entries, 100 winners are chosen for 
grants of up to $1500 in cash, services and equip- 
ment. The emphasis is on "career-oriented" and 
industrial producers rather than "independents". 
Preliminary judging is held in IFPA regional 
chapters. Fees range from $25 to $85 for entries, 
which are due in June. Contact: IFPA, 750 East 
Colorado Blvd., Suite 6, Pasadena CA 91101, 
(213)795-7866. 

• HOMETOWN USA FILM AND VIDEO 
COMPETITION AND FESTIVAL, August, is 
sponsored by the National Federation of Local 
Cable Programmers (NFLCP). This "national 
homegrown" festival was originated in 1978 for a 
variety of purposes, which include: creating a 
showcase for public access channels, publicizing 
community use of cable TV for "social change and 
community communications," aiding "indepen- 
dent video and filmmakers and public access pro- 
grammers," and "showing the state-of-the-art of 
public access programming as it exists today." 
After winners are screened at the NFLCP annual 
convention, they are distributed on the "National 
Bicycle Tour" to any public place which offers to 
serve as a host site. Entries must be accompanied 
by disclosure of the source of funds. Themes in- 
clude Public Affairs, special audiences, Women 
and Minorities etc., and cover just about anything. 
Past winners have included Showdown at the 
Hoedown, a documentary on a Tennessee Fid- 
dlers' Jamboree; This is TV— America by Tom 
Dewitt and Air Farce of Albany NY, consisting of 
street interviews intercut with examples of the pro- 
grams discussed and skits on TV fare; As Large as 
Life and Twice as Natural by University Com- 
munity Video Center of Minneapolis, a documen- 
tary on a Twin Cities jazz group; A Common 
Man's Courage also by University Community 
Video, about John T. Bernard of north Min- 
nesota, a radical Congressman in the 30s and 40s. 
Host sites are sent press material and asked to pay 
a sponsoring fee for 5 Vi hours of programming. 
Entry fee: $5, due June 21. Contact: Madison 
Community Access Center, 1024 Regent St., 
Madison WI 53715, (608) 222-7317. 



ATTENTION 
PRODUCTION FACILITIES 

We are updating our Directory of Film/ 

Video Editing Facilities & Screening 

Rooms. Our 1200 members use this 

directory daily. Those interested in getting 

listed should send detailed information to: 

Odessa Flores, AIVF, 625 Broadway, 

New York NY 10012, or call (212) 

473-3400. 



• INTERCOM, Sept. 17, is a competition held in 
occasional years to applaud exceptional industrials 
in 35 and 16mm film and V* " and VHS videotapes. 
Once part of the Chicago International Film 
Festival, the judging is now conducted privately by 
Chicago professionals. Entries are sent to panels 
of more than 100 jurists. Production budgets are a 
relevant factor in the judging. Winners are an- 
nounced at a banquet attended by an average of 
400 people. There are no fees or limits on length, 
and submissions are due June 18. The sponsor and 
organizer of this Festival is Cinema/Chicago, also 
the organizer for the Chicago International Film 
Festival, as well as other festivals and film-related 
events throughout the year. Contact: 
Cinema/Chicago, M. Kutza, 415 North Dearborn 
St., Chicago IL 60610, (312) 644-3400. 

• INTERNATIONAL WILDLIFE FILM 
FESTIVAL AND CONFERENCE, July 9-11, is a 
function of the International Wildlife Foundation. 
This year the event occurs at the Hyatt Regency in 
Dearborn, Michigan; past sites have included Las 
Vegas and Reno. The Foundation is supported 
solely by individual donations for the express pur- 
pose of developing a platform for wildlife film- 
makers. Proceeds will go towards an as yet 
unrealized Wildlife Museum in Tucson. Much 
money is spent on the Festival catalogue, which is 
replete with the names of those who attend the 
Festival, particularly those with money or publici- 
ty to give. Fees for 16mm or Vs " entries are also 
"personalized" — you must pay $25 to $75, accord- 
ing to your status as Broadcast, Distributed Pro- 
fessional or Amateur. Entrants pay their own 
postage. Past judges have included Chris Parsons 
of the BBC Natural History unit, photographer 
Leonard Lee Rue III, and producer Fred Trost. 
Past winners in the category of Broadcast include 
Partridge Films, BBC, and ABC; in the 
Distributed category, South African Tourist Cor- 



COMING 
SOON 

Festival Entry Deadlines in July 

• San Mateo County Fair Fairworld Film Festival • 
Cannes International Amateur Film Festival • 
Northern Pennsylvania Filmmakers Society (NPFS) 
Amateur Super 8 Competition • Besancon Interna- 
tional Musical and Choreographic Film Festival • 
Gold Mercury International Film Award • Freedoms 
Foundation National Awards (School Category) • 
New York Film Festival • Festival of Festivals. 
Toronto • Montreal World Film Festival • 
Northwest Film and Video Festival • Columbus In- 
ternational Film Festival • Techtilm International 
Film Festival on Scientific and Technical Progress 

• PSA-MPD Teenage Film Festival • San Antonio 
Cine Festival 



Festival Entry Deadlines in August 

• Society of Amateur Cinematographers (SAC) In- 
ternational Amateur Film Festival • West of 
England International Film Festival • Chicago * 
Documentary Film Event of the Non-Aligned World 

• Cine Magic SVA Short Film Search •Sitges Inter- 
national Fantasy and Horror Film Festival • San 
Francisco International Film Festival • Telluride 
Film Festival • Banff International Festival of Films 
for Television • London Film Festival • Mannheim' 
International Film Week • Figueira da Foz Interna- 
tional Cinema Festival • San Sebastian Interna- 
tional Medical Film Festival • Hong Kong Indepen 
dent Short Film Festival • Cineslud International 
Festival of Student-Made Films • Cork International 
Junior Film Festival • K'ani International Festival ot 
Sport and Tourist Films 

"Applications are available from the FIVF office 
For more information call Penny Bernstein at (212) 
695-2542 or 929-0022 



22 



MAY 1982 




Lucy Winer's Greetings From Washington preemed at the San Fran Gay Film & Video Fest last year. This documen- 
tary, concerning the 1978 National March on Washington for Lesbian & Gay Rights, will be screened during The In- 
dependent Closet, an FIVF Screening/Discussion about gay & lesbian independent media, June 8, 7:30pm. 

poration and the Provincial Government of 
Quebec; in the Amateur category, Robert Landis, 
Denis Irwin and Theodore Wyckoff. Entries due 
by June 5. Contact: Eric Hubbell, 5151 East 
Broadway, Tucson AZ 85711, (602) 745-0126. 



• MARGARET MEAD FILM FESTIVAL, Fall, 
is named after the famed anthropologist whose 
pioneering work in multi-media-facilitated 
research did so much to establish and encourage 
the use of film for documentation and analytical 
purposes. Beyond creating a body of irreplaceable 
anthropological material, Mead championed that 
aspect of documentation which has made an- 
thropology an extremely accessible source of 
public education. Some 40 films in 16mm are pre- 
selected for 5 screening areas in the American 
Museum of Natural History. In some years the 
works of particular outstanding anthropological 
filmmakers are featured, such as David and Judith 
MacDougal's work on Australian aborigines. 
Almost 75% of the films are by independents. 
Topics range from tapdancing to labor 
movements, blues history, Eskimos and The Cows 



HEALTH INSURANCE 

FOR AIVF MEMBERS 

• 

AIVF now offers its members an excellent 

Group Life & Medical Insurance Plan. 

Highlights include: 

• $1,000,000 Major Medical Plan, which 
pays 85% of all eligible expenses hot 

covered by the Basic Plan 

• $10,000 Group Life and $10,000 Group 
Accidental Death or Dismemberment 

Insurance 

• Partial psychiatric coverage 

• Reimbursement for illness, injury & 

hospital expenses 

• 

If you are a member, write: 

AIVF Health Plan, TEIGIT, 551 Fifth Ave., 

New York, NY 10017. If you're not, call 

AIVF at 473-3400 and ask for free 
membership & health plan brochures. 



of Doloken Paye. Entries are due in June. Con- 
tact: Florence Stone, American Museum of 
Natural History, 79th St. and Central Park West, 
New York NY 10024 (212) 873-1300. 

• NATIONAL MENTAL HEALTH FILM 
FESTIVAL, November, takes place at the NMHA 
annual meeting. Films in 16mm are judged 
regionally before the competitive viewing at the 
Festival. Categories include Aging and Aged, 
Child-Adolescent, Minority, Mental Illness and 
Treatment, and Documentaries over 30 minutes in 
length. Fees vary. Although there are no cash 
prizes, the exposure to a target audience of poten- 
tial users is clearly advantageous for appropriate 
films. Entries due in June. Contact: Lyn Schultz- 
Writsel, 1800 North Kent St., Arlington, VA 
22209, (703) 528-6405. 

• SAN FRANCISCO GAY FILM AND VIDEO 
FESTIVAL, June 21-26, features over 50 films in- 
cluding some 10 features, at the Castro and Roxy 
Theatres in San Francisco and the Pacific Film Ar- 
chive in Berkeley. Originally organized in 1976 by 
a group called Persistence of Vision, the non-profit 
video and film collective Frameline has since 
assumed operation of the Festival. Frameline has 
now combined the Gay Film and Video 
Festivals — previously separate events — with the 
video portion shown on public access TV in San 
Francisco. Films in 35, 16 and Super-8mm, and 
Vt" videotape are prescreened by category: 
Feature, Documentary, Shorts, Super-8 and 
Video. More than 6,000 attend the week-long 
Festival, which is concurrent with Gay Freedom 
Week. Short films are also pre-judged by the 
Frameline Board of Directors and other pro- 
ducers, among them Frances Reid from Iris Films, 
a feminist film collective, and Vito Russo, author 
of The Celluloid Closet. Until last year, winners 
received a percentage of the door, but this year 
there will be specified awards of $2500. Frameline 
distributes a package of the shorts to national 
organizations and theatres, in response to what 
they perceive as an obvious need. Past premieres at 
the Festival included Lucy Winer's Greetings from 
Washington, DC, and A Woman Like Eve by 
Nouchka Van Brakel. Entries are due by May 15 at 
the absolute latest, with no fee save return postage. 
Contact: Michael Lumpkin, Frameline, PO Box 
14792, San Francisco CA 94114, (415) 864-5164. 



EDINBURGH 

SHIPMENT 



The FIVF Festival Bureau will be handling 
a group shipment of films to the Edinburgh In- 
ternational Film Festival. Entry forms are 
available from the FIVF office and must be 
mailed directly to Edinburgh by June with a 
synopsis, press material and stills. (The 
Festival Director recommends bringing addi- 
tional publicity material with you to the 
festival for posting and distribution, but some 
is needed in advance for publication in the 
festival catalogue.) 

Prints are due in the FIVF office by June 18. 

All entries must be accompanied by return 
address (and phone #) on FILM CAN and 
CASE! 

SHIPPING AND HANDLING FEES: 

AIVF members Non-members 

Up to 30 minutes $30 $40 

30 to 60 minutes $40 $50 

'60 to 90 minutes $50 $60 

Over 90 minutes $60 $70 

This fee covers overseas shipment to Edin- 
burgh and return domestic postage. Ed- 
inburgh has agreed to waive their entry fee 
($10 per 10 minute reel) for entries in this 
shipment, and to return the films to FIVF at 
their expense. Filmmakers generally pay all 
postage in addition to the entry fee, so 
although the fees may seem high, they repre- 
sent a significant savings to you. 

Films which are not selected for the 
festival will be returned to us in late July. 
Selected films will be kept until the festival in 
late August and returned in early September. 
The festival will accept entries for selection 
on videotape, but if selected, prints will have 
to be shipped to the festival in August at your 
expense. 



For entry forms and more information, call 
Wendy Udell at (212) 473-3400 

Send all films to: FIVF, 625 Broadway, New 
York NY 10012, ATTENTION: EDINBURGH. 



A Call To Disarm 

The Cultural Media Task Force invites you to 
join the June 1 2th Disarmament Campaign by 
contributing your filmed or taped material on 
disarmament and anti-nuclear issues. We are 
developing programs for travelling shows and 
possible satellite feeds. Rough, uncut or in- 
complete material welcome, but you must 
have licensing rights. All material will then go 
into the files of the disarmament media pro- 
ject of The Media Network for future ac- 
cessibility to media users. Send printed 
material only to Wendy Udell, AIVF, 625 
Broadway, New York NY 10012. 



MAY 1982 



23 



THE INDEPENDENT 



NOTICES 



NOTICES are listed free of charge. AIVF members receive first priority; 
others included as space permits. Send notices to The Independent 
c/o FIVF, 625 Broadway, 9th Floor, New York NY 10012. For further in- 
fo, call (212)473-3400. Deadline: 15th of second preceding month (e.g. 
April 15 for June). Edited by Odessa F lores 



BUY •RENT •SELL 

• FOR SALE: 2 6-plate 16mm Steenbecks. Mint 
condition. Cinetudes Films Productions, Ltd., 
(212) 966-4600. 

• FOR SALE: Stellavox SP 7 reel-to-reel 
recorder, stereo with synchrontone head, very 
good condition. $900 or best offer. Includes 
transformer, Canon plus, adapter box. Also 
available: 1 Electrovoice 635A dynamic omnidirec- 
tional mike and 1 AKG 202 dynamic cardioid 
mike, both with cable. Contact: Brian Kahin at 
ICAP, 625 Broadway, New York NY 10012, (212) 
533-9180. 

• FOR SALE: Beaulieu 40082II w/backwinding 
attachment, rechargable Ni-cad battery, set of 
decamired filters, gadget bag, Halliburton 
aluminum case, Star-D tripod w/brass fittings, 
Hervig viewer, Bolex cement splicer, Hollywood 
rewinds etc. All excellent condition, $1700. Con- 
tact: Don Druker, 204 Pender PI., Rockville MD 
20850, (301) 279-0244. 

• FOR SALE: 16mm Arri S w/ Schneider lens 
(50mm & 16mm), Angenieux L4 17-68 zoom, Sun 
80-240 zoom, power cable, case, body brace, 
variable speed motor. Good condition & checked 
by Roessel CPT, $2500 negotiable. Contact: Paula 
Court, (212)254-3991. 

• $350 VIDEO CREDIT w/ EUE/Screen Gems 
available at 15% reduction. Credit good for all 
video goods & services by EUE. For info contact: 
Steven Jones, (212) 928-2407. 

• FOR RENT: 16SR camera w/ Angenieux 10-150 
zoom & complete accessories; tripods; light kits. 
Substantial discount below commercial rates. For 
info contact: Coleen Higgens or Ghasem Ebrahi- 
mian, (212) 787-5715. 

• FOR SALE: Sony 3400 Vi " reel-to-reel por- 
tapak deck w/all accessories, $150: Panasonic 
3130 editing deck, Vi " reel-to-reel, $400; Vi " reel- 
to-reel tapes, $6 for 1-hr. & $4 for '/z-hr. All good 
condition. For info contact: Jeff Byrd, (212) 
233-5851. 

• FOR SALE: Eastman 25B 16mm projector, 
1000W Xenon pedestal mounted, opt-mag sound, 
brand-new 100W Xenon lamphouse, bulb, power 
supply, takes 6000' reel: $5000. EIKI EX-1510 
16mm projector, 300W Xenon opt-mag sound, 
spare lamp: $1500. Both for $6000. Excellent con- 
dition. Contact: Karen Cooper, (212) 431-1592. 

• FOR SALE: Paillard Bolex H-16 (16mm) movie 
camera, Elgeet 13mm F1.5 wide-angle lens, Cine 
Kodak f4.5 150mm telephoto lens, Yvar f2.8 
75mm telephoto lens, Switar fl.4 25mm lens (nor- 
mal), Bolex pistol grip, Som-Berthiot pans pan 
cinor lens, filter adaptor for same, cable release, 
Bolex cine fader plus case, Riso binoculars. For 

24 



prices & more info contact: Ms. Wolf, (212) 
573-3118 or 3226. 

• FOR RENT: BVU 100, Sony 1640 w/experi- 
enced cameraperson, $175/day. For info call (212) 
982-2627. 

• FOR SALE: Steenbeck 900W 6-plate 16mm, 
$9000; Nagra III, $1800; Sony 1610 camera, 2/2 
batteries; Sony 3800 U-matic recorder, Sony AC 
color & charger unit, $2100; Auricon 16mm 
2/12-120 Ang., case & 2 mags, $1200; Moviola 
16mm, $800; Uhler optical printer 16-35, $1700. 
For info contact: Nugent, (212) 486-9020. 

• FOR SALE: 6-plate Moviola M86 w/flickerless 
prism, low wow & flutter, quick stop, torque 
motor box. New Jan. 1980. Price negotiable. Con- 
tact: Susan Woll, (617) 876-5022 or Ron Blau, 
(617) 354-6054. 

• FOR SALE: Mitchell 1200' magazine, $400; 
Anvil case for 2 1200 ' Mitchell mags, $125; Frezzi 
F-30 EXF 30vdc fast-charger power belt & Frezzi 
BC-30 fast-charger, $600; Frezzi double-shoulder 
body brace for 16mm cameras, $100; Sony profes- 
sional mixer Mx-670 w/ 6 microphone inputs, 2 
channel output, $300. For more info contact: (716) 
885-9777. 

• FOR SALE: Hitachi GP-7 camera w/Canon F 
1.6 manual zoom/iris lens, genlock, batteries, 
shotgun mic, cable, shoulder mount, case, A/C 
adaptor; mint condition $1800. Composite Video 
VE-400 proc amp/enhancer w/chroma & hue con- 
trol, fade-to-black; mint, $1500. 3M 812 buses, 8 
inputs, 12 effects, soft wipe, joystick, spotlight, 
$1000. Contact: Maltese Media (201) 247-4740. 



CONFERENCES • SEMINARS 

• YUGOSLAVIAN FILMMAKER Dusan 
Makavejev will be guest to 36th Annual Con- 
ference of the University Film & Video Associa- 
tion. Makajev joins critic-theorist Jean Paul 
Simon & scholar Alexander Sesomske to discuss 
International Film/Video/TV: Impact & In- 
fluence. Dates July 29-Aug. 6. For prices & details 
contact: Cinema & Photography Dept., Southern 
Illinois University, Carbondale IL 62901, (618) 
453-2365. 

• NFLCP Annual Conference will be held in St. 
Paul MN July 8-10. Co-sponsored by NEA, con- 
ference is designed to present practical interaction 
between faculty & participants. For info contact: 
Carol Schoeneck, Gov't Training Service, (612) 
222-7409. 

•AFI FACULTY ' DEVELOPMENT 
WORKSHOPS offering Film/Video: Avant- 
Garde Theory & Practice, June 21 -July 2; 
Film /TV Documentation Workshop, July 11-17; 
Director's Guild Hollywood Workshop, Aug. 



SPARE HOURS? 

AIVF could use them, around the 
office, during our seminars and work- 
shops, or researching articles for The 
Independent. Valuable skills we'd ap- 
preciate? Typing, filing, transcribing, 
selling tickets ... In return, you'll 
benefit from working with our genial 
staff, from the goldmine of in-house in- 
formation resources— and the coffee's 
on us. Call John Greyson at 473-3400 
and make AIVF work better for you. 



13-20. For details & prices contact: AFI, 2021 N. 
Western Ave., Los Angeles CA 90027. 

• 1982 EASTERN CABLE TV TRADE SHOW & 
Convention will be held Sept. 9-1 1 in Atlanta. For 
info & reservation contact: Southern Cable TV 
Association, 3355 Lenox Rd. NE, Suite 952, 
Atlanta GA 30326, (404) 237-8228. 

• TEATOWN VIDEO offers a hands-on course, 
Introductory Video Editing, w/JVC l A " system. 
$750 fee includes tapestock, syllabus & persona- 
lized attention. For info contact: Tricia Burke, 
(212)245-2821. 

• INTERNATIONAL VIDEO MARKETS con- 
ference scheduled for June 2-3 in NYC. Focus on 
distribution worldwide to cable, pay TV, videodisc 
markets. Sponsored by Knowledge Industry 
Publications, known for annual Video Expo. For 
info contact: Peter Caranicas, (914) 328-9157. 

• UCLA EXTENSION offers day-long program, 
The Video Revolution: Opportunities & Prospects 

for Pay-TV Videocassettes, Videodisc. June 12, 
$125. For details contact: UCLA Extension, (213) 
825-7031. 



EDITING 

• WOMEN'S INTERART CENTER offers 
editing facilities w/Z6B system. Rates: hands-on 
editing, $10/hr.; editing w/ editor, $15/hr; dub- 
bing, $7/hr. & screenings $5/hr. Post-production 
Artist-in-Residencies program available for long- 
term projects. Application deadline: June 15. For 
info call: WIC, 549 West 52 St., NY NY 10019, 
(212) 246-1050. 

• FOR RENT: 6-plate 16/35mm Steenbeck. For 
more info contact: Ernest Hood, (212) 533-7157. 

• COMPLETE 16mm editing facility w/2 tables, 
synchronizers, splicers & 6-plate Moviola flatbed. 
Rates: $25/day, $125/wk, $500/mo. Long-term 
$400/month. For info contact: Jill Godmilow, 
(212) 226-2462. 

• 2 COMPLETE EDIT ROOMS available in 
Chelsea. /. 24-hour access: 16mm equipment, fully 
equipped w/ independent torque motor & 2 rewind 
tables. Complete w/kitchen, bathroom, telephone, 
air conditioning & minimal office facilities. 2. 9 
am-6 pm access: complete 16mm edit equipment, 
Steenbeck, limited kitchen & bathroom facilities, 
private phone line, air conditioned room. Transfer 
& projection available at extra cost. Rates 
negotiable. Contact: Lance Bird, (212) 924-1960. 

MAY 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



• 6-PLATE STEENBECK AVAILABLE weekly 
or monthly. Rates: $15/day but negotiable. For in- 
fo contact: Lizzie, (212) 925-4807. 

• 24-HOUR ACCESS editing rooms w/16mm 
equipment, 8-plate Steenbeck, power rewind table, 
synchronizer & rewind bench available. Rates: 
$60/day, $250/wk, $800/mo. Telephone extra $. 
Screening room also available, rates upon request. 
Contact: Amalie Rothschild (212) 295-1500. 

• COMPLETE video editing facility w/Vi " 
Panasonic NV9600, $25/hr. Also complete film 
editing room w/16mm 6-plate Steenbeck, $5/hr. 
Sound transfers also available. Contact: Nugent, 
(212)486-9020. 



FILMS & TAPES WANTED 

• MAIL ART/FILM WORK seeks any projec- 
table Super-8 or 16mm films (frame, outtake, clip, 
fragment or complete work). Individual piece will 
be spliced in order received. Scheduled to premiere 
Sept. '82 as closing program of series of Dada & 
Surrealist films. No films returned, but catalogue 
will be sent to participants. Deadline June 1. Mail 
film to: Pasadena Filmforum, PO Box 5631, 
Pasadena CA 91107. 

• MOMA CINEPROBE series offers $400 
honorarium to artists whose work is selected. Con- 
tact: Larry Kardish, MOMA, 11 West 53 St., NY 
NY 10019, (212) 956-7514. 

• YOU ASKED FOR IT, syndicated TV program 
viewed on Channel 9 every day, seeks action 
footage on any subject. Require non-exclusive use 
of 3 edited min. per tape. $15-20/ft. or 
$540-720/min. Contact: RoseAnn Kahn, Sandy 
Productions, 645 Madison Ave., NY NY 10022, 
(212) 628-2770. 

• THIRD EYE FILMS, award-winning film 
distributor, seeks children's entertainment shorts 
& energy/conservation documentaries for non- 
broadcast & TV market distribution. Contact: 
Jamil Simon, Third Eye Films, 12 Arrow St., 
Cambridge MA 02138, (617) 491-4300. 

• FOOTAGE WANTED: Independent producer 
seeks 16mm color footage of flea markets for 
possible use in documentary. For info contact: 
Richard Chisolm, 2802 Maryland Ave., Baltimore 
MD 21218, (301) 467-2997. 

• QUALITY SUPERS & 16mm short subject 
films wanted for national broadcast on cable. For 
info contact: Thomas Films, PO Box 153, Luka 
MS 38852, (601) 423-3333. 

• BARNARD COLLEGE LIBRARY looking for 
interesting films/tapes for annual Fall film/video 
festival, Works by Women. Women interested in 
having work screened contact: Gareth Hughes, 
(212) 280-2418. 

• WNET seeking completed films/tapes on 
American labor & Hispanic history/culture. For 
info contact: Liz Oliver, Independent Acquisi- 
tions, WNET-13, 356 West 58 St., NY NY 10019. 

• AVANT-GARDE THEATRE ON FILM seek- 
ing Super-8, 16/35mm & sometimes videotapes for 
future programs. Contact: Milos Stehlik, Facets 
Multimedia Inc., 1517 West Fullerton Ave., 
Chicago IL 60614, (312) 281-9075. 

MAY 1982 



GROUP SHIPMENTS 

If three or more film/videomakers plan 

to enter the same foreign festival, 

FIVF can arrange a group shipment, 

thereby saving you money! What you 

must do is drop us a note telling us 

what festival you are planning to enter, 

and if we get enough interest in one, 

we will call you. 



FUNDS • RESOURCES 

• FILM IN THE CITIES received $1 1,835 from 
MSAB to conduct three 3-week residencies in film- 
making & three 3-week residencies in video as part 
of Arts-in-Education pilot program. Residencies 
will take place in Minnesota elementary & secon- 
dary schools, 1982-83 school year. For info con- 
tact: John Maliga, MSAB, 2500 Park Ave., Min- 
neapolis MN 55404, (800) 652-9747. 

• CAMBRIDGE MULTICULTURAL ARTS 
CENTER offers professionally equipped facility 
w/coordinated schedule, publicity, support so that 
individuals & organizations can present programs, 
classes & other activities. Flexible fee for use of 
facility. For info contact: David Kronberg, 
CMAC, PO Box 302, East Cambridge MA 02141, 
(617)547-6091. 

• CREA TIVE ARTIST PUBLIC SER VICE Pro- 
gram announced 85 fellowship winners out of 
5,188 applicants. Grants will be used to create new 
works, complete those in progress or for specific 



projects. Video artists Edward Bowes, Lynn Cor- 
coran, Loraine Corfield, Jaime Davidovich, Dan 
Graham, Ardele Lister, Joan Logue, Daniel 
Reeves, Jon Hilton & Celia Shapiro were among 
recipients. Congratulations. For info on program 
contact: CAPS Community Service, 250 West 57 
St., NY NY 10107, (212) 247-6303. 

• NEW YORK CENTER FOR VISUAL 
HISTORY invites scriptwriters/directors for 
Voices & Visions, documentary series on American 
poets. Send resumes to: NYCVH, 476 Broadway, 
NY NY 10013. 

• ALABAMA FILMMAKERS COOP offers 
regional grants of up to $5000 to media artists. Ap- 
plication deadline: Aug. 1. For info contact: 
Alabama Filmmakers Coop, 60 Randolph Ave., 
NE, Huntsville AL 35801. 

• CCH GRANT deadlines for funding program 
for media projects to increase public understand- 
ing & appreciation of the humanities has been 
established by California Council for the 
Humanities & the California Public Broadcasting 
Commission. Deadline: Sept. 30. Applicants 
should discuss project ideas w/CCH staff first. 
Proposals for Humanities & Public Policy, Local 
& Cultural History, Public & Community Pro- 
grams by Apr. 30 & July 31. For info contact: 
CCH, 312 Sutter St., San Francisco CA 94108; or 
CPBC, (916) 322-3727. 

• NEED A LOAN? Art Loan Fund may be able 
to help your organization with cash-flow pro- 
blems. Short-term loans (less than 12 months) of 
no more than $10,000 available to any non-profit 



Need videotape copies of your films but think you can't afford them? 

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25 



THE INDEPENDENT 




While Round 2 of CPB 's Matters of Life & Death receives funding (see below), Round 1 gets aired: Feeling Good, Feel- 
ing Proud (I.) and An Acquired Taste were broadcast this spring. 

Time in the Garden, Ron Blau; To Love, Honor 
and Obey, Christine Choy; Booming, Dennis Lan- 
son; Harlem, Garry Brewer; Tighten Your Belts, 
Bite the Bullet, Martin Lucas, James Gaffney & 
Jonathan Miller; What Could You Do with a 
Nickel?, Cara DeVito & Jeffrey Kleinman; 
Women in Arms, Victoria Schultz; Clotheslines, 
Roberta Cantow; Marie, Chris Pelzer; Susana, 
Susana Blaustein; The Patriot Game, Arthur 
MacCaig; Nightmare, John Perry III; Another 
Great Day, Jo Bonney & Ruth Peyser; Blue River, 
Richard Protovin;77ie Mysterians, Kathy Rose; 
Commuter, Michael Patterson; Quasi's Caberet 
Trailer, Sally Cruikshank; Moon Breath Beat, 
Lisze Bechtold; A Hard Passage, Dennis Pies; 
Deep in Wood, Alain le Razer; Swiss Army Knife 
with Rats and Pigeons, Robert Breer; Intercep- 
tion, Dieter Froese; In Our Own Backyard, Meg 
Switzgable; Teenage Girls, Abbie Fink; Breaking, 
Street Dancing, Ramsey Najm; Premature, David 
Parry; Dreams So Real, Oren Rudavsky; Pencil 
Booklings, Kathy Rose; A Letter to Jonathan, 
John Cline; and Variations on a Sentence by Pro- 
ust, Bill Sherwood. 

Three of these — To Love, Honer and Obey, 
What Could You Do with a Nickel? and 
Clotheslines — were produced with CETA funding 
under the auspices of FIVF's 1978-1981 Media 
Works project. 



organization in Alameda, Contra Costa, San Fran- 
cisco, Marin & San Mateo counties. Terms either 
no or low interest. For info contact: Steve Liber- 
man, (415) 981-6596. 

• OFFICE OF TELECOMMUNICA TIONS, Ci- 
ty of Atlanta offering grants of $250-$ 1 500 to non- 
profit organizations & individuals (for non-profit 
purposes) to enhance local cable programming. 
Awarded 2x annually; deadline for next round 
Sept. 13. Contact: Office of Telecommunications, 
City of Atlanta, 317 Marietta St., NW, Atlanta 
GA 30313, (404) 658-6691/6693. 

• VIDEO STUDENTS' GRANTS available from 
the University Film Association. For info write to: 
Robert Davis, Dept. of TV-Film, University of 
Texas, Austin TX 78216. 

• USA FILM FESTIVAL received $5000 general 
grant from Dallas-based Meadows Foundation. 
Grant will be used to underwrite general operating 
expenses of USA Film Festival, held April 30- May 
9. For info contact: Jane Sallis, USAFF, (214) 
760-8575. 

• CPB announced recipients in latest In-Service 
Training Grant Program. Approximate total of 
$25,672 or 29 grants made to 7 public radio & 10 
public TV stations & 1 joint licensee to provide 
short-term career training to employees. 1983 In- 
Services Training Grant application due no later 
than August 15. For details contact: Tom Otwell, 
CPB, 1111 16 St. NW, Washington DC 20036, 
(202) 293-6160. 

• 14 MA SSA CHUSETTS A R TISTS granted Pro- 
ject Completion Awards in pilot program ad- 
ministered by Artists Foundation Inc., funded by 
Massachusetts Council on the Arts & Humanities. 
Finalists of film category include: Karen Aqua, 
Daniel Barnett, Christine Dall, Randall Conrad, 
Alex Griswold, Ross McElwee. Congratulations to 
all. 

• CPB will provide 2 public stations, KLRN-TV 
(San Antonio) & WHMM-TV (DC) with up to 
$700,000 for earth terminal installations. Ter- 
minals will enable stations to link up with public 
telecommunications satellite interconnection 
system for national programming distribution. 
Each station will contribute $2500 toward the pro- 
ject & pay CPB 25% of completion cost. For info 
contact: CPB, Tom Otwell, (202) 293-6160. 

• INDEPENDENT FOCUS series announces 
program selections made by a 9-member panel and 
series producer, Marion Lear Swaybill, for its fifth 
season (April, May & June). Americas in Transi- 
tion, Obie Benz; Ben Da, USA, David Hogoboom; 
The Torture of Mothers, Woodie King, Jr.; Our 

26 



• MATTERS OF LIFE AND DEATH II: CPB 
announces funding for the second round of its 
documentary series as follows: Centralia Fire, 
Tony Mussari, Stan Leven, Bob Achs & WVIA- 
TV; Cheyenne Future, Laurel Defoe & John 
Masterman; Showdown at the Kiddie Korral, Sol 
Korine & Blaine Dunlap; American Samurai, Loni 
Dingj Color, Warrington Hudlin; Welcome to the 
Dew Drop Inn Convalescent Home!, Karen L. 
Ishizuka & Robert A. Nakamura; / Promise to 
Remember: The Story of Frankie Lymon, Joel 
Sucher & Steven Fischler; Haiti: Bitter Cane, Dee 
Dee Halleck & Kenneth Ives; Going Somewhere. . 
The Story of Route 66, Richard O. Moore; The 
Eskimo Olympics, Skip Blumberg; Hobo, Thomas 
Finerty & WTTW-TV; The DES Film, Stephanie 
Palewski & Deborah Shaffer; Seeds of Survival, 
Pamela Roberts; Dairy Queens, John de Graaf, 
Ellen Anthony & KTCA-TV; My Father Sold 
Studebakers, Skip Sweeney. 



IN & OUT OF PRODUCTION 

• ARE YOU LISTENING? Parents & Children 
Who Have Adopted Each Other, produced by 
Martha Stuart, is out of production. 28 min. 38 
sec. program is part of award-winning series on the 
family, Are You Listening? Mothers, Fathers & 
Children. New release focuses on a group of 
adoptive parents/children who openly talk about 
their feelings & experiences. For info contact: Vic- 



toria Simons, Martha Stuart Communications, PO 
Box 246, Hillsdale NY 12529, (518) 325-3900. 

• CAST PAPER, 16mm film by Marian Oken, is 
out of production. Available also in videocassette, 
10 '/2 min. film depicts creative process of new art 
form. Suitable for secondary, college & adults. 
Marian also offers Visiting Artist program in con- 
junction w/her film. For info contact: Marian 
Oken, Multi-Arts Workshops, 2 Wood Lane, 
Plainview NY 11803, (516) 938-9567. 

OPPORTUNITIES • GIGS 

• EDITOR/PRODUCTION ASSISTANT 
w/documentary experience available, eager for in- 
volvement in another project. Knowledge of 
French, Russian, Italian, writing & research abili- 
ty. For info contact: Catherine Temerson, (212) 
861-1803. 

• WAFVL seeks Administrative Coordinator. Ad- 
ministrative & organizational duties require ini- 
tiative. Good opportunity to learn about media 
arts in DC. For more info contact: Lucyann, (202) 
783-0400. 

• SOUND ENGINEERING student wants to ex- 
change experience for independent production 
job. For more info contact: Demetra, (212) 
227-2353. Leave message w/ Benny Powell. 

• PROFESSIONAL COMPOSER eager to score 
films. Compositions include WNET, CBS, 
documentary, animated & feature films. Great 
flexibility of style & reasonable rates. For info con- 
tact: Amy Rubin, (212) 674-8184. 

• EXPERIENCED DIRECTOR, writer, editor 
seeks work in film or otherwise. Contact: James 
Khlevner, 143 Mercer St., Jersey City NJ 07303, 
(201)451-1319. 

• EXPERIENCED, AMBITIOUS representative- 
agent sought to promote creative consultant- 
producer in film/video. Mutually beneficial rela- 
tionship. For info contact: Multi-Arts Workshops, 
3 Wood Lane, Plainview NY 11803. 

• YOUNG FILMAKERS has chief video engineer 
position available. Requirements: 2 yrs. similar 
position; completion of technical training program 
in video maintenance or equivalent experience; 
familiarity w/ electronic test/monitoring equip- 
ment & 16mm/Super 8 film technology. Duties 
include: repair & maintenance of film, audio & TV 
equipment, supervising technical interns & techni- 
cians, inventory, instituting regular preventive 
maintenance plan for organization. Salary 
negotiable. Good benefits. Contact: David Sasser, 
(212)673-9361. 

• NEGATIVE MATCHING & related services. 
Reasonable rates on cutting A & B rolls, pulling 
scenes for optical etc. Negative or reversal. Also 
damaged film repair. Call (212) 786-6278. 

• COMPOSER AVAILABLE, experienced in 
film & video. Specializing in electronic music & 
synthesized sound design. Contact: Robert Fair, 
(212) 966-2852. 

• CREATIVE ARTIST-FILM 7VIDEOMAKER, 
animator, title designer, consultant to visual arts, 
art education, seeking challenge. Contact: M. 
Oken, (516)938-9596. 

MAY 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



• BLACK VETERANS FOR SOCIAL JUSTICE 
need volunteer filmmakers to edit & do some 
sound work on 2 anti-draft 16mm films. For info 
contact: Ron Punnett, BVSJ, 1119 Fulton St., 
Brooklyn NY 11238, (212) 789-4680. 

• EDITING/PRODUCTION/RESEARCH 
assistant available to work w/ film/video producer 
or organization. Compensation less important 
than good experience. Contact: Linda 
Morgenstern, (212) 533-2646. 

• YF/VA STUDIO seeks talented & experienced 
freelance crew people (camera, lights, audio, swit- 
cher, floor mgr) to work on non-profit/non- 
commercial productions in studio & remotes 
w/broadcast quality equipment. Non-steady work 
but good $. Send resume to: Roy Misonznick, 
Studio Manager, YF/VA, 4 Rivington St., NY NY 
10002. NO PHONE CALLS PLEASE. 



• PRODUCER /DIRECTOR seeks individual to 
help produce & raise financing for quality low- 
budget feature slated to lens this summer in NYC. 
Contact: Frank Nugent, PO Box 412, Radio City 
Station, NY NY 10019, (212) 884-2966. 

• FUNDRAISER/EVENTS COORDINATOR, 
wanted. College work-study%wage on $ raised & 
credit possible. Excellent introduction to film 
fundraising & producing. Contact: Robbie 
Rosenberg, (212) 674-4733. 

• INDEPENDENT FILM/VIDEOMAKER, ex- 



perienced in camera, sound, producing, lighting, 
looking for gigs. Contact: Greta Schiller, (212) 
226-3007. 

• CO-PRODUCER WANTED, knowledgeable 
about Catholic doctrine, for film examining 
emergence of progressive clergy in opposition to 
Moral Majority. Contact: Josh Karan, (212) 
642-1112. 



PUBLICATIONS 

• MUSEUM VIDEO: A Source Book for 
Museums, published by the New England Museum 
Association, helps museums to become effective 
users of video & to understand the full potential 
that video technology holds for them. Send $10 
plus $1 for postage to: NEMA, Boston National 
Historical Park, Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston 
MA 02129, (617) 720-1573. 

• NEW INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES 
FOR THE NON-PROFIT SECTOR, based on 
presentations & discussions of Aspen Institute 
Conference, co-sponsored by Foundation Center, 
Nov. 16-17. Report describes how 8 non-profit 
organization successfully used information 
technologies for direct benefit of public they serve 
or for improvement of internal operations. Send 
$4.95 to: Foundation Center, 888 7 Ave., NY NY 
10106, (212)975-1120. 

• INFOTEXT, published by American Planning 
Association's information division, reports on 3 



standing departments: Hardware/Software, 
Education & Telecommunications. 1-year 
subscription available: $15 APA members & $25 
non-members. Contact: Steven Cochran, APA, 
1776 Massachusetts Ave., Washington DC 20036. 



SCREENINGS 

• FILM FORUM screens Eijanaika (Why Not?), 
May 19- June 1; A Distant Cry from Spring, June 
2-15; Lotte Eisner in Germany & Now After So 
Many Years, June 16-22; New British Animation, 
June 23- July 16; The Swiss in the Civil War, July 
7-13. Admission: $4 non-members, $2.50 
members. For more info contact: Film Forum, 
(212)431-1590. 



TRIMS & GLITCHES 

• INDEPENDENTS invited to Media Showcase, 
cable talk show focusing on the arts. Interview 
show offers artists opportunity to discuss & pre- 
sent works. Send inquiries to: Media Showcase, 
250 Mercer St., Suite 1003B, NY NY 10012. 

• WHERE ARE YOU? ICAP, Independent 
Cinema Artists and Producers, is seeking to con- 
tact the following filmmakers: Sparky Greene, 
John Gunselman, Nothing Monday Video Co., 
Franklin K. Paddock, and William Rogers. We 
have your unclaimed films, but not your ad- 
dresses. Please call (212) 533-9180 or write ICAP, 
625 Broadway, New York, NY 10012 



CINETUDES FILM PRODUCTIONS, LTD 

295 W. 4th Street, New York City 10014 • 966-4600 

EDITING & POST-PRODUCTION FACILITIES 

16mm & 35mm 



ATELIER CINEMA VIDEO STAGES 

295 W. 4th Street, New York City 10014 • 243-3550 




MAY 1902 



NYU Cinema Studies Department and 
The Foundation for Independent 
Video & Film, Inc. presents . . . 

Color in the 

Consciousness 

Industry 

Reaction & Resistance 

A series of symposia, colloquia and screenings 
addressing the participation and representation of third 
world peoples in the television and film industries, 

Friday, April 30 • 8pm at Bachman • Free 

International Indian Treaty 
Council 

Screening and discussion of films addressing stereotypes 
and alternative representations of Native American 
peoples, with Peggy Barnette, IITC. 

Friday, May 7 • 7pm at Waverly • Free 

Body & Soul 

Film by Oscar Micheaux (1924, B&W) starring Paul 
Robeson. Controversial nightmare fantasy of a matron of 
the church and her minister, with discussion led by Pearl 
Bowser, Third World Newsreel. 

Friday, May 14 * 7:30 at FIVF • Free 

Sociology of Exclusion: 
Whiteness in Films 

Analysis of Kramer vs. Kramer and the resurgence of the 
white middle class hero in mainstream cinema, by Finley 
Campbell, communications theorist (Univ. of Illinois), and 
exec, committee member of the International Committee 
Against Racism (ICAR). 



Special Thanks To . . . 

Cinema Studies Student Organization, NYU; Black Student 
Artists Association, NYU; Film Bureau, Young Filmakers/ 
Video Arts; International Committee Against Racism 
(ICAR). 



Saturday, May 15 • 9:30-5:30pm at FIVF 

Reaction & Resistance: Conference 

Series of panel discussions. 

S5/AIVF Members, NYU Cinema Studies Free, $10/Other 
Prior registration mandatory — AIVF members & public, 
phone 473-3400; NYU Cinema Studies Students phone Ed 
Simmons, 598-7777 

9:30am Registration 

10- 12am 

Historical Perspectives 

Adolf Reed, Jr. (Yale historian, author, Black Particularity 
Reconsidered); Jim Miller (Trinity College), Joel Kovel 
(psychoanalyst, author. White Racism: A Psycho History) 

1-3 pm 

Constructing Alternatives 

Lillian Jimenez (independent producer, program 
coordinator. The Film Fund); Chris Choy (independent 
producer, Third World Newsreel); Denise Oliver (Director, 
Black Filmmakers Foundation) 

3:30-y.30pm 

International Perspectives: The New World 

Information Order 

Sheila Hobson Smith (Lehman College); Robert Stam 
(NYU Cinema Studies); Richie Perez (Committee Against 
Fort Apache) and others 

Saturday, May 15 • 8pm at The Collective 

Ganja and Hess 

$3 /General Admission 

Film by Bill Gunn (1970, color, 110"). Archive print which 
has been restored by Pearl Bowser. Bill Gunn will 
introduce his film. Co-sponsored by the Collective for 

Living Cinema. 



LOCATIONS 



Bachman Auditorium. Tisch Hall, NYU, 40 W. 4th St., 

(E. of Washington Square Park) 
Waverly Building, Room -670, NYU, 24 Waverly Place 

(enter through Main Building. 100 Washington Sq. East, 

Waverly Place entrance — around the corner) 
FIVF, 625 Broadway, 9th floor, (b'tween Bleecker & 

Houston) 
Collective for Living Cinema, 52 White Street 

(S. of Canal) 



FOUNDATION FOR 
INDEPENDENT 
VIDEO AND 
FILM, INC. 
625 Broadway, 9th Floor, New York, N.Y. 10012 




NON-PROFIT ORG. 
U.S. POSTAGE 

PAID 
New York. N.Y. 
Permit No. 7089 



THE 



FILM & VIDEO MONTHLY 



JUNE 1982 



INDEPENDENT 



New Doors 

for 

De Antonio 

From the 

Weather 

Underground 

to the 

Plowshares 

Eight 




Color in Film: 
From Lab to Screen 

Book Review: 
Screenwriting for 
Film & Television 





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THE INDEPENDENT 



THE 



INDEPENDENT 

JUNE 1982 • VOLUME 5, NUMBER 4 



Publisher: Lawrence Sapadin 

Editor: Kathleen Hulser 
Assistant Editor: Fran Piatt 

Contributing Editors: Mitchell Block, 

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• 
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• 

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A PUBLICATION OF 

THE FOUNDATION FOR 
INDEPENDENT VIDEO* FILM 



CONTENTS 



Features 

Interview with Entile de Antonio 

Pungent Remarks on Verite, Politics and His New Film 



Susan Linfield 



Hunting and Gathering in the Film Archives 

Pierce Rafferty Talks About Making The Atomic Cafe • Kathleen Hulser 

Columns 



7 
11 



In Focus • Somewhere Over the Rainbow 

Exploring Color from the Lab to the Screen • David Leitner 

Books • Screenwriting 

Good and Bad Advice for the Would-be Scribbler • Ann Loring 

AIVF Forum • Indies Stirred Up by Public Matters 

Ed Asner Defended, Non-Profit TV Supported 

Festivals • Around the World in 80 Debuts 

Telluride, New York, Valladolid, Montreal, Toronto • Wendy Lidell 

Notices 

Editor • Odessa Flores 



4 

6 

13 

15 

20 



CO VER PHOTO: Emile de A ntonio in his Manhattan studio. Insert stills are from his documen- 
taries "In the Year of the Pig, " and "Underground. " See Interview on page 7. 



CORRESPONDENCE 



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guess that's a sign of a good magazine! 

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Librarian, American Film Institute 

Resource Center 



Horse Sense 

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JUNE 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



IN FOCUS 



Somewhere Over the 
Rainbows Exploring Color 



DAVID LEITNER 

The shortest wavelengths in the elec- 
tromagnetic spectrum belong to the aptly- 
named cosmic rays. Slightly longer are gam- 
ma rays, then X-rays. Longer still, in increas- 
ing order, are the waves of ultraviolet and in- 
frared (heat), radar, and radio and television 
broadcasting. Among these wide bands of ra- 
diant energy, sandwiched between ultraviolet 
and infrared, is a thin sliver of wavelengths, 
its limited range belying its biological 
significance. Only objects irradiated by rays 
whose wavelengths are contained in this band 
are visible and colorful to the eye, or more 
exactly, the brain. 

In an attempt to quantify this phenomenon 
objectively, three values describing the "visi- 
ble spectrum" are commonly measured. Hue 
is a term that denotes the wavelength or 
cluster of wavelengths dominant in a color. 
Red, red-orange and orange are hues. Pink is 
not a hue; rather, it is red in hue and mixed 
with white. (White is an even blending of all 
colors found in the spectrum; black, their 
absence; grey, the steps in between.) The term 



saturation denotes the purity of a hue: how 
closely the mixture of light approaches a 
single dominant wavelength; and also, by ex- 
tension, the level of white or grey present in a 
color. Brightness is a measure of luminosity 
and corresponds to the energy or amplitude 
of the given light waves. Hot pink could be 
described and measured as red in hue, low in 
saturation, and exceedingly bright. Although 
these indices are interrelated and overlap in 
description, they allow for a standardized 
method of analyzing and synthesizing color 
characteristics. 

ROSES AREN'T RED 

Color itself, however, is not a fixed at- 
tribute of an object. Color is a sensation, a 
perceptual mental process. An object's color 
is determined not only by the wavelengths 
present in the light incident upon it and 
subsequently reflected, but also by the nature 
of the nearby creature that "sees" the 
reflected light. To the bee, whose vision ex- 




tends into the broad range of ultraviolet 
wavelengths, a mundane object takes on an 
appearance foreign to the human eye. It is 
doubtful, though, that the bee's central ner- 
vous system actively evaluates and interprets 
radiant energy in the same manner as the 
human brain. As in many areas of sensory 
perception, the brain attempts to organize 
fresh sensations around past experience, to 
order each new situation along the lines of 
the expected or the previously meaningful. 
Color is no exception. 

Since illumination varies widely in the real 
world, the brain relies upon its memory of 
color to correctly interpret hue, saturation 
and brightness under inconstant levels of 
lighting and color temperature. (Color 
temperature is a measure of how evenly all 
the wavelengths of the visible spectrum are 
represented in white light: what "tint", if any, 
the light provides.) A white shirt is seen as 
white whether worn indoors under yellow in- 
candescent or greenish fluorescent lighting, 
or outdoors in blue daylight or orange 
sodium vapor lamplight after nightfall. Even 
across a single visual environment, 
nonuniformity in illumination is ironed out 
by this perceptual mechanism. Sun-filled 
windows from inside an incandescently lit in- 
terior don't appear bright blue to the casual 
eye the way they do on film or tape. 

On the screen, the brain is forced to 
recognize color temperature variations within a 
shot: attention is focused on an abstracted, 
isolated image. In effect, color temperature 
variations are held up to the scrutiny of a 
close side-by-side comparison. Under this cir- 
cumstance, they are noticeable and objec- 
tionable, mainly because the brain doesn't 
remember it that way in real life. By sensitiz- 
ing the eye to such genuine discrepancies in 
illumination, one can override the brain's 
subjectivity and learn to see variations in col- 
or temperature as they truly exist. Although 
this is an important skill for lighting direc- 
tors, the conventional mind's eye will always 
desire uniform color temperatures within a 
scene and from scene to scene, much the 
same way as it recollects no difference bet- 
ween indoor and outdoor skin tones. 

CONFOUNDED COLORS 

Realism in color reproduction, like the 
larger epistemological question of realism in 
art, is endlessly debated. And to confound 
the issue further, it's unlikely that film or 
video images could accurately reproduce co- 
lor from a colorimetric standpoint. For ex- 
ample, the three color negatives available to- 
day, Kodak, Fuji and Agfa-Gevaert, exploit 
an identical silver halide-based photographic 
technology and obtain three separate results. 
Kodak's colors are bright and snappy, 
analogous in attitude to Kodachrome. Fuji's 
color is subdued, less saturated, almost con- 
templative. Agfa-Gevaert color is pastel, yet 
glowing. Each manufacturer would claim its 
product reproduces color in a neutral 
fashion, yet each manufacturer may simply 

JUNE 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



imagine color differently. In any event, the 
orange coloration of each color negative after 
processing, its characteristic "color 
masking," testifies to the unwanted spectral 
absorptions of the dyes in the emulsion layers 
that contain the red and green image records. 
Without such correction, overall color 
saturation suffers. The dyes in a film print 
are similarly flawed, but no comparable solu- 
tion is possible, since an orange-tinted screen 
image is unacceptable. 

Color reproduction can be poorly served in 
the projection process as well. Although 
SMPTE (Society of Motion Picture and 
Television Engineers) standards for screen 
brightness have been in effect for years, few 
exhibitors bother with them. As a result, not 
only does the full range of brightness values 
in an image shift up and down from theater 
to theater, but in some cases the combination 
of projector light output and screen reflec- 
tivity conspire to produce an image so dim 
that colors low in brightness approach the 
dark adaptation threshold of the eye, where 
they seem desaturated and grey. Standards 
that exist for the color temperature of il- 
lumination used in projection are similarly 
neglected, with predictable results. Poor pro- 
jection optics, in turn, contribute image flare 
and bring about color desaturation even with 
sufficiently bright projection. It's an uncer- 
tain road from the laboratory timer's screen- 
ing room to the theater. 

VIDEO COLOR: ANYTHING GOES 

Video fares better, and worse. The stan- 
dard NTSC "composite" color video signal 
represents the interweaving of two compo- 
nent signals: 1) luminance and 2) combined 
hue and saturation. The luminance compo- 
nent is displayed alone on a black-and-white 
receiver, while both luminance and 
chrominance (which includes hue and satura- 
tion) are displayed on a color receiver. At 
origination, the video camera's signal can be 
set up to prescribed levels of black (pedestal) 
and peak white, and gamma, or contrast, can 
be selected to produce the most pleasing 
results. Some cameras can tailor the red, 
green and blue outputs individually. In 
postproduction, color correction capability is 
great. Independent adjustment of the hue, 
saturation and brightness levels of the red, 
green and blue channels can be achieved 
without one change affecting another. This 
provides a creative flexibility unmatched in 
film, where color correction consists of ad- 
justing the entire image in one color direction 
or another. 

In projection, a frame of film filters or 
subtracts a pattern of specific wavelengths 
from a single source of white light, casting 
colored shadows onto the screen. The light of 
the image is reflective, and in this sense 
passive. Peering into an image of glowing 
phosphors on the surface of a cathode ray 
tube (CRT), as in a TV monitor, creates 
another kind of experience. One is looking 
into the source of light. Instead of subtrac- 

JUNE 1982 



tively obtaining color from white light, most 
color tubes employ three electron guns — red, 
green and blue — targeted, respectively, at 
three sets of tiny phosphor dots. Each of the 
regularly distributed dots, when excited by 
impinging electrons, luminesces red, green or 
blue. This "additive" color strategy succeeds 
as adequate distance is reached from the 
screen. At the point where the eye can no 
longer resolve individual phosphor dots, the 
brain sees white light. 

ALL THE WORLD'S A STUDIO 

Television is generally screened in room- 
level light, and glowing phosphors provide 
excellent primary color saturation (better 
than film) in addition to the requisite 
brightness. Ambient light incident upon the 
face of the tube, however, can alter color 
saturation and wash out shadows. Blackness, 
on a television screen, is only as deep as the 
appearance of the screen when the set is turned 
off. To create the sensation of black, the 
bright elements of the image must be boosted 
as high as possible, stretching the contrast. As 
a result, even pastoral images of Mother 
Nature tend to appear as if produced in a 
brightly lit studio. 

Compared to the care invested in the 
origination of the color video signal, the 
carelessness in display borders on criminal 
neglect. The sight of a bank of receivers of 
competing makes and price tags at any large 
department store will bear this out. Inferior 
circuitry and questionable phosphor spectral 
distribution seem to be the norm. In any 
case, where color is concerned, television 
receivers of different manufacture can rarely 
match one another. Add to this the 
vicissitudes of reception. And so, on Sunday 
afternoon, the sports fan gets to play video 
engineer, fidgeting with the color and con- 
trast controls, trying to make the Astroturf 
forest green without the benefit of color bars, 
vectorscope or wave-form monitor. 

Color matters to the visual arts. A brush 
stroke in royal purple has weight and depth; 
a similar stroke in yellow evokes a contrary 
emotional response. The experience of color 
to be had in viewing a three-dimensional ob- 
ject in conventional light: the texture of the 
color, its reflectedness, the sensuous model- 
ing of surface — much of this subtlety is lost 
along the path to an image displayed on a flat 
screen by a high-intensity light source. To 
compensate, color must be reproduced that 
best satisfies the subjective notion of what an 
object should look like, whether fidelity to a 
scale of objective colorimetric values is 
achieved or not. Verisimilitude is the 
criterion: if a display of film or video can 
convince the brain that the "natural" lighting 
in the image is natural-looking, then hue, 
saturation and brightness have been ap- 
propriately represented. ■ 

David Leitner is an independent film pro- 
ducer who works at DuArt Film Labs in New 
York. 




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THE INDEPENDENT 



BOOKS 



Good Advice & Bad; 
Scribblers Take Heed 



ANN LORING 



Screenwrhing for Narrative 
Film £ Television 

by William Miller. Communication Arts 
Books. Hasting House. 1981. pb. 

In Screenwrhing for Narrative Film and 
Television, William Miller writes eloquently 
and voluminously, covering a wide expanse 
of creative territory that tracks the tiniest 
subconscious stirring of an idea to the broad- 
side of a teleplay or film. Yet upon comple- 
tion of the book I was, from the depths of my 
own subconscious, suddenly and persistently 
reminded of a quote from St.-Exupery's Lit- 
tle Prince: "What is essential is invisible to 
the eye." Precisely. 

What is essential in my judgement for the 
fledgling writer — whether amateur or profes- 
sional, a secret dabbler in short stories or a 
copywriter of ads desperate to escape the cor- 



porate world — is obscured under the weight 
of language and excess example. I fear 
Miller's- verbosity won't help the struggling 
novice past the hazard of a first blank page. 
This is not to say that Miller does not at- 
tempt to explore the preparation of a script 
thoroughly. He describes various techniques 
of approach to a story line: character 
development, settings, structures, plotting 
etc. — all necessary components that can 
ultimately lead to a fine play. Nor do I wish 
to imply that much of his exploration is in 
any way careless or misleading. It is rather 
that specific guidelines, simple workable 
details, several basic rules targeted with ex- 
actness, lie buried in this graveyard of 
Academe. 

IDEAL SCRIPT FORM 

To illustrate: Today, all scripts must be 




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marketed to producer or network in the form 
know as Master Scene. That is, the entire 
film or teleplay is composed on the page in a 
strict format, with all the dialogue, the set- 
tings, the business written but never broken 
down into what was once termed a final 
shooting script (where each movement or 
beat was set up and identified by in- 
numerable camera angles or shots.) Today, a 
scene is boldly set into a given interior or ex- 
terior area, the dialogue and stage business 
follow, and only occasionally might there be 
a close-up indicated or a particular shot the 
writer feels is absolutely necessary for a 
special effect. Scripts are no longer larded 
and obfuscated by camera jargon. Happily, I 
think, the present day script writer has relin- 
quished power over each individual angle and 
rightfully allowed it to be placed into the 
hands of the director (where in any case it will 
finally rest) and thereby made the play easily 
readable. 

It is essential that the author be counseled 
regarding this, as the natural tendency is to 
play with the new tool and display one's 
familiarity with every camera term ever learned. 
Only a most experienced reader or producer 
can plough through even a fascinating 
scenario that is constantly interrupted and 
overburdened with camera terminology. It is 
also important to know that the disease of 
Camera-itis immediately brands the author 
as a newcomer to the field and reduces the 
likelihood of a sale. Yet Miller dismisses this 
imperative in one single sentence. 

TV SERIES PROPOSAL 

With similar contrariness, after so many 
words have been expended, Miller, in the Ap- 
pendix to his book, titles one single page 
again "Television Series Idea Proposal," and 
declares: "An effective series idea proposal 
will run eight to ten pages. Page one: the title 
and nature of the series. Page two: a simple 
paragraph description that makes this series 
unique and special. The third page will give a 
more detailed description of the 
series... etc..." 

Arrant nonsense! 

And this, despite the fact that almost every 
aspirant to the field envisions riches awaiting, 
were the series to sell. 

Only an established author whose work is 
extremely well-known would dare to present 
an idea for a TV series in this abortive form. 
The aspirant would never get his or her idea 
past the fourth assistant to the fourth assis- 
tant of a story development department. 
Ergo, to the average scribbler (and there are 
thousands hunched over their typewriters) 
this is sparse and incorrect advice. 

A series idea should be submitted in the 
form of a presentation that can run to as 
many as a hundred pages or more. There 
must be what can only be described as 
"chapters." The first deals with the basic 
idea of the thrust of the script. The second 
chapter will have a single page for each of the 
Continued on page 19 
JUNE 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



Irrepressible 
De Antonio Speaks 

• 

"Cinema verite is film which pursues a 

fugitive and hopeless lie. Pretending not to impose a 

point of view is to impose the view of the state. " 



Emile de Antonio has been called "the 
most widely distributed and probably the 
most accomplished American filmmaker on 
the left." De Antonio is a study in contrasts: 
the son of a fairly well-to-do doctor, a Har- 
vard graduate, a World War II veteran, he 
has made some of the most militantly anti- 
capitalist documentaries in American film 
history. 

De Antonio's first and perhaps most wide- 
ly praised film, Point of Order (1963), a 
denunciation of Joseph McCarthy, was in- 
stantly hailed by critics. The film was com- § 
posed entirely of old television file footage of ju 
the Army-McCarthy hearings, the first use of " 
the "collage" technique which de Antonio g 
has continued to develop in his subsequent "* 
works. 

Other subjects to which de Antonio has 
turned his attention are the Warren Commis- 
sion report on the Kennedy assassination 
(Rush To Judgement, 1966); the 30-year anti- 
colonial struggle in Vietnam (In the Year of 
the Pig, 1969); the career of Richard Nixon 
(Millhouse: A White Comedy, 1971); New 
York abstract artists (Painters Painting, 
1972); and the Weather Underground 
(Underground, 1976). This last film— widely 
known but rarely seen — resulted in FBI sub- 
poenas for de Antonio and his crew, over the 
public protests of many Hollywood stars. 

In Part I of the following interview, de An- 
tonio discusses his early influences, cinema 
verite, and his upcoming film, In the King of 
Prussia. In Part II (July/ August Indepen- 
dent) he discusses the filming of 
Underground and the recent resurfacing of 
the Weather Underground in Rockland 
County. 

SUSAN LINFIELD: The whole -collage 
technique you've developed has been called a 
kind of "counter-philosophy" of filmmaking. 

EMILE DE ANTONIO: The early Soviets 
had a kind of collage technique. This is what 
Eisenstein was doing, although I don't think 
he ever used the word "collage." But what 
the Russian theorists talked about is the thing 
that I feel I got out of strictly American 
roots: putting two elements together in the 
editing process, if you do it right, develops 
JUNE 1982 



SUSAN LINFIELD 

something greater than the sum of the two 
parts. And that's what collage basically is, 
whether the collage was by Picasso or by 
[Robert] Rauschenberg, or a musical collage 
by John Cage — the introduction of seemingly 
disparate elements not only provided a new 
insight, but became almost a totally different 
thing. 

But the thing that made the collage thing 
live, that made my becoming an artist in film 
possible, among other things, was knowing 




De Antonio: "The great flaw of our culture is this 
adoration of technique." 

John Cage. I met Cage in the early Fifties. He 
and I both drank a great deal, and we used to 
sit up all night arguing. 

SL: This was before he was well-known? 

EdeA: Oh, yeah, he wasn't well-known at all. 
Cocteau once said that the ideal is to be 
brilliant, famous and unknown, which is 
what John was: brilliant, famous to a few 
people, and totally unknown to the world. 

John had already brought Zen Buddhism 
here from the West Coast. He was the first 
one. He was a lively, hostile person, which I 
liked. He opened up my mind and my sen- 
sibility, and it was through him that I met 
Rauschenberg and [Jasper] Johns. Johns was 
a collage artist. His music was collage. And 
Rauschenberg was too. 

When Dan [Talbot] and I were talking 
years later about the Army-McCarthy hear- 



ings, suddenly I saw the way it should be 
done. We both agreed that we had an intact 
historical experience. And the idea always 
was to make it organic and still a collage, 
although not an obvious one. Not a collage 
like Picasso, where you'd have a banjo and 
then something attached, but a very subtle 
kind of collage, like a fiction film. Not that I 
have any particular liking for fiction films; 
they're no better than documentaries, they're 
just different. But with that kind of organic 
wholeness you can go from the beginning to 
the end without having that crude intrusive 
voice, or smarmy, velvety TV voice, telling 
you what it is you're looking at while you're 
looking at it. 

SL: You've said that you think that kind of 
external narration is a fascist form. 

EdeA: I could see doing a film, say, on El 
Salvador right now, with narration. In those 
days, because I was inventing a new kind of 
film, I had to hate narration! 

SL: Point of Order is in some ways your most 
organic film, because not only does it not 
have any narration, it doesn't even have any 
interviews, or anything outside of that one 
event [the Army-McCarthy hearings]. 

EdeA: Nothing. That's it. The other thing 
that I like most about it is that it was ugly. 
There was nothing worse than those TV 
cameras. First of all, it was Kinescope. 
Secondly, they were fixed by Senatorial rule 
and could not be moved. I loved the fact that 
I was going to make art out of junk, which is 
another thing that goes back to Cage and 
Rauschenberg. 

SL: Did you have particular political aims in 
mind for the film while you were making it? 

EdeA: Yes, absolutely. I've always been left- 
wing. Left-wing is like a flame. It doesn't 
burn constantly. You have to replenish it and 
refurbish it and recharge it. Like any belief, it 
has its ups and downs. There have been long 
periods when I've been depressed about 
myself and the world in which I've been a 
very poor left-wing person. And then in other 



THE INDEPENDENT 



periods I'm very up, usually when I'm work- 
ing. That's a hell of a confession, because 
people will say, "Aha! Look at this 
hypocritical bastard: when he relaxes after a 
film he's non-political, and he takes the ar- 
tificial stimulation of politics to make him 
work." Well, people have the right to make 
that charge though it doesn't happen to be 
true. 

It was very necessary to make the point in 
Point of Order which no one got. It got the 
greatest reviews that any documentary film 
has ever had in this country. But they didn't 
understand it, the more they praised it. That 
idiot Jimmy Wexler said [the film was] "a 
love letter to Miss Liberty." Those lines are 
meaningless. What is "a love letter to Miss 
Liberty?" The film was not a love letter to 
Miss Liberty— although I believe in liberty. 
The film, which no critic ever saw, revealed a 
kind of fundamental conspiracy of weakness 
before this harsh, cruel, totally ignorant 
man, who was a genius in one thing, who 
understood the thing that underlies all my 
work, which is that our culture is like the 
Homeric Cave of the Winds: it's about words 
boring through the earth: words, words, 
words. And McCarthy knew that he could 
dominate this country by lying consistently. 

So I wanted the film to reveal something 
which had never been done on film, which is 
the downfall of a demagogue. The film has 
no hero. It wasn't Welch who beat 



him— Welch used the same shabby tricks Mc- 
Carthy used! It was my belief then, and is still 
my belief, that if you put a pig on the air long 
enough he will reveal himself. 

And that's why I didn't want a narrator 
saying any of that. This is the difference be- 
tween a film that has artistic and political 
aspirations and the garbage that the enter- 
tainment industry spews forth: I wanted peo- 
ple to perceive for themselves what had hap- 
pened. I wanted people to have an active 
role. That's what I've done in all my films. I 
don't explain. If I have to explain it, I don't 
want it in the film. I feel that audiences are 
much smarter than critics. 

The person who makes a serious film is at 
such an extraordinary disadvantage. It's a 
disadvantage I prize and treasure, but a 
disadvantage nonetheless. We are conditioned 
as a people; we are the most brainwashed 
people in the world: TV going in and out of 
your minds from childhood to the grave. 
And what are you looking at? Stuff whose 
primary object is to sell products we don't 
need. But during the sale of those products 
you are also being sold, you're being ab- 
solutely excluded from any democratic pro- 
cess and cut out of life. You are totally 
passive. 

SL: Cinema verite films also have no narra- 
tion, but there's obviously a big difference 
between your films and those of [Richard] 



Leacock or [Don] Pennebaker. 

EdeA: Yeah. Their contribution to filmmak- 
ing is substantial and valuable, because it has 
to do with the development of equipment. It 
has nothing to do with the art of film. 

The father of cinema verite is obviously 
[Robert] Flaherty, who made very beautiful, 
fake films, which is what verite is. Flaherty's 
last film was shot by Leacock: Louisiana 
Story. 

SL: Can you explain how they're fake? 

EdeA: Louisiana Story was sponsored by the 
Humble Oil Corporation. And this is the on- 
ly way you could get a film of such beauty 
with an oil rig, a handsome rigger, a young, 
dreamy, Arcadian boy, and an alligator or 
two. All those people are co-existing har- 
moniously in this beautiful bayou— simply 
eliminating the fact that there will be no 
bayou by the time that oil rig is there. 

The great philosophical weakness of verite 
is to ask: Whose verite? Whose truth? Truth 
is a fugitive thing. Every time you look 
through a camera and every time you cut a 
piece of film, you impose a point of view. 
Pretending not to impose a point of view is to 
impose the view of the state or of whatever 
society you work in. You simply reinforce it. 

Cinema verite is film which pursues a 
fugitive and hopeless lie, which is that the 



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JUNE 1082 



THE INDEPENDENT 



camera itself is capable of presenting us with 
a form of truth. No camera can present the 
truth. A person presents the truth. 

SL: So it's the illusion of objectivity to which 
you object. 

EdeA: It's the illusion of technical objectivi- 
ty. The great flaw of our culture is this adora- 
tion of technique. The myth is that through 
some kind of fake technical objectivity we 
can reach an objective statement or image of 
society, or even of people. Untrue. Because 
those people caught in that second of time 
have history. And history is what destroys the 
very concept of cinema verite. It becomes a 
kind of masturbatory, self-indulgent, self- 
promoting fake idea of filmmaking that that 
moment you catch in mid-air is Life. But it 
isn't Life. It's a moment caught in mid-air. 



to a government like those that we've had in 
my mature life. 

All my films, including Painters Painting, 
have to do with the history of my country in 
my time. That's a suitable subject for an ar- 
tist to address himself to. But it's always been 
in the light of opposition. And the painting 
question raises it emblematically for all the 
arts. The painter too is in opposition. Even if 
he paints abstractly, those abstract shapes are 
subversive, because the people who are heads 
of state think there has to be something 
wrong with it. I mean, that was Stalin's 
reason for suppressing [Liubov] Popova: 
that her work didn't glorify Stalin. 



SL: Did you just gain your technical £ 
knowledge as you went along making films? | 

o 

o 

EdeA: I've kept, by inclination, my technical 
command of film to a minimum, because I 
think there is a human idea that presupposes 
the shape of what's going to happen. And the 
technology should serve it. 

If there's somebody who's really fucking 
up film, it's a guy like [George] Lucas. The 
end of Star Wars is exactly the same as 
Triumph of the Will. Luke Skywalker, the 
pilot, is walking down an aisle. He's going to 
be decorated, he has his two friends behind 
him, he's in front, and there are masses of 
people. In Triumph Hitler's walking down 
with the mass of Nazis on the side, and 
behind Hitler are Himmler and Hess. It's the 
same shot. 

To begin with, his work is fascist, that 
celebration of the irrational, of military ar- 
dor. I saw the one that came after Star Wars, 
in which Alec Guinness plays the wise old 
man who has The Force. That's such a 
totalitarian concept, too. The transmission 
of the mystical. What it's doing, in fact, is 
making fascist ideology out of myths that 
weren't fascist. It's stressing the fanatical, 
the military. And it's not an accident that the 
name Darth Vader looks like Dark Invader, 
and that the character has a Black voice. 
Those liberal scenes in Star Wars are the most 
despicable of all, where all the little monsters 
and animals are sitting together in the space 
bar having a drink, showing that we're all 
equal even though we're all little monsters. 

SL: How much of this do you think is con- 
scious? 

EdeA: Not all. Absolutely not all. 

SL: What does it mean to you to be a Marxist 
filmmaker working in America in 1982? 

EdeA: Maybe I'm comfortable with the posi- 
tion of opposition, and it's probably the duty 
of a Marxist in anything to be in opposition 

JUNE 1982 




"In The Year of The Pig," De Antonio's documen- 
tary on anti-colonial struggle in Vietnam 

SL: You were once thinking of making a film 
about your life. 

EdeA: Yeah. That's the best idea I've ever 
had: "A Middle- Aged Radical As Seen 
Through the Eyes of His Government." I 
was so shocked when I got the first bunch of 
stuff through the Freedom of Information 
Act back in 1975. When I was a teenager I 
was already literally on a list signed by J. 
Edgar Hoover for concentration camps. This 
while I was doing my best to enlist in the US 
Army. I read it and saw the whole country 
differently. I realized that there was sheer 
madness in it. I wasn't a serious revolu- 
tionary when I was a teenager. I mean, I was 
revolutionary enough to go and get arrested 
and be on picket lines, but I also wore black 
tie and went to parties and drank cham- 
pagne. They should have seen me for what I 
was: a weakling. 

The Freedom of Information Act was the 
greatest single act that this country's had 
since the Bill of Rights. In a technological 
society, where you have the capability to 
eavesdrop electronically, you have to bring 
the Bill of Rights up to date, you have to 
make it a 20th century Bill of Rights. The FBI 
and CIA never cooperated in the administra- 
tion of that law. They abandoned it. They 
subverted it. 

SL: What do you see as the political trend in 
this country? 



EdeA: I think we're going to have a major 
depression. But at that point the military will 
take over. The more we play around with all 
this stuff, the more we look like a banana 
republic. I think the American military is 
perfectly capable, with the CIA and the FBI, 
of creating a genuinely computerized fascist 
society. 

There is something so shabby about a 
clown becoming the president of a country. 
You know, the great line in film history is 
when somebody asked the old man Louis B. 
Mayer, who was approaching death, "Mr. 
Mayer, have you heard that they just 
nominated Ronnie Reagan for governor?" 
He said, "Oh, no no no, not for governor. 
Jimmy Stewart for governor; Ronnie for 
lieutenant governor!" 

SL: Can you talk about the case of the 
Plowshares 8, the subject of your new film? 

EdeA: The title comes from the Book of 
Isaiah in the Old Testament: "They shall beat 
their swords into ploughshares." It's the 
definitive anti-war statement of a warlike 
people, the ancient Hebrews. The movement 
itself stems from the actions of the Berrigans, 
going way back. They always get other peo- 
ple involved; in this case, a nun, a public 
defender, a priest, a mother of six children... 

The group studied how most effectively to 
make a blow against the nuclear arms race. 
And they found out that the central GE plant 
among the ten plants in the King of Prussia, 
Pennsylvania area, was Plant #9, which 
made one thing: nosecones for ther- 
monuclear bombs. This nosecone shields the 
bomb from exploding and burning when it 
enters the atmosphere. Without the shield 
they can't use the bomb. 

So they studied shift changes and 
everything else. They just drove in just before 
the shift changed, 7 o'clock in the morning. 
They walked in, right through the doors. 
(The FBI went crazy, because those plants 
are supposed to have tremendous security.) 
They had hammers hidden under their 
clothes. Then they took out their hammers 
and smashed two nosecones — very fragile 
meted, very thin — put the hammers down, 
held hands, sang hymns and prayers. The 
cops came and arrested them. Then nobody 
knew what to do with them. The FBI was 
there, the US Attorney was there, the local 
people were there. Then they decided to let 
the local people prosecute them. 

And then, different members of the 
Catholic Left appraoched me and said, "You 
should really make a film about this." And I 
said, "You're wrong. I'm not a Catholic, I'm 
not a pacifist, and I'm not interested." 

The people I knew were very honorable, 
tough people. They were more left than most 
leftists. And they kept pressing harder. And I 
thought, "Well, this will be an easy 
documentary, the kind I don't make. So I'll 
just get a camera crew and go down there and 
film it all and that will be the end of it. It'll 



THE INDEPENDENT 



take a month to edit and it'll be like some 
fucking TV thing." 

But I can't do that kind of thing and the 
government didn't let me. I assumed that 
because of the new rules I could film in 
court. But they never allow you to do 
political stuff, just murders and things. So I 
went down to Norristown, Pennsylvania, 
where the trial was held. And I suddenly saw 
that all the stuff I was thinking about could 
come to be in this film. I suddenly saw the 
possibility of making a new kind of film, 
which I liked. I said, "Fuck the trial, I don't 
need it; I'll make a script out of the trial." 

SL: So you re-enacted the trial? 

EdeA: Yes. 

SL: Did you write the script or just condense 
from verbatim transcripts? 

EdeA: Both. 

SL: Did the Plowshares 8 have the support of 
the people in the town? 

EdeA: Oh, no. The town hated them and the 
whole trial. This is the place that Haig comes 
from. It's a very quiet, WASPy, conservative 
place. They don't like troublemakers. They 
hated the Plowshares 8, but even more, they 
hated the people who came down from 
Philadelphia and New York to demonstrate. 
Why niake all this fuss and noise here? Let's 
just go about our business of making atomic 
weapons. 

It was a cruel trial. The town was very ner- 
vous and frightened. There were a lot of 
threats made against the film crew. 

SL: I admire the courage behind that kind of 
act, but I can't see how that type of action 
will stop the US war machine. 

EdeA: I don't think the Berrigans do either. 
They don't think individual actions stop 
anything. The action itself is symbolic, it at- 
tracts attention, it makes people think about 
the arms race. And it also shows that there 
are people who are not afraid of those who 
run the arms race. 

In the second place, when you do that kind 
of action, you have a public trial. And when 
you have a public trial you have stuff come 
out of it like this film, which tends to 
perpetuate the action, and tends to make the 
action seen. Already, we have a possible 
[European] audience of probably 15 to 20 
million people. 

In the trial, Dan [Berrigan] and [Father] 
Carl Kabot would get up and say, "Your 
Honor, we did that, we broke those bombs." 
In fact Kabot, who's not so articulate, said, 
"We got those nosecones good, Your 
Honor." He was proud. I mean, they didn't 
say. "guilty with an explanation". They just 
said, "We did it." The jury had to convict 
them. 

10 



One of their main points was the metaphor 
of what FDR said to the people of Germany 
in World War II. He said, "Destroy your 
concentration camps. Destroy the ovens. 
Risk your lives to do this." So the 
Plowshares 8 said that they feel it's the same 
thing in attacking this plant: that we, as 
Americans, have that same imperative laid 
down for us. 

My father taught me to laugh at all 
religions. We hated equally rabbis, priests, 
nuns and ministers. My father's favorite 
word was, "Ooh, look at that Jesuitical 
face," and it would be a conniving, smiling, 
cold face. Now there's a price on every 
Jesuit's head in Guatemala. They're killed on 
sight. They're all left-wing. 



Emile de Antonio 
Filmography 

Point of Order, 1963. 
That's Where the Action Is, 1965. 
Rush to Judgement, 1966. 
In the Year of the Pig, 1969. 
America is Hard to See, 1970. 
Nixon's Checkers Speech, 1971 

(originally released 1952). 
Millhouse:A White Comedy, 1971. 
Painters Painting, 1972. 
Underground, 1976. 
In the King of Prussia, to be released. 



All the Helen Caldicotts in the world 
aren't going to change anybody — all those 
talky doctors, Physicians for Social Respon- 
sibility, all those people babbling away. You 
finally need people who will do things, who 
will put their lives out there. And the trial il- 
lustrates that. Had they won the case, that 
would have meant that private business and 
the government did not have the right to stop 
people from committing acts of witness 
against property. That could never be. The 
government had to find a way to jail them. 
Otherwise, they could have gone the next day 
to another plant. 

SL: Do the Berrigans share your pessimism 
about social change? 

EdeA: No. Absolutely not. 

SL: How did you get Martin Sheen involved? 

EdeA: A whole bunch of celebrities in 
Hollywood supported Mary [Lampson] and 
Haskell [Wexler] and me [during the 
Underground grand jury]. Among them was 
Martin Sheen. I met Sheen then and was very 
impressed with him. 

He's a brilliant actor, and I love him. I al- 
so believe in magic; maybe it's a substi- 
tute for religion. I had one of those magical 



moments in which I thought I would write to 
Martin Sheen. Why didn't I write to Jon 
Voight? I wrote to Sheen and said, "Look, 
I'm doing this film, and I need some help." 
So one morning the phone rings and a voice 
says, "This is Martin Sheen. How can I help 
you?" I said, "I don't know where to begin." 
He said, "Well, look, let me send you a check 
for $5,000. Would that be of any help?" And 
I said, "Yeah, it would be $5,000 worth of 
help." He said, "Ok, I'll give you a week of 
time, and I'll play any role you want." I said, 
"Terrific. I'd like you to play the hardest role 
in it, the least sympathetic: the judge." He 
gave an incredible performance; it's 
something he's going to be proud of. Sheen is 
also a believer. There are not many believers 
out there. 

SL: In what? 

EdeA: In social change. In radical activity. 
And his is Christian radical activity. He 
wrote me a letter thanking me for giving him 
the opportunity to be in the film, and he end- 
ed it by saying, "And for allowing me to 
come as close to courage as I ever am likely to 
come in my life," meaning the courage of the 
Berrigans, of course. 

SL: Why did you shoot in video? 

EdeA: I thought it would be cheaper. I 
couldn't raise any money for this film. I've 
never had trouble raising money. But this 
time I couldn't raise any money. 

SL: Why is that? 

EdeA: I think it's because these people are 
Catholic, and the kind of Catholic they are. 
Most money comes out of rich progressive 
Jews or rich women, and other kinds of old, 
established WASP money. But the Berrigans, 
who are totally opposed to nuclear war, are 
also totally opposed to killing anybody, in- 
cluding fetuses. So the women disappeared 
on that. The Berrigans are also very pro-PLO 
[Palestinian Liberation Organization]; the 
rich liberal Jews disappeared on that. And 
also, in this climate, the early days of Reagan 
and the last days of Carter, people were ner- 
vous about putting money into people who 
went and broke government bombs in big 
company plants. 

SL: How did shooting in video work out? 
Are you going to do it again? 

EdeA: Never. I don't like the image. Never, 
never. 

I knew from watching TV films that those 
films that are shot by TV cameramen are bor- 
ing, visually. A TV cameraperson is a fucking 
bug, because they're tied to a headset and 
some idiot so-called floor director is telling 
them what to do while the producer is telling 
the floor director what to do. So the guy at 
Continued on page 14 
JUNE 1082 



THE INDEPENDENT 



Archival Hunt Proves 
Ifs a Mad, Mad World 

• 

Miles of propaganda films reshaped 

into a mordant commentary on how government and 

business would like us to see the atom. 

• 

KATHLEEN HULSER 



The Atomic Cafe is rapidly gaining a 
reputation as "the compilation film that 
could," breaking the stereotyped image of 
political documentary as a non-theatrical 
proposition and playing to sold-out au- 
diences. Although the film was five years in 
the making, its spring release couldn't have 
been more timely, given the proliferating Ad- 
ministration mutterings about tactical 
nuclear war and the June United Nations 
Special Session on Disarmament. 

When this interview was conducted in 
April, Jayne Loader and Kevin Rafferty were 
wrapped up in distribution negotiations, so 
only Pierce Rafferty was available to par- 
ticipate (Libra is handling theatrical distribu- 
tion; New Yorker, the non-theatrical). Raf- 
ferty talks about propaganda techniques, ex- 
plains the evolutionary method of the film 
and offers tips on hunting through film ar- 
chives. 

KATHLEEN HULSER: You have worked 
on With Babies and Banners, The War at 
Home, The Wobblies and Image Before My 
Eyes. How did your interest in archival 
footage, visual history and propaganda films 
arise? What is the Archives Project? 

PIERCE RAFFERTY: I have worked on 
about forty of these films to a greater or 
lesser degree, partially through working on 
The Atomic Cafe. 

The Archives Project is Kevin Rafferty, 
Jayne Loader and myself, a production com- 
pany formed in 1977 for this particular film. 
My role was essentially as hunter-gather. 
Since I was at the archives, it made sense to 
gather material for other people, too, and I 
knew many of those filmmakers anyway. The 
Project provided footage and research for 
other films all along as we worked on Atomic 
Cafe. Having gathered material on numerous 
films, we had an idea of the general nature of 
propaganda but each film has its own slant. 
We consciously looked for humorous films, 
since we didn't want to make a film for the 
already committed. The subject of World 
War III doesn't make people line up at the 
box office on Saturday night. 

Quite a few years ago I discovered a 
catalogue called 3433 US Government Films, 
JUNE 19B2 



which featured titles like You Can't Get 
Away with It by the FBI. One of them was 
about the man who loses his hair (and is 
reassured that it will grow back "same color, 
same cowlick"). We realized that there was 
no limit to how absurd this material could be. 
Especially the stuff on the atom: the political 
statements, euphemisms, half-truths which 
were disseminated by official sources. We 
wanted to illustrate a mentality which belittled 
the dangers and made fun of the risks. 




Fifties family sitting pretty In their bomb-proof 
bunker 

KH: So the conscious technique of these 
propaganda films was to take the nuclear 
danger which was large-scale, unknown and 
terrifying, and equate it with something 
small-scale, close to home, limited and unin- 
timidating? 

PR: Yes. Take, for example, the woman who 
burns her hand on the stove. The official 
voices are demonstrating that the military 
doesn't have a corner on risk: you may burn 
your hand or fall in the shower. The narra- 
tion assures you that radiation is a calculable 
risk. 

At the beginning we had a loose idea about 
a film specifically on American propaganda, 
using material from different countries jux- 
taposed with foreign footage aimed at the 
US. One section was to be on the Cold War 
and we thought of ending with Vietnam pro- 



paganda (very familiar to us). Eventually the 
Cold War became the focus, after many false 
starts. 

We strayed briefly from our original "no 
narration" idea and shot some footage with 
natives of the Bikini atoll, and at the Atom 
Soldier hearings in Washington in 1978. Then 
we returned to the original concept. 

We draw on all kinds of sources: radio, 
early TV shows and commercials, newsreels, 
educational material aimed at children, 
military footage and civil defense films. 
Though the sources are diverse, the tone is 
somewhat unified, which is why people get 
confused about its origins. 

We thought a lot about the mechanics of 
many different kinds of films in our examina- 
tion of the nuts and bolts of films that play 
on emotions. 

After looking at some 10,000 films, we 
culled about two hundred hours, which we 
boiled down into a 90-minute film (a very 
high selection ratio). The task was com- 
plicated because we created the film as we 
went along, and didn't always know what we 
were looking for. The editing process was in- 
tegrally related to the hunting/gathering 
phase: new things would displace the old. As 
a result there were constant modifications. 
For example, the whole section on "Atoms 
for Peace" was cut, mostly because ap- 
proaching the relation of weapons and 
nuclear energy was too mammoth a job for 
this kind of film. Atomic Cafe evolved out of 
the actual material: it was like making a puz- 
zle with only ten of the pieces on hand at any 
given time. 

KH: You never wrote a script based on your 
200 selected films? 

PR: We did block out the film, but it changed 
up until the day of the final mix. 

Although the topic is propaganda, we ex- 
amine historical events with a chronology 
starting with Alamagordo and finishing with 
a view of the end of the world. Historical 
events, propaganda and the culture of the 
"atomic age" are interrelated. 

Our budget was between $270,000 and 
$300,000, pretty evenly divided between 
foundation money and private money (both 

11 



from individuals and in the form of loans), g 
The three of us are equal partners; we are the ^ 
only investors. The initial money came from i 
us, and the first outside sources were Tom 5 
Brandon, a lawyer, and the Film Fund (in a 
early 1978). In our first year the expenses > 
were only research time and cheeseburgers, t! 
As we started to buy footage, naturally the = 
costs escalated. We never hired an outside l 
fundraiser. 

The only other person who worked 
substantially on the film was Margie Crim- 
mins, the sound editor, who spent five months 
on the sound track. She did an amazing job; 
with all those old optical tracks clashing into 
each other, it was very hard to smooth 
together. Jayne, Kevin and I worked so close- 
ly on the film that we all took pro- 
ducer/director credits. And working col- 
laboratively probably tacked another year 
onto the project. 

KH: Was your main source the National Ar- 
chives? 

PR: It was our first source. When we moved 
out from California in 1976, we plunked 
ourselves down next to the Archives to in- 
vestigate its resources. Then we went out 
from there to other archives, private and so 
on. Although eventually perhaps fifty per 
cent of the material came from the National 
Archives, we searched everywhere. And dig- 
ging up the more obscure material actually 
required a lot of extra time. The film itself 
was largely structured by the material turned 
up in the hunt. 

KH: How did you find private archives? 
And what problems did you encounter using 
military archives and gaining access to them? 

PR: We never got any material that was 
classified. We weren't going for that 
material, nor did we have an antagonistic 
relationship with the military archives. The 
main factor was incredible persistence: we 
gathered old catalogues to figure out what 
films had been made and the index numbers. 
So we entered the military archives equipped. 
We would blitz the place, looking at hun- 
dreds and hundreds of films a day. We did 
not run into problems except bureaucratic 
ones. 

As for private collections, by talking to 
everyone around the archives, we would find 
out about things — one person would lead to 
another. 

KH: Many filmmakers are interested in us- 
ing old footage for their projects. Do you 
have any recommendations on how to pro- 
ceed, how much time to allot, where to start, 
what the major obstacles may be? 

PR: We certainly knew what we were doing 
after a while, but it still took five years. Begin 
with major collections and understand the 
difference between copyright footage and 

12 




Proper posture to preserve pigtails from fall-out 

public domain footage where you can 
reproduce off the original negatives, off 
whole rolls. For example, the Universal 
newsreel collection is in the public domain 
since it was donated as a tax write-off a few 
years ago. So for that start with the National 
Archives. 

For the copyrighted newsreels, you may 
pay somewhere between $1,000-52,000 per 
minute rights cost, beyond which you must 
pay for .reproduction. At the National Ar- 



Archival Resources 



Music: 

• ATOMIC CAFE an album of hot songs 
from the Cold War is available from: 
Archives Project, Inc. 

PO Box 438 

Canal St. Station 

New York NY 10013 $7.50 incl. shipping 

Film Sources: 

• A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF LABOR HISTORY 
IN NEWSFILMS. By Richard Fauss. In- 
stitute for Labor Studies, Division of Social 
& Economic Development, Center for Ex- 
tension and Continuing Education, West 
Virginia University. Morgantown. 1980. 

• PICTURE NEWSREELS 1911-1967. By 
Raymond Fielding. University of Oklahoma 
Press, Norman, OK. 1972. 

Photo Sources: 

• THE PICTURE RESEARCHER'S HAND- 
BOOK: AN INTERNATIONAL GUIDE TO PIC- 
TURE SOURCES AND HOW TO USE THEM. 
By Hilary & Mary Evans, and Andra Nelki. 
Charles Scribners & Sons, New York. 1974. 

• PICTURE SOURCES 3: COLLECTIONS 
OF PRINTS AND PHOTOGRAPHS IN THE 
US & CANADA. Ed. by Ann Novotny & 
Rosemary Eakings. Special Libraries 
Association. 1975. 

• PICTORAL RESOURCES IN THE 
WASHINGTON, DC AREA. Compiled by 
Shirley L Green. Library of Congress. 1976. 



chives, footage is available for simply the 
price of reproduction. You have to buy a 
whole roll; they will not tab footage or 
specific scenes. About six years ago they still 
did that, but the demand was so great and the 
handling of the film caused such wear and 
tear on the negatives that they stopped the 
practice. It's better for the preservation of 
the original. 

If you are making a compilation film 
rather than just using scenes, I recommend 
you consult a film researcher. It saves a lot of 
time, although you shouldn't contract out 
that work unless you really trust who you are 
working with because you know a lot more 
about what you want than a hired professional. 

KH: Do you need permission to search in 
military archives? 

PR: Yes. You must write and describe your 
film. Each branch of the military works dif- 
ferently. Probably the best place to start is by 
contacting the public relations department at 
the Pentagon, and by talking to someone 
who has already gone through the process. 

Procedures have changed, so it's wise to 
start early. For example, most of the 
newsreels — Hearst, Fox, BBC, Paramount- 
Pathe — were in New York but many are now 
being shipped around. The collections are in 
a state of flux. 

For a compilation film, make a precise 
budget, and realize that it takes time to find 
exactly what you want. You cannot simply 
ask a librarian for a specific shot — New York 
City in 1918 or whatever. You really have to 
spend time looking. Of course, there are in- 
dices, files and folders, and archivists who 
know the collections. But it's not like asking 
a librarian for a book. 

KH: Why did you decide to make a film 
without narration? 

PR: We didn't want to add our own little 
"voice of God" narration. We figured that as 
soon as we added statements of our own, 
people would become confused as to the 
source of the sound track. Some of the actual 
statements on the sound track are so 
unbelievable, many people already think we 
scripted them. By sticking to source 
documents, particularly in the sound track, I 
think the film has more authority, more 
strength. 

KH: The mere absence of voice-over or 
guiding narration doesn't ensure that there's 
no voice of authority from the filmmaker. 
The editing makes just as strong and personal 
a statement as a voice explaining. 

PR: Sure. That's inherent in the nature of a 
compilation film. What's different about 
Atomic Cafe is there's not one bit of new, in- 
terview footage to bridge the gaps. 
Everything (except for some footsteps and 

continued on page 19 
JUNE 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



AIVF FORUM 



Indies React 

to Public Matters 



Congressman William H. Natcher, a 
Democrat from Kentucky, is the Chairman 
of the House Appropriations Committee's 
Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human 
Services, Education and Related Agencies. 

Dear Mr. Natcher: 

On behalf of the Association of Indepen- 
dent Video and Filmmakers (AIVF), I urge 
you to support full funding of the public 
television system, and to oppose any addi- 
tional cuts in the budget of the Corporation 
for Public Broadcasting. 

The need for a strong public television 
system has not abated with the advent of the 



new cable and home video technologies. At 
present, only 25% of American households 
receive cable television. Home video equip- 
ment is available to even fewer citizens. And 
direct broadcast satellite distribution is not 
yet an operational reality. Moreover, there is 
no guarantee that any of these services will 
provide the innovative and diverse program- 
ming that Congress has mandated for public 
television. In sum, reliance upon the new 
video technologies to replace public televi- 
sion is both premature and highly 
speculative. 

Public television needs continued Federal 
support. The 1981 Amendments to the Public 
Telecommunications Financing Act call for 



Minutes of April Meeting 
AIVF Board of Directors 



• PUBLIC ART/GOVERNMENT 
CONTROL - The Public Television Com- 
mittee reported on its discussion of recent 
symptoms of government and financial 
pressures bearing down on the indepen- 
dent media: a) The new NEH Chairper- 
son's recent remarks that federal funds 
should not have been used to fund an in- 
dependent documentary on Nicaragua 
because of the film's point of view 
threaten the integrity of the Endowment's 
panel selection process and raise the spec- 
tre of direct government involvement in 
the content of the funded arts; b) PBS' 
controversial last-minute schedule shift of 
an AIVF member's documentary on the 
war in the Western Sahara from prime 
time to an off hour raises questions about 
possible PBS self-censorship and 
avoidance of controversy in its prime-time 
schedule. 

Sharon Sopher, producer of Blood and 
Sand, the film in question, related her dif- 
ficulties to the AIVF Board. The Board 
discussed possible responses including is- 
suing a formal statement, grassroots 
organizing against government censor- 
ship, and conducting a forum on the 
politics of art funding (see bk. cover). 

• PROGRAM FUND DISCUSSION - 
In response to AIVF's recommendation at 



the March CPB Board meeting that CPB 
involve independents in the Program 
Fund policy-making process, CPB has in- 
vited several indies for a brainstorming 
session with station programmers and 
PBS and CPB representatives in early 
May. AIVF Board member Eric Breitbart 
will attend for AIVF. Not invited: all 
those involved in the original presenta- 
tion. 

• RETREAT - Committee was formed 
to plan a retreat in June for AIVF Board 
and staff to take stock and plan the org's 
future. 

• NY CABLE FRANCHISE - The final 
version of the franchise for NYC's outer 
boroughs is inferior to an earlier draft, 
with seriously weakened access provi- 
sions. A coalition of public interest media 
groups, to which AIVF belongs, is ac- 
tively opposing the franchise. 

• FUNDRAISING - AIVF has prepared 
a 15,000-piece membership drive and is 
developing several proposals for founda- 
tion and corporate support. 

AIVF Board meetings are generally 
scheduled for 7:30 pm on the second 
Wednesday of each month. Meetings are 
open to the public. Members are en- 
couraged to attend and share their views 
with the Board. For information, call 
(212) 473-3400. ■ 



PRINCIPLES A RESOLUTIONS 
OF THE ASSOCIATION 



AIVF FOUNDING PRINCIPLES 

1. The Association is a service organi- 
zation of and for independent video 
and filmmakers. 

2. The Association encourages excel- 
lence, commitment and independence; 
it stands for the principle that video and 
filmmaking is more than just a job — 
that it goes beyond economics to in- 
volve the expression of broad human 
values. 

3. The Association works, through the 
combined effort of the membership, to 
provide practical, informational and 
moral support for independent video 
and filmmakers and is dedicated to en- 
suring the survival and providing sup- 
port for the continuing growth of in- 
dependent video and filmmaking. 

4. The Association does not limit its 
support to one genre, ideology or 
aesthetic, but furthers diversity of vi- 
sion in artistic and social consciousness. 

5. The Association champions indepen- 
dent video and film as valuable and 
vital expressions of our culture and is 
determined, by mutual action, to open 
pathways toward exhibition of this 
work to the community at large. 



AIVF RESOLUTIONS 

L To affirm the creative use of media 
in fostering cooperation, community & 
justice in human relationships without 
respect to age, sex, race, class or 
religion. 

2. To recognize and reaffirm the 
freedom of expression of the indepen- 
dent film and videomaker, as spelled 
out in the AIVF principles. 

3. To promote constructive dialogue 
and heightened awareness among the 
membership of the social, artistic and 
personal choices involved in the pursuit 
of both independent and sponsored 
work, via such mechanisms as screen- 
ings and forums. 

4. To continue to work to strengthen 
AIVFs services to independents, in 
order to help reduce the membership's 
dependence on the kinds of sponsorship 
which encourage the compromise of 
personal values. 



JUNE 19B2 



13 



THE INDEPENDENT 




If not, perhaps now is the time. As the 
national trade association for independent 
producers, we've been working since 1974 to 
provide the sort of representation you need. 
For instance: 

• Testifying before congress on legislation 
affecting independents 

• Monitoring developments in public TV, 
cable and telecommunications 

• Participating in media coalitions 

• Reaching out to the general public with the 
independent's viewpoint 

Along with our sister organization, the 
Foundation for Independent Video & Film 
(FIVF), we provide our members with such 
services as: 

• Comprehensive Health Insurance at in- 
credibly low rates 

• The Independent, our monthly film & video 
magazine 

• Short Film Distribution through the NEA's 
Short Film Showcase 

• Festival Liaison for independents through 
our Festivals Bureau 

• Comprehensive Information Services at our 
downtown NYC office— resource files, 
reference library, free consultations with our 
helpful staff (drop by soon!) 

• Screenings, Seminars & Workshops designed 
to reflect our members' needs and interests 

In all, AIVF continues to provide a strong 
collective voice, concrete services and a 
wealth of information for independent pro- 
ducers and supporters of independent video 
and film. Of course, we can't survive without 
your input . . . and assistance. Write, call or 
drop by our office today, and we'll be happy 
to tell you more about what membership in 
AIVF could mean for you. 

ASSOCIATION OF 
INDEPENDENT 
VIDEO AND 
FILMMAKERS, INC. 
625 Broadway, 9th floor, 
New York, NY 10012 
Phone: (212) 473-3400 




the exploration of alternative financing for 
the public television system. It is clear, 
however, that there are no alternatives to a 
strong Federal commitment to the system. 
Corporate underwriters have stated that they 
cannot pick up the slack for current funding 
reductions, let alone additional cuts. Poten- 
tial advertising revenue is too speculative to 
justify the certain damage that commercial 
sponsorship will cause public television. It is 
cynical to pretend to save the public TV 
system by betraying its fundamental noncom- 
mercial purpose. 

The AIVF's consistent support of public 
television is a matter of record. Last spring, 
we testified in opposition to reduced funding 
levels before both House and Senate subcom- 
mittees drafting new public television legisla- 
tion. While the independent producing com- 
munity has fought strenuously for higher 
funding levels and improved funding pro- 
cedures at CPB, the intensity of our ad- 
vocacy reflects the depth of our concern and 
commitment to a strong and diverse public 
television system. 

The media marketplace cannot yet assure 
the production of the full range of television 
programs necessary for the political and 
cultural health of this nation. Public televi- 
sion is still a national necessity. We therefore 
urge you, and all the members of the Com- 
mittee, to support full funding of the public 
television system, and to oppose any further 
budget cuts. 

Lawrence Sapadin, AIVF 



Ed Asner Supported 

Dear Mr. Asner: 
Since presenting a gift of 

$25,000— collected from thousands of 
private donors nationwide — for medical sup- 
plies for the victims of the civil war in El 
Salvador, you have become the object of 
harsh criticism, a proposed Screen Actors 
Guild recall vote and death threats. 

The Board of Directors of the Association 
of Independent Video and Filmmakers 
(AIVF) supports your right to speak out and 
take direct political action without risking 
personal and professional vilification. AIVF 
is a national trade association of independent 
film and video producers. As independents, 
we are committed to defending and pro- 
moting the First Amendment rights of media 
professionals to express their views without 
fear of retaliation, and of the public to have 
meaningful access to these diverse and com- 
peting views. 

As a public figure, your statements and ac- 
tions naturally reach and have a great impact 
on the public. This is undoubtedly why you 
have come under attack. The right of 
political expression is not reserved for only 
the silent or the ineffective. We support your 
right to speak out and express your political 
views without fear of intimidation or 
reprisal. AIVF Board of Directors 



14 



Speak Out Continues 

Dear AIVF: 

Many thanks for your letter and your love- 
ly vote of support for my right to speak out. 

It's surprising how many letters and calls 
I've gotten, railing against me for speaking 
out — yet the same people would be indignant 
if I questioned their right to do the same 
thing. 

Despite my detractors, I'll continue to 
speak out and hope to make some difference 
in this world. I thank all of you for adding 
your important voices — and for adding to my 
courage. All best wishes, 

Edward Asner 



Continued from page 10 
the end is like an insect. So I knew that I 
wanted a cameraperson from films who had 
never had any TV experience. I don't like 
that film Northern Lights very much, but I 
love Judy [Irolaj's camerawork. So I got hold 
of Judy and she saw it right away. 

SL: What are your political hopes for the 
film? How will it be distributed? Who will it 
reach? 

EdeA: I don't show things to anybody before 
they're finished, but I've already sold it to a 
major TV station in England, one in Holland 
and one in Sweden. I'm going to have a big 
agent here go after this and try to get it. 

I would like it to have theatrical release. 
It's a hard film. There are no fake or 
meretricious or flashy moments in it. It's a 
trial film, basically. Trial films work when 
they have Charles Laughton and Marlene 
Dietrich, or even when they have Joe McCar- 
thy and Joe Welch. This has real people. 

Dan Berrigan is a great actor. Dan does 
two speeches in that film, and I'm sure he'll 
be nominated for an Academy Award, 
seriously. One of them is a showstopper. I 
sent Sheen a tape of it, which he showed in 
his house, and — this shows you how corrupt 
America is — the people who saw the film 
said, "Who's his agent?" 

SL: Do you see the film as an organizing tool 
for support for the Plowshares 8? 

EdeA: I never see films as organizing tools. I 
see films as films. It's like being a mother in a 
way. Once a film is done, you sort of let go of 
it. I've got to do somethng else. I hope that 
people use it in a way that's productive. But I 
can't make that next political step that some 
filmmakers do, which is to spend three years 
working with the film. I couldn't stand it. I 
really want to make another film, not spend 
the rest of my life talking about this one. ■ 
End of Part One 

Susan Linfield is a writer and an indepen- 
dent documentary filmmaker. She currently 
works at Short Film Showcase. 

JUNE 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



FESTIVALS 



Around the World 
In Eighty Debuts 



WENDY UDELL 



Telluride 

Nestled among some of the highest peaks 
of the San Juan Mountains in southwestern 
Colorado, Telluride is accessible only by car 
and more than an hour from the closest air- 
port. Getting there is no easy accomplish- 
ment. Furthermore, tickets (in the $100 
range) must be bought months in advance, 
and before the program is announced. 

Because of the effort and expense borne by 
his guests, festival director Bill Pence says he 
places special emphasis on American 
premieres. The emphasis is also on feature w 
films, although Pence insists that they look at =i 
everything and program shorts "contrapun- ^ 
tally" with the longer films. "They know Q 
what they're looking for, and they know ^ 
what the major filmmakers are doing." ^ 

Telluride is an extremely popular festival ft 
and tickets generally sell out early. Along § 
with the participating filmmakers, "alter- ° 
native" distributors and exhibitors make up 
the largest part of those in attendance. 
Around 80-90% of the attendees come from 
outside Colorado, and some of the larger 
distributors like Fox, Columbia and Warner 
often come looking for new films. Telluride's 
popularity has grown in a remarkably short 
time, probably due to the continued ex- 
cellence of its programming and to such pro- 
gramming coups as Abel Gance's Napoleon 
in 1980, newly reconstructed by Kevin 
Brownlow and with the 90 -year-old Gance in 
attendance, and Hitchcock's The Trouble 
with Harry in 1981, in a mint-condition 
Technicolor print. This 1955 film is one of 
the five or six of Hitchcock's works presently 
in litigation and otherwise impossible to see. 
According to Pence, the success of their pro- 
gramming lies in their having three direc- 
tors — Tom Luddy, Bill Everson (successor to 
James Card) and himself — with different 
resources and sensibilities pursuing the 
festival philosophy of finding "the un- 
discovered, the unknown and the rare." 

According to Errol Morris, whose 
remarkable documentary Vernon, Florida 
opened in Telluride last year before showing 
at the New York Film Festival, the energy in 
the Telluride Festival comes from Tom Lud- 
dy. "He knows so many people," says Mor- 
ris. Among the filmmakers in attendance last 
year were Volker Schlondorff (Circles of 
Deceit), Francesco Rosi (Three Brothers) and 
JUNE 1982 



Dusan Makaveyev (Montenegro), whose 
films were making their American premieres. 
Werner Herzog is said to prefer opening his 
new films at Telluride, and we can expect the 
premiere of Fitzcarraldo this year, unless the 
film's distributor insists on opening the film 
in August — in which case, director Pence 
says, they won't accept it. 

This concentration of talent is probably 
the other element that makes Telluride so 
popular. In an isolated town that's only two 
blocks long, you can hardly avoid getting to 
know everybody after four days. 




Bonnie Friedman's "The Last to Know," concern- 
ing alcohol, prescribed drugs, and women, was 
featured at last year's NY festival. 

Like Morris's Vernon, Florida, many films 
make the journey from Telluride to New 
York, including in 1981 the American in- 
dependents My Dinner with Andre, produced 
by George W. George, and Soldiers Girls by 
Nick Broomfield and Joan Churchill. 

The Labor Day opening at Telluride does 
not undermine the press coverage which ac- 
companies openings in major urban festivals 
like New York, San Francisco or Chicago (in 
September, October and November respec- 
tively). While the festival itself gets a lot of 
good coverage, with film writers from many 
of the major urban papers in attendance, the 
individual films themselves often do not. 
Pence says this is because they do not wish to 
compete with the larger festivals. The press is 
not encouraged, he says. They are treated 
"just like people who buy tickets." There are 
no press conferences or special treatment and 
as a result they are "more civilized." I sup- 
pose this adds to the spirit of the festival, 



which Pence describes as "intimacy coupled 
with quality," or as Errol Morris sums it up: 
"It's pleasant, I guess." 

The committee looks at films in June, July 
and August but the earlier submitted, the bet- 
ter your chances. Send your print with a let- 
ter (no fee) to Telluride Film Festival, Na- 
tional Film Preserve, 1 19 West Colorado 
Ave., Telluride CO 81345, (303) 728-4401. 



New York 

Next to Cannes, the most prestigious of 
film festivals is probably New York. Unlike 
Cannes, however, there is no competition at 
New York, and most of that elusive com- 
modity — prestige — is manifested in the lavish 
publicity bestowed upon the festival par- 
ticipants. John Springer, one of the most ex- 
pensive PR firms in New York City, was 
previously retained to handle public rela- 
tions; and although this year the job has been 
shifted to a full-time in-house publicist, 
Joanna Ney, the level of activity is expected 
to remain high. 

"Extensive contacts were made for me 
with television, radio and the print media," 
said Manny Kirchheimer, whose lyrical 
documentary short Stations of the Elevated 
played in last year's festival. "Once you're 
in, they treat you like a king." Bonnie Fried- 
man, producer of The Last to Know, also 
featured in last year's festival, concurs. 
"There is no other festival which can com- 
pare with it." Friedman also said she got 
"tons of inquiries" about the film due to all 
the publicity, and its performance sold out. 

1981 saw a significant shift in the focus of 
the festival. Compared to 1978, the number 
of French films shown fell from seven to five, 
Hollywood films from three to none, and the 
number of American independents and 
documentaries grew from three to nine. In- 
terestingly, these last two categories overlap 
one another for all but one film in each 
category. 

One wonders whether this shift is due to a 
change in festival director Richard Roud's 
sensibility, the influence of Marc Weiss, the 
festivals 's advisor for American independent 
films, or through dedication to the festival's 
purpose, articulated by administrative direc- 
tor Joanna Koch as "[the reflection] of cur- 
rent trends in international cinema of the 
highest artistic standards through showings 
of a cross-section of the most interesting and 
significant new films, regardless of their com- 
mercial importance. " It will be interesting to 
see whether this shift will be extended in 1982 
to recognize the growing importance of 
dramatic American independent features. 

The festival's selection committee includes 
Richard Roud, Chairperson, Jack Kroll, 
Richard Corliss, Tom Luddy and Jim Hober- 
man (who replaces Susan Sontag). The two 
advisors are Marc Weiss (AIVF Board 
member and Vice President) for independent 
films and Mary Meerson for retrospectives. 

Entries should be made in July. There is no 

16 



THE INDEPENDENT 



fee. For application forms contact: New 
York Film Festival, Film Society of Lincoln 
Center, 140 West 65 St., New York NY 
10023, (212) 877-1800 ext. #489. 



Toronto 

According to Cinema Canada magazine, 
the Toronto Festival of Festivals is "the 
largest publicly attended film festival in the 
world," although its arch-competitor in 
Montreal is not very far behind. In 1981, 200 
features were shown including 50 film 
retrospectives, 8 feature-length compilations 
of animation and various programs with 
titles like "Real to Reel" and "Less is More" 
(documentaries and low-budget films respec- 
tively, programmed by John Katz at York 
University and including many American 
films), "Critic's Choice" (programmed by 
David Overby and focusing on German and 
Dutch films in 1981), and "Buried 
Treasures" (a retrospective of undiscovered 
gems programmed by Jonathan 
Rosenbaum). 

The festival on the whole tends to be 
oriented toward commercial films, opening 
in 1981 with the Canadian production Ticket 
to Heaven by Ralph Thomas. But Festival 
Director S. Wayne Clarkson points out that 
last year's programs included American in- 
dependents Killer of Sheep by Charles 
Burnett, The Dark End of the Street by Jan 
Egleson, Soldier Girls by Broomfield and 
Churchill, Street Music by Dick and Jenny 
Bowen, and Image Before My Eyes by Josh 
Waletsky. Past years have featured Alam- 
brista by Robert Young, Best Boy by Ira 
Wohl and The Return of the Secaucus 7 by 
John Sayles. Independent films have 
reportedly been scheduled during the less ac- 
cessible daytime hours, but the festival has 
recently taken to repeating the programs a 
number of times, and they have been well at- 
tended. 

This year, a new programmer named Kay 
Armitage will be taking over. She's been 
described as an academic feminist, and her 
influence should prove interesting. 

While there is no concurrent film market, 
extensive press coverage and attendance by 
distributors provide a good introduction to 
the Anglophone Canadian market. This year 
could be especially fruitful since the annual 
Trade Forum, held during the festival will 
focus on distribution. Pay TV companies will 
have been awarded licenses one month before 
the festival, and with an eye toward going on- 
line in February 1983, they are expected to 
talk about what kind of material they are 
looking for. 

The only competition at the festival is the 
Labatt's Most Popular Film Award, which is 
voted on by the audience. Last year's results 
are intriguing: votes went to Ivan Passer's 
Cutter's Way and two Canadian documen- 
taries, Imagine the Sound (on jazz) and 
P4W: Prison for Women. 

Toronto accepts features, shorts and 
16 



documentaries, although the emphasis is 
clearly on features. Their policy on premieres 
is ambiguous. According to associate director 
Anne MacKenzie, films should not have been 
publicly screened in Canada, but she does ad- 
mit some overlap with the Montreal World 
Film Festival which precedes it by a couple of 
weeks. Clarkson and MacKenzie will be in 
New York at the offices of the National Film 
Board of Canada during the second or third 
week of June to make selections. They wish 
to be contacted through their Canadian of- 
fice, preferably by letter with publicity 
materials, although phone calls will do under 
time limitations. They'll let you know if they 
want to see you film, and how to deliver it to 
them. Further inquiries may be made 
through the FIVE office. Their official entry 
date extends through July. Contact: S. 
Wayne Clarkson, Anne MacKenzie, Festival 
of Festivals, 69 Yorkville Avenue, Suite 206, 
Toronto, Ontario M5R 1B7 Canada, (416) 
967-7371 

Montreal 

A good deal of controversy seems to sur- 
round the Montreal World Film Festival and 
its director Serge Losique. Francophone 
filmmakers have been known to walk out of 
National Film Board meetings when he walks 
in, and the Montreal Gazette has called him 
an "ego-maniac". But this "ego-maniac" has 
managed in only five years to build a film 
festival that attracts over 130,000 attendees. 
Losique has earned a reputation in Montreal 
for attempting to find audiences for foreign 
films (which tends to include French and 
European, rather than American), forgotten 
classics and serious cinema in general. He 
liberally mixes this effort with the bread and 
butter elements of commercial cinema. The 
festival is funded by over half a million 
dollars in Canadian government grants, and 
while a study has been implemented to in- 
vestigate the management of the festival, 
around which further controversy swirls, the 
bureaucrats have yet to find any reason for 
shutting him down. 

Montreal holds a main competition, which 
last year had 23 entries, and awards several 
other prizes, mostly to Canadian films. Last 
year's jury was headed by Gina Lollabrigida 
and also included syndicated film columnist 
Rex Reed. It awarded the Prix des Ameriques 
to a film from the US called The Chosen, 
preferred over other US entries Butterfly and 
Carbon Copy and other North and South 
American entries. 

Side events at Montreal in 1981 included 
Films for TV, Latin American films, German 
films (18 in all, of which 1 1 were the works of 
first-time directors and tributes to Pier Paolo 
Pasolini, Elia Kazan and Robert Wise. Kazan 
cancelled because of bad health, and so few 
people reportedly attended Wise's press con- 
ference it was practically useless. 

An economic conference (on TV films) was 
held concurrently with the festival for the 



first time in 1981. The overlapping Film 
Market reported reduced participation 
compared to previous years, although public 
attendance at the festival continued to grow. 
Since the events take place in a multiplex 
cinema (good for screening hopping) near the 
large downtown campus of the University of 
Quebec, there's usually an enthusiastic stu- 
dent audience on hand. Nearby rue St. Denis 
is lined with cafes for times when your eyes 
tire. 

Montreal accepts features and shorts and 
requires that they be Canadian premieres; 
but since Montreal precedes Toronto by two 
weeks, this should not be a problem for those 
interested in both. Canadian critics attend en 
masse and the films receive national 
newspaper and broadcast coverage, although 
most attention tends to be concentrated on 
the more commercial offerings. The Fran- 
cophone press is particularly thorough about 
the Montreal Fest, and a snappy review in 
French can be an asset when storming French 
Festivals on the continent. Enter in July. 
Event in late August. No fee. Contact: Mon- 
treal World Film Festival, 1455 de Maison- 
neauve Blvd. West, Montreal, Quebec H3G 
1M8 Canada, (514) 879-4057. 

Valladolid 

The Valladolid International Film Week, 
which will take place in Spain in October, has 
announced that their special section in 1982 
will celebrate American independent feature 
films. Along with the presentation of about 
15 feature-length programs, the festival will 
produce a book of essays on American in- 
dependents which will include profiles of 
filmmakers whether or not their films are 
part of the festival. 

Films already selected for the festival are: 
Permanent Vacation by Jim Jarmusch, 
Underground, USA by Eric Mitchell, Sub- 
way Riders by Amos Poe, Against the Grain 
by Tim Barnes, Dream On by Ed Harker, 3 
Shorts by George Kuchar with a documen- 
tary about Kuchar by Gustavo Vasquez, 
Killer of Sheep by Charles Burnett, Lenz by 
Alexandre Rockwell, You Are Not I by Sara 
Driver, Empty Suitcases by Bette Gordon, 
Imposters by Mark Rappaport, Gal Young 
Un by Victor Nunez, The Dark End of the 
Street by Jan Egleson and The Return of the 
Secaucus 7 by John Sayles. 

Festival Director Fernando Herrero will 
return to New York in June or July to finalize 
the program and find a few more films. He is 
especially interested in finding a world 
premiere. If you would like to show your film 
to Mr. Herrero, write to him care of this of- 
fice as soon as possible. The festival will sub- 
title all selected films in Spanish, and for this 
reason, the print will be needed in August 
although the festval will not take place until 
late October. 

If you would like to be included in the 
American Independents Book, send your 
biography, filmography and a photograph to 

JUNE 1082 



THE INDEPENDENT 



Valladolid, c/o FIVF, 625 Broadway, New 
York NY 10012. 

News £ Notes 

Funding cutbacks have forced the cancella- 
tion of the 4th FLORENCE FILM 
FESTIVAL, the International Review of IN- 
DEPENDENT CINEMA. According to 
festival directors FABRIZIO FIUMI and 
GIOVANNI ROSSI, municipal funding is 
only part of the reason for their cancellation, 
which is "also due to deliberate political 
design, which we are actively contesting." 

Despite momentary financial and political 
distress, the Florence Film Festival continues 
to operate as a point of reference for the pro- 
duction and distribution of international in- 
dependent feature-length films; it will insist 
on defending the results of an initiative which 
has in just three years of activity, met with in- 
disputable interest, consensus and support 
from the public, the press, the filmmakers, 
the distributors. 

"Any news of further developments will be 
announced." 

• 

Pursuant to our announcement in the 
April issue, The ROTTERDAM INTERNA- 
TIONAL VIDEO FESTIVAL has moved 
their entry deadline from the end of June to 
the first week of June. Their phone number is 
070-651880. The first International Video 
Festival will take place in London from June 
19 through July 9. Contact: Video Festival 
Offices, Chenil House, 183 Kings Road, Lon- 
don SW3 England, or the FIVF office. 
• 

Winners in the US FILM AND VIDEO 
FESTIVAL, the only competition in the 
country that is devoted exclusively to 
independently-produced film and video, in- 
clude: The Dozens by RANDALL CON- 
RAD* and CHRISTINE DALL*, Killer of 
Sheep by CHARLES BURNETT, and Street 
Music by JENNY and DICK BO WEN, 
which shared the Grand Prize. The Best 
Documentary honor went to Soldier Girls by 
NICK BROOMFIELD and JOAN CHUR- 
CHILL, and Special Jury Prizes went to 
GLENN SILBER's* El Salvador: Another 
Viet Nam?, ERROL MORRIS'S* Gates of 
Heaven, and JIM BROWN 's* Wasn't That a 
Time? US Film and Video Festival is organiz- 
ed by ROBERT REDFORD as a companion 
to the Sundance Institute. Jurors were 
ROGER EBERT, TAYLOR HACKFORD, 
LEE GRANT, and ARTHUR KNIGHT. 
• 

NANCY SCHREIBER's* film Possum 
Living has been selected by the CINEMA DU 
REEL FESTIVAL in Paris to be purchased 
for the Public Information Library and join a 
travelling show of festival highlights. 
Smithereens, a first feature by SUSAN 
SEIDELMAN* has just been accepted into 
the official competition at CANNES. The film 
will be represented in Europe by Joy 
Pereths*. 
JUNE 1962 



The HEMISFILM INTERNATIONAL 
FILM FESTIVAL, HELD IN San Antonio, 
Texas, has announced its winners. Among 
the awards to Americans were: Doing Time, 
by L. PAUL SUTTON and LONG 
HOLMBERG, Best Long Documentary; Stilt 
Dancers of Long Bow Village by RICHARD 
GORDON* and CARMA HINTON, Best 
Short Documentary; and Creation by WILL 
VINTON, Best Short Film. In the Arts and 
Artists category, the winner was Onstage 
with Judith Somogi by MARY CLAIR- 
BORNE and JERRY OLSEN. Among the 
Best In-Time winners were Guri by ED 



DARINO* and Antiquities by SCOTT 
WILLIAMS. 

Americans also won Special Jury Awards: 
Marie by CHRIS PELZER, and Fall-Line by 
BOB CARMICHAEL and GREG LOWE. 

* AIVF Members 

• 
Special thanks to GORDON HITCHENS 
for the HEMISFILM report and to 
MARGARET COOPER and JANE GUT- 
TRIDGE for information on Toronto's 
FESTIVAL OF FESTIVALS. 



MORE FESTIVALS 



MORE FESTIVALS has been compiled by Sian Evans, Marina Obsatz and 
Wendy Udell with the help of Gadney's Guides and the FIVF files. 
Listings do not constitute an endorsement, and since some details 
change faster than we do, we recommend that you contact the festival 
for further information before sending your prints or tapes. Application 
forms for some festivals are available to members on request from the 
FIVF office. If your experience with a particular festival is different from 
how we report n, please let us know so we can improve our reliability. 



Domestic 

• BUMBERSHOOT INVITATIONAL FILM 
FESTIVAL, Sept. 4-6, open to regional film and 



video makers in the Northwest, is part of the Seat- 
tle Arts Festival. Tapes and films in 16 and 35mm 
can be entered without a fee in a variety of pro- 
grams including Via: Video, Tape Replay and In- 
stallations. The emphasis at this Festival is 



Need videotape copies of your films but think you can't afford them? 

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17 



GROUP SHIPMENTS 

If three or more film/videomakers plan 

to enter the same foreign festival, 

FIVF can arrange a group shipment, 

thereby saving you money! What you 

must do is drop us a note telling us 

what festival you are planning to enter, 

and if we get enough interest in one, 

we will call you. 



THE INDEPENDENT 



definitely on art and experimental work. Because 
of Seattle City Light's role in the generation of 
energy in the Northwest and the creative energy 
generated by the Arts Festival, Seattle City Light 
"1% for Art" funds have been allocated for the 
temporary installations of video artworks at 
Bumbershoot. The Festival is well-supported by 
national and community attendance, as well as ci- 
ty government and organizations. This really is a 
"popular" Festival. The Via.Video program is a 
continous playback of artists' tapes and an exhibi- 
tion of two video-related installations. The 1981 
exhibit was coordinated by Seattle artists Norie 
Sato and Sheila Klein. Tape Replay is a compila- 
tion of chosen submissions in video. These tapes 
should be on 3 A" and no longer than 15 minutes. 
The compilation is retained for non-commercial 
purposes by the organizers. Videomakers who are 
selected are paid $75. Installations is a selection of 
two artists whose proposals deal with the 
sculptural and/or participatory nature of video. 
The artists will be paid up to $1500 and this fee 
must cover all materials, installation, cleanup and 
fee. Projects should be designed or suitable for in- 
teriors. The City of Seattle may wish to purchase 
the work. Juries for all programs are made up of 
artists and art-related professionals . Deadline: 
July — 1st week. Contact: Bumbershoot, 305 Har- 
rison St., Seattle WA 98109, (206) 625-4275. 

• COLUMBUS INTERNATIONAL FILM 
FESTIVAL, October. This is the 30th Annual 
event to be sponsored by the Film Council of 
Greater Columbus, making it the oldest film 
festival in the US. According to Daniel Prugh, 
President of the Council, the festival started out as 
a business and industrial film event and then 
began to expand into travel, health, medicine and 
education. Today there are at least a hundred 
separate categories under these broad divisions: 
Art and Culture, Business and Industry, Educa- 
tion, Filmstrips, Health and Medicine, Religion 
and Ethics, Social Studies, Travel — United States 
and Foreign, Videotapes, Media of Print. They are 
extremely well organized and reported to be 
"careful, responsive and respectable." They 
award the Chris Statuette Award, the Chris Plaque 
Award and the Certificate of Honorable Mention. 
Winning one of these awards for your office wall 
seems to be the main reason for entering this 
festival. They are reportedly very impressive- 
looking, but apparently every film/tape which 
participates wins at least honorable mention, so 
they may not carry the status they once did. One 
producer who had won awards every year said she 
would not enter again because it was too expensive 
and "the categories were too broad." Prugh said 
they let people in the educational field know 
what's available and publicize the award-winners 
to the Ohio area. Public screenings apparently 
take place in local libraries with invitations going 
out to special interest groups. Entry fees: $65 to 
$200. Contact: Mary A. Rupe, Film Council of 
Greater Columbus, 257 South Brinker Ave., Col- 
umbus OH 43204. 

• FIFTH ANNUAL ASIAN-AMERICAN IN- 
TERNATIONAL FILM FESTIVAL showcasing 
recent works by Asian-American and Asian film- 
fa 



makers will take place on June 18, 19, 25 & 26 at 
New York University's Schimmel Auditorium, 40 
West 4 St. Selected films include Regret for the' 
Past, a feature-length drama from the People's 
Republic of China, and Wayne Wang's Chan is 
Missing. The festival is sponsored by the Asian- 
American Film Institute of Asian Cine-Vision. For 
scheduling and other details call Michael Chu or 
Renee Tajima at (212) 925-8685. 

• 1982 MINORITY FILM AND VIDEO 
FESTIVAL will take place at Global Village in 
New York City June 2-6. Programs include: 
Focus: The US, Young Eyes, Wise Views, Concep- 
tual Revision, Rites Are Right, Searching for a 
Truth, and Where We're From and Where We're 
Going. For more details call Laura Phizer or Jane 
Schonberger at (212) 966-7526. 

• NORTHWEST FILM AND VIDEO 
FESTIVAL, Aug. 1-15, is sponsored by the North- 
west Film Study Center to "survey new moving 
image art produced in the Northwest." Entry is 
open to film and videomakers in Oregon, 
Washington, Alaska, Idaho, Montana and British 
Columbia. The majority of the entries are 
documentaries, with 20% coming from Canada. 
An expensive mailing is made to court the press. 
An important part of the festival is its touring ex- 
hibition which was seen in 22 museums and col- 
leges last year. Enter by July 15. No entry fee. 
Contact: Bill Foster, Northwest Film Study 
Center, Portland Art Museum, 1219 Southwest 
Park, Portland OR 97205, (530) 221-1156. 

• PACIFIC RIM WOODEN BOAT FILM 
FESTIVAL, July 3-5. This is the first annual. 
They are part of the sixth annual Seattle Wooden 
Boat Show and are looking for films on the use, 
history, and construction of wooden boats. A $10 
entry fee will be used for return postage; the re- 
mainder will go toward cash prizes to be awarded 
to the three best films. 16mm only. Enter by June 
25. Contact: Marty Langeland, Skookum Fasten- 
ing, 805 6th St., Anacorpus WA 98221, (206) 
293-7469. 

• PLANNED PARENTHOOD FEDERATION 
of America Film Festival is held at their national 
Annual Meeting in November. They seek films 
dealing with "reproductive health, sexual behavior 
and attitudes, family life and sexuality education, 
population education and related topics." Com- 
petition is for inclusion in the Festival only; no 
prizes are awarded. However, more than 1000 
educators and health professionals from all over 
the US attend the Annual Meeting, so many sales 
and rentals of screened films are arranged here. 
Entries must have been made since 1980; no entry 
fee. Prescreening is ongoing from now until mid- 
September. For more info contact: Nancy Casas, 
Education Division, PPFA, 810 Seventh Ave., 
New York NY 10019, (212) 541-7800 ext. 388. 

• PUBLIC RELATIONS FILM /VIDEO 
FESTIVAL, November, sponsored by the Public 
Relations Society of America (PRSA), is for pro- 
moting industrial and sponsored films/tapes in 
public relations. Enter by July 31. $125/PRSA 
members, $150/non-members. Contact PRSA, 
845 Third Ave., New York NY 10022, (212) 
826-1750. 

• SAN ANTONIO CINEFESTIVAL, Aug. 
27-28. Founded as the Chicano Film Festival in 

1976, the Cinefestival is the oldest festival 
celebrating the Hispanic art form in America. The 



7th Annual festival invites films in 16mm and 
tapes in 3 /4 " and Vi " (Beta or VHS) "reflecting a 
part of the Hispanic Community." The festival is 
sponsored by the Oblate College of the Southwest, 
an Oblate seminary, and all entries are publicly ex- 
hibited in San Antonio, now the 13th largest city 
in the country. Attendance averages about 
500/day with more coming to their special events 
like the world premiere of Jesus Trevino's Seguin 
in 1981. A concurrent series of workshops is held; 
this year's topics include a discussion of the 
cultural ties between religion and filmmaking with 
a special showing of films exhibiting this relation- 
ship, and a legal workshop concentrating on 
copyright law. The Program Coordinator says 
they receive national press coverage in such papers 
as Variety, Broadcasting, Nuestro and Caminos. 
Enter by July 23. There is no entry fee. Contact: 
Robert Gutierrez, San Antonio Cine Festival, PO 
Box 96, San Antonio TX 78291, or 907 Pasadena, 
78201, (512)736-1685. 

• SAN MATEO COUNTY FAIR FAIR WORLD 
FESTIVAL, July 23-31, is a multi-arts festival 
with separate film and video sections. It is open to 
"amateurs", described by Rupert Taylor, director 
of the film section, as works which receive no out- 
side funding whatsoever. They accept 16mm, 
Super-8mm and Vi ", and require a $6 entry fee. For 
films, prizes ranging from $50-$200 and trophies 
are awarded; and for video, merchandise totalling 
$800 and $1,000 worth of editing time (in San 
Mateo). Film deadline July 7. Contact: Rupert 
Taylor, 500 Middle Road, Belmont CA 94002, 
(415) 592-5824. Video deadline Aug. 14. Contact: 
Rick Zanardi, KCSM, Channel 60, San Mateo 
CA, (415) 574-6586. 

• VIDEO SHORTS III, July 23-25, invites 
videotape entries in 3 A", VHS or Beta formats. 
The festival's intention is "to demonstrate to the 
public the wide variety of styles and approaches 
possible in this fast-growing medium." They have 
attempted home video distribution of the winners 
in the past but without much success, and it is un- 
sure what will be done this year. Ten awards of 
$100 each are granted, and public screenings at- 
tract thousands of people. They suggest a 5-min. 
maximum for length, and charge $l/min. as an 
entry fee. They will accept PSAs and excerpts 
from longer works, but most of the 75 entries in its 
last two years have fallen into the Experimental or 
Arts category. Enter by July 12. Contact: Mike 
Cady, c/o High Hopes Media, PO Box 20069, 
Broadway Station, Seattle WA 98102, (206) 
322-9010. 



Foreign 

• AUSTRALIAN INTERNATIONAL FILM 
FESTIVAL, held in September, is open to student 
and amateurs. 16mm, Super-8 and 8mm- are ac- 
cepted. Categories include: Documentary, Fiction, 
Travel, Unclassified-Experimental. Trophies and 
certificates are awarded to fifteen selected win- 
ners. No entry fee required. Festival pays postage. 
Entry deadline: July. Contact: Barbara Fuller, 
Australian Amateur Cine Society, Box 1463, GPO 
Sydney, New South Wales 2001, Australia. Tel: 
02-81-4326. 

• BESANCON INTERNATIONAL MUSICAL 
AND CHOREOGRAPHIC FILM FESTIVAL, 
November, is sponsored by the Cultural Depart- 
ment of the National Center of French 
Cinematography and recognized by the French 

JUNE 1082 



THE INDEPENDENT 



Association of Festivals and European Associa- 
tion of Music Festivals. The festival accepts film 
entries in the categories of Musical-Choreographic 
Feature, Short and Documentary in 16 and 35mm. 
There are no limits on length, and only three en- 
tries per country are accepted. Five awards are 
given to selected filmmakers including the Jury 
Prize, SACEM Prize and Public Prize. No entry 
fee is required. Entry deadline: July. Contact: 
Pierre LaGrange, Commissaire General, 2d. rue 
Isenbart, 2500 Besancon, France. Tel: (81) 
80-73-26. 

• CANNES INTERNATIONAL AMATEUR 
FILM FESTIVAL, September, holds its annual 
event for eight days at the Palace of Festivals in 
Cannes. Going on its 37th year, the festival 
features films from a large variety of categories, 
some of which are: Travel, Cartoon, Documen- 
tary, Reporting, Style and Fantasy, Animation, 
Filmed Song Music and Scenario. Films are judged 
on the basis of their entertainment value and 
technical quality. Cups and trophies will be award- 
ed to selected entrants. All films should be submit- 
ted in either 16, Super-8 or 8mm, no longer than 
30 minutes, 45 minutes for scenarios. No entry 
fee; entrant pays postage. Entries must be in by 
July. Contact: Cine-Club de Cannes, Boite 
Postale No. 279, Palais des Festivals, La Croisette, 
06403 Cannes, France. Please note that this is not 
THE Cannes Film Festival. 

• GOLD MERCURY INTERNATIONAL 
FILM A WARD, September, is a festival whose 
purpose is to show the different aspects of 
economy through documentary film. Jury is com- 
prised of representatives from universities, motion 
picture industries and municipal and economic 
organizations. Copies of winning films will be re- 
quested for the Film Library of Venice Chamber 
of Commerce, and over ten medals and prizes are 
awarded. Categories include: Agriculture- 
Fishing, Industry, Handicrafts, Trade- 
Distribution, Transport -Communications, 
Tourism, Professional Higher Training, Work 
Problems, Applied Scientific Research, Public 
Relations, Ecology, Restoration of Historic 
Centers. Films may be entered in 35 and 16mm. 
No entry fee is required. Entry deadline: July. 
Contact: Aw. Mario Valeri Manera, President, 
Venice Chamber of Commerce, S. Marco 2032, 
30124 Venice, Italy. Tel: 89-580. The festival is 
biennial and last occurred in 1980. 

• MANNHEIM INTERNATIONAL FILM 
WEEK, October. Once again Festival Director Fee 
Vaillant will be coming New York to screen first 
dramatic features and social-political documen- 
taries in 16 and 35mm. American documentaries 
often do well at Mannheim, winning a number of 
the substantial cash prizes awarded annually. In 
1981, Resurgence: The New Civil Rights Move- 
ment and the Rise of the KKK by Pamela Yates 
and Tom Sigel took second prize. A number of TV 
sales have also reportedly been made pursuant to 
Mannheim Festival screenings. The festival covers 
the cost of overseas shipment and filmmakers are 
invited to be guests of the festival. Selections will 
take place sometime in mid-August. Contact: Pen- 
ny Bernstein, 55 Leroy St., NY NY 10014, (212) 
695-2542/929-0022. 

• TECHFILM INTERNATIONAL FILM 
FESTIVAL ON SCIENTIFIC AND 
TECHNICAL PROGRESS, October. Its purpose 
is to support the making of films on scientific and 
technical progress, to upgrade and broaden pro- 

JUNE 1982 



duction technology and labor efficiency and to im- 
prove the uses of ecological resources and liv- 
ing/working conditions. Entrants may submit 
films in 35 or I6mm, no more than 25 minutes in 
length, 30 minutes for TV films. General 
categories include: Scientific-Technical Research, 
Popular Science, Instructive, Documentary, In- 
formative, Programs/Films for TV, Publicity- 
Advertisement-Promotional. There are a variety 
of prizes and an honorable mention given to 
selected films. An entry fee of 85 Swiss francs is 
required; however, return postage is paid. Entry 
deadline: July. Contact: Frantisek Kopecky, 
Director, Kratky Film, Infor Film Servis Prague, 
Stepanska 42, 1 1000 Prague l , Czechoslovakia. ■ 



Continued from page 6 

leading characters, creating a fleshed-out 
biographical portrait that would include any 
idiosyncratic behavior or mannerisms. The 
third chapter would contain a short (two- 
page) outline of the pilot script. The fourth is 
the pilot script itself. The fifth consists of a 
number of paragraphs that briefly outline 
further episodes. The final chapter sums up 
the reasons why, demographically, this idea 
will appeal. This "sell" chapter must con- 
vince a producer that the story will keep 
eighteen-month-olds glued to the set as well 
as their porridge, and set eighty-year-olds 
aglow. 

Notwithstanding these criticisms, there is 
much in the book that is of value had one but 
the time and patience to absorb. But it fails 
to accomplish the elemental purpose — to get 
the writer started. 

On page 219 Miller advises: "Don't crowd 
the script by giving the audience a greater in- 
formation density than they can reasonably 
process." Sage advice. 

I do not feel that Screenwriting for Nar- 
rative Film and Television can teach the 
novice to propel a flickering plot into a film 
format with any real inner security. One 
would confront confusion rather than clari- 
ty, be overwhelmed rather than instructed 
and, finally, be diminished into creative im- 
potence rather than led forward simply and 
directly to the enthusiastic delivery of a 
manuscript. • 

Ann Loring is an actress and writer who 
teaches TV scriptwriting at The New School. 
She is also president of the New York local of 
the American Federation of Television and 
Radio Artists. 



continued from page 12 

missile sounds) is taken from the period as is. 
This actually allows the audience to interact 
with the material in a way that's not possible 
with an added narration. For example, when 
Time-Life films speak, there's a completely 
different tone. 

KH: Who are your cinematic forebears? 

PR: Our stylistic precursors are people like 
Phillipe Morin with his film Swastika. De 



Antonio's films were very influential. And 
Bruce Conner. 

KH: Do you have a background in history? 

PR: No. Jayne is perhaps the only legitimate 
academic. She has degrees and worked quite 
extensively for Tom Brandon. I do have a 
history of professional collecting; the men- 
tality is like that of a kid who collects 
thousands of baseball cards. In my case it's 
postcards. Not exactly a formal academic 
background. Just 20 feet away from you [in 
his debris-choked loft in SoHo] are about 
15,000 postcards in shoeboxes. 

KH: Was The Selling of the Pentagon one of 
your inspirations for this film? [It came out 
in 1971.] 

PR: Well, not directly, though I was amazed 
at the amount of response it got from the 
Pentagon. It made me aware that the military 
was worried about its self-image. 

KH: Have you had any response from the 
Pentagon on Atomic Cafe! Did the State 
Department issue a press release as it did for 
Missing! 

PR: I hope they enjoy the film, but they 
haven't contacted me, nor issued any press 
releases to my knowledge. 

KH: How about foreign distribution? 

PR: We have had calls from Europe; it looks 
like it will be widely distributed abroad. The 
Europeans are more advanced on the subject 
of nuclear war because they have always felt 
themselves right in the middle of it. What's 
happening in the States is even more signifi- 
cant because there hasn't been much concern 
about the bomb for some twenty years. Now 
all kinds of groups are getting in: town coun- 
cillors, the Bar Association, doctors, even the 
Restauranteurs' Association for Disarma- 
ment. In sum, more mainstream groups. 

KH: What effect do you think the film will 
have? 

PR: Hopefully it will make people more 
skeptical about official voices, things that are 
shown to them and said about the atomic age 
(and about other subjects). By gathering all 
these ridiculous and rationalized statements 
about nuclear weaponry, we show that one 
can't put one's faith in the powers that be. 
The film links up Cold War I with Cold War 
II — a reminder that this isn't just coming out 
of the blue. 

KH: The aim is to make people look critical- 
ly at how they are persuaded and to link their 
memories of the Fifties with what's happen- 
ing now? 



PR: Yes. 



19 



THE INDEPENDENT 



NOTICES 



NOTICES are listed free of charge. AIVF members receive first priority; 
others included as space permits. Send notices to The Independent c/o 
FIVF, 625 Broadway, 9th Floor, New York NY 10012. For further info, call 
(212) 473-3400. Deadline: 15th of second preceding month (e.g. May 15 
for July/August. Edited by Odessa Flores. 



Buy •Rente Sell 



• FOR SALE: JVC color VTR BR6400U, latest 
Vi " industrial recorder, $950 (includes postage & 
insurance). W/6 hrs. use; purchased 12/30/81. 
For info contact: Mark Willner, (804) 424-2223, 
after 5 pm. 

• FOR SALE: Steenbeck ST900W 6-plate 16mm 
flatbed. Larger console w/plenty of work space & 
dust cover. Recently serviced, excellent condition, 
$12,500. For info contact: James Agee Film Pro- 
ject, 1730 JPA #4, Charlottesville VA 22903, (804) 
295-0262. 

• FOR SALE: 6-plate Moviola M86 w/flickerless 
prism, low wow & flutter, quick stop, torque 
motor box. New Jan. '80. Price negotiable. Con- 
tact: Susan Woll, (617) 876-5022 or Ron Blau, 
(617) 354-6054. 

• FOR SALE: Canon Scoopic w/new batteries & 
charger, filters & case, $750. Fully serviced by 
Camera Mart. For info call: (212) 928-2407 or 
795-3372. 

• FOR SALE: Beaulieu 40082II w/backwinding 
attachment, rechargable Ni-cad battery, set of 
decamired filters, gadget bag, Halliburton 
aluminum case, Star-D tripod w/brass fittings, 
Hervig viewer, Bolex cement splicer, Hollywood 
rewinds etc. All excellent condition, $1700. Con- 
tact: Don Druker, 204 Pender PL, Rockville MD 
20850, (301) 279-0244. 

• FOR SALE: 2 6-plate 16mm Steenbecks. Mint 
condition. For info call: Cinetudes Film Produc- 
tions, (212) 966-4600. 

• FOR SALE: 16mm Arri S w/ Schneider lens 
(50mm & 16mm), Angenieux L4 17-68 zoom, Sun 
80-240 zoom, power cable, case, body brace, 
variable speed motor. Good condition & checked 
by Roessel CPT, $2500 negotiable. Contact: Paula 
Court, (212)254-3991. 

• FOR SALE: Eclair NPR 3309, Alcan motor, 
Ang. orientable finder, 12-120, 2 mags, 2 battery 
belts, many filters, cases & accessories. All ex- 
cellent condition, $8000. Also, brand-new Cartoni 
7x7 tripod, $2000. For info contact: Morris Flam, 
(212) 875-3090. 

• FOR SALE: Hitachi GP-7 camera w/Canon F 
1.6 manual zoom/iris lens, genlock, batteries, 
shotgun mic, cable, shoulder mount, case, AC 
adaptor; mint condition, $1800. Composite Video 
VE-400 proc amp/enhancer w/ chroma & hue con- 
trol, fade-to-black; mint, $1500. 3M 812 buses, 8 
inputs, 12 effects, soft wipe, joystick, spotlight, 
$1000. Contact: Maltese Media, (201) 247-4740. 

• FOR SALE: Nagra III, $1800; Steenbeck 
900W 6-plate 16mm, $9000; JVC 1800 VTR, $900; 
Auricon 16mm 12-120 Ang., case & 2 mags, $950; 

20 



Moviola 16mm, , $600; Sony 3800 U-matic 
recorder, AC color & charger unit, $1110. For info 
call: (212) 486-9020. 

• FOR SALE: Sony 3400 Vi" reel-to-reel por- 
tapak deck w/all accessories, $150; Panasonic 
3130 editing deck, Vi" reel-to-reel tapes, $6 for 
1-hr. & $4 for '/2-hr. All good condition. For info 
contact: Jeff Byrd, (212) 233-5851. 

• FOR SALE: JVC KY-2000B 3-tube camera 
w/molded carrying case, fluid head tripod, battery 
& VTR cable. All mint condition, $6350. For info 
call: (212) 732-1725. 

• FOR SALE: RCA 460 sound projector for 
16mm. Excellent condition, $200 or best offer. For 
info contact: Laura, (212) 677-3291. 

COURTESY IRIS FILMS 




WNET's Non-Fiction Television presents 
"Becoming American," a portrait of a northern 
Laos refugee family In Seattle. 

• FOR SALE: Nagra II synch, $1800; Stellavox 
SP-7 mono & stereo synch loaded, $2200. Both in 
very good condition. Top EV, AKG & Beyer mikes 
Vi price. For info contact: Robert Gordon, 313 
East 89 St. #2F, NY NY 10028, (212) 427-3842 or 
874-2922. 

• WANTED: Sony or Uher 5" reel portable 
recorder. For info contact: Dan Klugherz, (212) 
595-0058. 

• FOR RENT: 16SR camera w/ Angenieux 
10-150 zoom & complete accessories; tripods, light 
kits. Substantial discount below commercial rates. 
For info contact: Coleen Higgins or Ghasem 
Ebrahimian, (212) 787-5715. 



• OFFICE SPA CE WANTED for extremely low- 
budget film, June thru August, New York. 2 
rooms w/ phone preferred; will consider any 
reasonable offer. Contact: David Kendall, 314 
West 53 St., NY NY 10019, (212) 662-1964. 



Conferences • Seminars 

• KIDS LEARN VIDEO, an introductory 
workshop for elementary school age children, 
gives hands-on experience in basics of making 
videotapes. July 8, 15, 22, 29 & Aug. 5 & 12. Tui- 
tion: $40. For info contact: Chicago Editing 
Center for New TV, 1 1 East Hubbard St., Chicago 
IL 60611, (312)565-1787. 

• 3/4" VIDEOCASSETTE EDITING weekend 
workshop devoted to editing theory & techniques 
for media professionals. Workshop includes lec- 
tures, demonstration & practical exercises w/ Sony 
RM 440/5850 editing system. Tuition: $200/2 
8-hr. days or $175 paid in full by May 28 for June 
12-13 or July 2 for July 17-18 session. Contact: 
YF/VA, 4 Rivington St., NY NY 10002, (212) 
673-9361. 

• SUPERS PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES 
course for videomakers who want to explore the 
applications & transferability of Super-8 to video. 
July 17, 24, 31. Tuition: $50 members, $60 non- 
members. Contact: Chicago Editing Center, 
Center for New TV, 11 Hubbard St., Chicago IL 
60611, (312)565-1787. 

• FILM/TV DOCUMENTATION workshop 
scheduled for July 1 1-17 by AFI. Designed to help 
educators, researchers & librarians. Includes lec- 
tures & discussions that will cover acquisitions, 
cataloguing & everything necessary for film/TV 
documentation. Tuition: $385/wk. Contact: The 
Registrar, Film/TV Documentation Workshop, 
AFI, 2021 N. Western Ave., Los Angeles CA 
90027, (202) 828-4040. 

• BASICS OF PORTABLE VIDEO PRODUC- 
TION course concentrates on theory & principles 
of "in-the-field" video production. Classroom ex- 
ercises & group projects included w/Betamax 
equipment. Tuition: $270/8 4-hr. sessions or $245, 
if paid in full by June 25 for July session. Contact: 
YF/VA, (212)673-9361. 



Editing 



• WOMEN'S INTERART CENTER offers 
editing facilities w/Z6B system. Rates: hands-on 
editing, $10/hr.; editing w/ editor, $15/hr.; dubb- 
ing, $7/hr. & screenings $5/hr. Postproduction 
Artists-in-Residencies program available for long- 
term projects. Deadline: June 15. For info call: 
WIC, 549 West 52 St., NY NY 10019, (212) 
246-1050. 

• UPPER WEST SIDE fully-equipped cutting 
room w/ 6-plate Steenbeck, 24-hr. access 
available. Very good rates. For info contact: J. 
Barrios, (212) 865-5628. 

• FULLY-EQUIPPED 16mm editing room 
w/6-plate Moviola table; also office space. Both in 
midtown Film Center building. Editing room 
alone $600/mo.; office alone $500/mo. Both 
$1000/mo. For info contact: Steve or Joe, (212) 
855-4042 or 875-9722. 

• 6-PLATE 16/35mm Steenbeck for rent. For in- 
fo contact: Ernest Hood, (212) 533-7157. 

JUNE 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



• COMPLETE VIDEO EDITING FACILITY 
w/Vi" Panasonic NV9600, $25/hr. Also complete 
film editing room w/16mm 6-plate Steenbeck, 
$5/hr. Sound transfers also available. Contact: 
Nugent, (212) 486-9020. 

• AVAILABLE: 6-plate Steenbeck w/office 
space in midtown. Reasonable rates. For info call: 
(212) 226-1275 or 787-7464. 

• 6-PLA TE STEENBECK A VAILABLE weekly 
or monthly. Rates: $15/day but negotiable. For in- 
fo contact: Lizzie, (212) 925-4807. 

• VIDEO EDITING FACILITY w/Va" 
Panasonic NV9600 system for rent. Rate: $35/hr. 
For info call: (212) 486-9020. 

• 24-HOUR ACCESS editing rooms w/16mm 
equipment, 8-plate Steenbeck, power rewind table, 
synchronizer & rewind bench available. Rates: 
$60/day, $250/wk, $800/mo. Telephone extra $. 
Screening room also available, rates upon request. 
Contact: Amalie Rothschild, (212) 295-1500. 

• 2 COMPLETE EDIT ROOMS available in 
Chelsea. I. 24-hour access: 16mm equipment, 
fully-equipped w/ independent torque-motor & 2 
rewind tables. Complete w/kitchen, bathroom, 
telephone, air conditioning & minimal office 
facilities. 2. 9 am-6 pm access: complete 16mm edit 
equipment, Steenbeck, limited kitchen & 
bathroom facilities, private phone line, air condi- 
tioned room. Transfer & projection available at ex- 
tra cost. Rates negotiable. Contact: Lance Bird, 
(212) 924-1960. 

• FULLY-EQUIPPED ROOMS FOR 16/35mm 
editing & postproduction available. Video editing, 
sound transfers, narration recording, extensive 
sound effects library, interlock screening. For info 
contact: Cinetudes Film Productions, 295 West 4 
St., NY NY 10014, (212) 966-4600. 

• COMPLETE 16MM editing facility w/2 
tables, synchronizers, splicers & 6-plate Moviola 
flatbed. Rates: $25/day, $125/wk, $500/mo. 
Long-term $400/mo. For info contact: Jill God- 
milow, (212) 226-2462. 

• TEATOWN 3 A" editing system available for 
rental, fully-equipped w/JVC decks, controllers, 
special effects generator, etc. Provides quality, 
cost-efficient & personalized atmosphere. Rates: 
$50/hr w/editor; $85/hr. w/editor & special ef- 
fects. Special day & project rate available w/24 hr. 
access, 7-day service upon request. Contact: 
Marlene Hecht, (212) 245-2821. 



Films 6 Tapes Wanted 



• WNET seeks completed films/tapes on 
American labor & Hispanic history/culture. For 
info contact: Liz Oliver, Independent Acquisi- 
tions, WNET/13, 356 West 58 St., NY NY 10019. 

• WANTED: 20-25-min. 16mm comedy to be 
paired w/60-min. comedy for theatrical program 
in Fall '82. For info contact: Fishelson/Zinman, 
338 East 13 St., NY NY 10003, (212) 677-9531. 

• FOOTAGE WANTED: Independent producer 
seeks 16mm color footage of flea markets for 
possible use in documentary. For info contact: 
Richard Chisolm, 2802 Maryland Ave., Baltimore 
MD 21218, (301) 467-2997. 

JUNE 1082 



• GOOD EDUCATIONAL FILMS/tapes 
wanted for distribution. Independent produc- 
tion/distribution company has excellent sales 
record for films that might otherwise get lost in a 
big distributor's catalog. For more info contact: 
Peter Lodge, Circle Oak Productions, 73 Girdle 
Ridge Lodge Dr., Katonah NY 10536, (914) 
232-9451. 

• BARNARD COLLEGE LIBRARY looking 
for interesting films/tapes for annual Fall 
film/video festival, Works by Women. Women in- 
terested in having work screened contact: Gareth 
Hughes, (212) 280-2418. 

• PBS NEWS & CURRENT AFFAIRS DEPT 
seeks completed 3 A" videocassette documentaries 
of all lengths for 1982-83 schedule. Subjects must 
relate to current events & issues. Only material not 
previously submitted to PBS will be considered. 
For info contact: PBS News & Current Affairs 
Dept., 475 L'Enfant PI. SW, Washington DC 
20024, (202) 488-5109. 

• DOCUMENT ASSOCIATES seeking foreign 
&/or American independent feature (nar- 
rative/documentary) films for distribution to 
theatrical & semi-theatrical markets. Send info for 
acquisition to: Gary Crowdus, Document 
Associates, 211 East 43 St., NY NY 10017, (212) 
682-0730. 



Funds • Resources 

• WNET/TV LAB Video-in-Residence program 
underway w/ 5 independent projects. Selection in- 
cludes: Collis Davis' Children of Dessalines; Gary 
Hill's Primarily Speaking; Mitchell Kriegman's 
My Neighborhood; Mary Lucier's Giverny: 
Memory of Light; & Edin Velez' Oblique 
Strategist: A Portrait of Brian Eno. For info con- 



tact: Max Friedman, WNET/TV Lab, (212) 
560-3009. 

• WASHINGTON FILM COUNCIL awarded 
$1000 to 3 graduate students of the American 
Univ., Washington DC, to produce a 30-min. film 
based on a novel by Yevgeny Zamyatin. The grant 
was established to encourage excellence & innova- 
tion in film/video work. Douglas Paynter, Bruce 
Cooke & Clair Callahan, congratulations! For info 
contact: Pat Amstrong, WFC, (202) 389-6609. 

• INDEPENDENT FILMMAKER PROGRAM 
announced winners of Feb. 1982 cycle. A total of 
$260,000 was distributed to the following film- 
makers: Les Blank, Skip Blumberg, Bill Brand, 
Renee Cho, Howard Danelowitz, Jules Engel, 
Holly Fisher, Jeffrey Foley, John Foster, Harry 
Frazier, Denise Gallant, Kit Galloway & Sherri 
Rabinowitz, Alfred Jarnow, Larry Jordan, Mit- 
chell Kriegman, Robert Nakamura, Janice Shapiro 
& Orinne Takagi. 1983 applications available after 
June 1 from: AFI, 2021 North Western Ave., Los 
Angeles CA 90027. 

• CCH GRANT deadlines for funding program 
for media projects to increase public understand- 
ing & appreciation of the humanities has been 
established by California Council for the 
Humanities & the California Public Broadcasting 
Commission. Deadline: Sept. 30. Applicants 
should discuss project ideas w/CCH staff first. 
Proposals for Humanities & Public & Community 
Programs due July 31. For info contact: CCH, 312 
Sutter St., San Francisco CA 94108; or CPBC, 
(916) 322-3727. 

• CAMBRIDGE MULTICULTURAL ARTS 
CENTER offers professionally equipped facility 
w/coordinated schedule, publicity, support so that 
individuals & organizations can present programs, 
classes & other activities. Flexible fee for use of 



// LOW BUDGET 
/FEATURE FILMS 



Learn the basics of producins and investins in. low-budset feature films for 
profit. Learn how to market movies ("product") to the evolving cable, 
network TV, video cassette/disk and movie theatre markets. Get in on the 
ground floor of the technological revolution. 

Our classes review the legal and technical aspects of acquiring properties; 
the screenplay, music and casting; budgeting and financing; shooting, 
camera, light and sound; editing, effects, mixing and cutting; and conven- 
tional and self-distribution. 

This is an ideal course for writers, directors, editors, actors, technicians, stage 
producers, production managers, attorneys, accountants, investors, agents, 
and any person looking to grow with today's technological revolution or 
participate in motion picture productions. 

Licensed by N.Y.S. Education Department. Qualified film instructors. Volunteer 
film production internships available. Start now. Days, evenings or Saturdays. 

For brochure and course descriptions, call or write 

NEW YORK FILM INSTITUTE 

132 Nassau Street, New York, NY 10038, (212) 964-4706 



21 



THE INDEPENDENT 



facility. For info contact: David Kronberg, 
CMAC, PO Box 302, East Cambridge MA 02141, 
(617) 547-6091. 

• UNIVERSITY FILM ASSOCIATION offers 
annual grants for video students. For info contact: 
Robert Davis, Dept. of TV/Film, Univ. of Texas, 
Austin TX 78216. 

• ALABAMA FILMMAKERS COOP offers 
regional grants of up to $5000 to media artists. Ap- 
plication deadline: Aug. 1. For info contact: 
Alabama Filmmakers Coop, 60 Randolph Ave. 
NE, Huntsville AL 35801. 

• AIVF CONGRATULATES members Skip 
Blumberg, Lynn Corcoran, Lynn Adler & Board 
member Eric Breitbart for their well-deserved 
awards from the American Film Festival. For info 
contact: Claire Monaghan, EFLA, 43 West 61 St., 
NY NY 10023, (212) 246-4533. 

• ATTORNEY willing to give legal advice & per- 
form legal services in full-length film productions 
for theatrical & other release w/good commercial 
potential, in exchange for reasonable profit. Can 
supply 16mm editing facilities, 16/35mm equip- 
ment, crew, limited financing & film distribution. 
Contact: Carl Person, 132 Nassau St., NY NY 
10038, (212) 349-4616. 

• CAPS offers fellowships to individual creative 
artists to create new works of art or to complete 
works in progress. Must be NY State resident, not 
a matriculated student, & have body of work to 
submit for adjudication. Open to filmmakers, 
photographers, playwriters, composers, sculptors, 
video & multi-media artists. Deadline: June 14. 
Send $5 w/application form to: CAPS, 250 West 
57 St., NY NY 10019, (212) 247-6303. 



In & Out of Production 

• CLOTHESLINES, produced & directed by 
Roberta Cantow w/original music by Alice Eve 
Cohen, out of production. The 32-min. film 
focuses on the experience of ordinary women do- 
ing laundry & how their creative energies have 
been channeled into mundane tasks. Available in 
16mm from: Roberta Cantow, 132 West 87 St., 
NY NY 10024, (212) 874-7255. 

• END OF INNOCENCE, a 27-min. 16mm 
dramatic film by Stephen Stept, deals w/ a young 
child's awakening to the world of McCarthyism & 
the atomic bomb, set on the day of the executions 
of "Atom Spies" Julius & Ethel Rosenberg. For 
info contact: Backeast Productions, c/o Film Arts 
Foundation, 2940 16 St. #105, San Francisco CA 
94103. 

• THE ENDS OF THE EARTH, a documentary 
for television about the last political kingdom in 
America. Produced & directed by Andrew Kolker 
& Louis Alvarez. 58-min. & 82-min. versions 
available from: Center for New American Media, 
PO Box 53163, New Orleans LA 70153, (504) 
529-2929. 

• PINK TRIANGLES, a 30-min. documentary, 
explores prejudice against lesbians & gay men & 
also challenges our most deeply rooted feelings/at- 
titudes toward homosexuality. It is a film about 
homophobia, fear of lesbians & gay men & the 
nature of discrimination & oppression. Available 

22 



w/ study guide from: Documentary Films, PO Box 
385, Cambridge MA 02139. 

• SEE WHAT I SAY focuses on feminist folk- 
singer Holly Near breaking through the barrier 
that separates hearing & deaf communities. The 
24-min. 16mm film shows her commitment to the 
hearing-impaired, underscored by stories of 4 
women who experienced the isolation of deafness. 
For info contact: Filmakers Library, Inc., 133 East 
58 St. #703A, NY NY 10022, (212) 355-6545. 



Opportunities • Gigs 

• LOCUS COMMUNICATIONS seeks in- 
dividual w/video production & administrative 
knowledge of non-profit organizations. Ad- 
ministrative duties: Proposal writing, fundraising, 
budgeting, financial recordkeeping, advertising & 
promotion. MUST DO OWN TYPING. Video 
duties: Client consultation on equipment loans & 
production services, planning & conducting wksps, 
scheduling equipment use & occasional produc- 
tion. Beginning July '82, salary negotiable. Send 
resume & salary required: Locus Communications, 
250 West 57 St., Rm. 1228, NY NY 10019. NO 
PHONE CALLS. 

• FUNDRAISER /EVENTS COORDINATOR 
wanted. College work-study, %age on $ raised & 
credit possible. Excellent introduction to film 
fundraising & producing. Contact: Robbie 
Rosenberg, (212) 674-4733. 

• CO-PRODUCER WANTED, knowledgeable 
about Catholic doctrine, for film examining 
emergence of progressive clergy in opposition to 
Moral Majority. Contact: Josh Karan, (212) 
642-1112. 

• FILM STUDENT w/ some experience seeking 
production work. Bilingual in Spanish & available 
any time. For info contact: Jorge Nercesian, (201) 
353-0645. 

• NEGATIVE MATCHING & related services. 
Reasonable rates on cutting A & B rolls, pulling 
scenes for optical. Negative or reversal. Also 
damaged film repair. Call: (212) 786-6278. 

• ARGENTA MANHATTAN WKSP seeks 
video producer to document their Backyard 
Theatre Project. For info contact: Marta 
Avellaneda, 114 West 27 St., #4N, NY NY 10001, 
(212) 924-7530. 

• SOUND PERSON complete w/ own equip- 
ment available for sound work. Contact: Jackie, 
(212) 486-9023. 

• UNIV. ART MUSEUM seeks Curator of 
Films. Qualifications: Demonstrated programm- 
ing, management & development experience. 
Preferably w/in museum, cinematheque or 
academic setting. Requirements: Manage the 
Museum Dept., creating, supervising & implemen- 
ting programs of film exhibitions. Position 
available Summer '82. Salary: $23,340-28,116. 
Send letter, resume & salary history by July 1 to: 
James Elliott, Univ. Art Museum, Univ. of 
California at Berkeley CA 94720, (415) 642-1295. 

• CINEMATOGRAPHER w/ 16mm equipment 
& lights available. Fiction & documentary. 
Negotiable package deal. Contact: Al Santana, 
(212) 636-9747. 



• PROFESSIONAL COMPOSER eager to score 
films. Compositions include WNET, CBS, 
documentary, animated & feature films. Great 
flexibility of style & reasonable rates. Contact: 
Amy Rubin, (212) 674-8184. 

• EDITING/PRODUCTION/RESEARCH 
assistant available to work w/film/video producer 
or organization. Compensation less important 
than good experience. Contact: Linda 
Morgenstern, (212) 533-2646. 

• NEED HELP? Scripts, budgets professionally 
typed. Call: (212) 486-9023. 

• EDITOR/PRODUCTION ASSISTANT 
w/documentary experience eager for involvement 
in another project. Knowledge of French, Russian, 
Italian, writing & research ability. Contact: 
Catherine Temerson, (212) 861-1803. 

• COMPOSER AVAILABLE, experienced in 
film & video. Specializing in eletronic music & syn- 
thesized sound design. Contact: Robert Fair, (212) 
966-2852. 

• PRODUCTION /EDITING assistant available 
for work on dramatic or documentary films. 
Limited professional experience as grip & assistant 
editor. Dependable worker & willing to relocate. 
Contact: John Hayes, 4065 Utah, St. Louis MO 
63116, (314)772-6819. 

• GAFFER /ELECTRICIAN complete w/lights, 
grip & truck available. Call: (212) 486-9020. 

• HELP WANTED: Person to work 1-2 days/wk 
to help independent filmmaker distribute 3 films. 
Work at home & make own hours. Salary plus 
commission. Should be self-reliant & able to work 
alone. Call: (212) 691-3470. 

• BARBARA ZIMMERMAN SERVICE clears 
rights for music, film clips, text or pictorial 
material. Will service anything from a single music 
license to a long-term project. Contact: Barbara 
Zimmerman Rights & Permissions, 145 West 86 
St., NY NY 10024, (212) 580-0615. 

• INTERN AVAILABLE for production work, 
July-Aug. Free, responsible, resourceful & friend- 
ly. Contact: Jeremy Berkovitz, (914) 834-1862, 
after 4:30 pm wkdays. 



Publications 

• PORTABLE VIDEO HANDBOOK, newly 
published by University Community Video, now 
on sale. 60-pg. manual offers information & in- 
structions on shooting, editing, production etc. 
Send $6.50 to: Univ. Community Video, 425 On- 
tario St. SE, Minneapolis MN 55414, (612) 
376-3333. 

• ARTIST EMPLOYMENT & UNEMPLOY- 
MENT 1971-80, compiled by the Research Divi- 
sion of the National Endowment for the Arts, 
available. Mail $3 to: Publishing Center for 
Cultural Resources, 625 Broadway, NY NY 10012, 
(212) 260-2010. 

• ARTIST COLONIES, a guide providing ad- 
dresses, phone #s, contact names for 24 artist col- 
onies across the country, now off the press. Co- 
lonies serve as oases where artists can pursue their 
work & contact colleagues. Send $1.50 to: Center 

JUNE 1982 



for Arts Information, 625 Broadway, NY NY 
10012. 



Screenings 



• BREAKING, STREET DANCING by Ramsey 
Najm will air as part of the Independent Focus 
series June 20 on WNET/13. Contact: Ramsey 
Najm, (212) 866-2522. 

• FILM FORUM screens New British Anima- 
tion, June 23-July 16; The Swiss in the Civil War, 
July 7-13. Admission: $4 non-members, $2.50 
members. Contact: Film Forum, (212) 431-1590. 

• MILLENNIUM FILM WORKSHOP 
Members Group Program #6 will present 80min. 
of new films by active workshop members. Con- 
tact: MFW, 66 East 4 St., NY NY 10003, (212) 
673-0090. 

• BECOMING AMERICAN, a documentary 
about Laotian refugees resettling in Seattle WA, 
will air nationally on June 4 at 9 pm. Check local 
PBS station to confirm schedule. The film, which 
is part of the Non-Fiction Television series, was 
made by Ken Levine & Ivory Waterworth Levine. 



Trims & Glitches 

• UNIVERSITY COMMUNITY VIDEO 
established an annual membership program. In- 
cludes class discounts, UCV newsletter, free view- 
ing, access to print/video library & free admission 



Roundtable 

On April 1 7, AIVF was pleased to host an Inter- 
national Filmmakers Roundtable, featuring nine 
filmmakers from Central and South America, the 
Middle East and Europe. This opportunity was 
made possible through the auspices of the Inter- 
national Program Service and through the in- 
itiative of AIVF member Gordon Hitchens. Unfor- 
tunately, we had less than one weeks lead time 
to get the word out to members, and though we 
sent a first-class mailing, some members in the 
area received their invitations too late — our 
sincere apologies. We felt it was important to 
proceed with the event, even given the short 
time frame. About 70 members did attend, and a 
valuable dialogue was initiated that will certainly 
have ramifications for the future. Watch for a full 
report in the July/August INDEPENDENT by 
AIVF member Ken Stier. 



to UVC exhibitions. Rates: Univ. of MN Student, 
free; Student Friend, $10; General, $25; Indepen- 
dent Artist, $100; Sponsor, $75-$250. For info 
contact: UCV, (612) 376-3333. 

• THE MEDIA PROJECT has available set of 
audiocassettes from the Film Financing Seminar 
held in Seattle. For details contact: The Media 
Project, PO Box 4093, Portland OR 97208, (503) 
223-5335. 

• REAL ART WAYS sends urgent appeal to 
community to assure the existence of the organiza- 
tion. Membership available for Student- Artist, 
$7.50; General, $15; Supporting, $30; Sustaining, 
$100; Corporate, $250. For info contact: RAW, 40 
State St., PO Box 3313, Hartford CT 06103. 



THE AIVF 1st ANNUAL 

INDEPENDENT 
DIRECTORY 

This INDEPENDENT DIRECTORY will 
provide full listings of AIVF members na- 
tionally: your skills and achievements, your 
productions and credits. Each listing will be 
cross-referenced with handy indexes, mak- 
ing multi-use reference easy and efficient. 
A separate Distributor's index will enable 
programmers to book your tapes and films 
directly, while your skills will be at the 
fingertips of potential employers, for 
technical consulting or production work. 

Over 11,000 copies of the Directory will 
be distributed to fellow AIVF members, pro- 
ducers, programmers, cable operators, 
broadcast station managers, librarians... 

DEADLINE FOR USTINGS: July 15, 1982 
DEADLINE FOR ADVERTISING: June 30, 1982 
PUBLICATION DATE: September, 1982 

All members and new members have 
been sent a brief questionaire, which will be 
the basis for their listing. If you are a 
member and have not received one yet, 
please write or call AIVF. If you're not a 
member yet, but would like to join and get 
listed, contact us at: 

AIVF MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY 

625 Broadway, 9th floor 

New York, NY 10012 

(212) 473-3400 



CINETUDES FILM PRODUCTIONS, LTD. 

295 W. 4th Street, New York City 10014 • 966-4600 



EDITING & POST-PRODUCTION FACILITIES 

FILM & VIDEO 



ATELIER CINEMA VIDEO STAGES 

295 W. 4th Street, New York City 10014 • 243-3550 



JUNE 1962 



23 



JUNE PROGRAMMING 




LIGHTLY SPEAKING 

LOCATION LIGHTING FOR INDEPENDENT FILM & VIDEO 

At FIVF, 625 Broadway, 9th floor (between Bleecker & Houston) • 7:30pm $6/AIVF 

Members, $10/Non-members 

A how-to workshop featuring independent producers Ross Lowell and Roger Dean. 
Focussing on the technical and practical aspects of location lighting, Dean and 
Lowell will use film and video clips to demonstrate techniques, proving that 
budgetary considerations don't have to compromise the quality of your production 
and that flexibility is the key to achieving the best results. Dean has worked exten- 
sively both in the commercial and the independent worlds; his credits include 
Heartland and Not a Pretty Picture. Academy-Award winning Lowell won his Oscar 
for designing unique location lighting systems; he has produced numerous award- 
winning productions and commercials. 




INDEPENDENT CLOSETS 

GAY& LESBIAN FILMMAKERS OPEN DOORS 

Co-sponsored by the National Association of Lesbian and Gay Filmmakers (NALGF) 
At FIVF, 625 Broadway, 9th floor (between Bleecker & Houston) • 7:30pm 
$2.50/AIVF Members, $4/Non-members 

Panel discussion and screening featuring Jan Oxenberg (independent filmmaker, A 
Comedy in Six Unnatural Acts), Vito Russo (critic, author, The Celluloid Closet), 
Mark Berger (independent filmmaker, The Curse of Fred Astaire), Tom Waugh 
(critic and contributing editor, Jump Cut), and Lucy Winer (independent filmmaker, 
Greetings From Washington DC). Moderated by Terry Lawler, director of the Film 
Fund and NALGF member. After screening excerpts from the above films, the panel 
will address their relation to such recent Hollywood 'breakthroughs' as Making Love 
and Personal Best, and proceed to identify both the struggles and successes of the 
emerging independent (and therefore truly alternative) lesbian and gay cinema. 




CLEARING THE AIR 

INDEPENDENT DOCUMENTARIES ON PUBLIC TELEVISION 

FIVF at WNET, 356 West 58th St., 2nd floor • 8pm 

$2.50/AIVF Members, $4/Non-members • Co-sponsored by the TV Lab at WNET 

What are PBS's criteria for scheduling? What pressures are brought to bear on PBS 
decisionmaking? What is the role of the station programmers, and what is the rela- 
tionship between PBS and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB)? This forum 
will focus on the PTV controversies of this spring — one documentary was attacked 
by the NEH Chairman as being "socialist-realism propaganda;" a week later, another 
documentary was suddenly withdrawn by PBS from its prime time slot. Two CPB "Mat- 
ters of Life & Death" programs were dropped from that series because they allegedly 
blurred fact and fiction. Panelists will include: Barry Chase, PBS's News & Public Af- 
fairs Director; Sharon Sopher, producer, Blood & Sand; Carol Brandenburg, ex- 
ecutive producer of "Matters of Life & Death" and co-director of WNET's TV Lab; 
Helena Solberg-Ladd, director, From the Ashes: Nicaragua Today, and others. 
Lawrence Sapadin, Executive Director of AIVF, will moderate. 




FOUNDATION FOR 
INDEPENDENT 
VIDEO AND 
FILM, INC. 
625 Broadway, 9th Floor, New York, N.Y. 10012 

MOVING? LET US KNOW... 

It takes 4 to 6 weeks to process 
an address change, and we don't 
want you to miss a single issue. 



NON-PROFIT ORG. 
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PAID 
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FILM& VIDEO MONTHLY 



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FILfTl FORUm 



57 Watts Street, New York, N.Y 10013 
(2 blocks north of Canal at 6th Ave) 

LOW COST 

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THE INDEPENDENT 



THE 

INDEPENDENT 

JULY/AUGUST 1982 • VOL. 5, NO. 5 

Publisher: Lawrence Sapadin 

Editor: Kathleen Hulser 

Assistant Editor: Frances M. Piatt 

Contributing Editors: Mitchell Block, 

Suyapa Odessa Flores, John Greyson, 

David Leitner, Wendy Lidell, 

Susan Linfield 

Contributors: Sandy Mandelberger, 

David Moore, Marina Obsatz, Denise 

Oliver, Wanda Phipps, Joseph 

Piazzo, Renee Shafransky 

Designer: Deborah Thomas 

Art Director: John Greyson 

Production: Deborah Payne 

Advertising Director: Barbara Spence 

Staff Photographer: Sol Rubin 

Typesetting: Skeezo 

Printer: Petcap Press Corp. 

• 

THE INDEPENDENT is published 10 
times yearly by the Foundation for Indepen- 
dent Video and Film, Inc. (FIVF), 625 Broad- 
way, 9th Floor, New York NY 10012, a non- 
profit, tax-exempt service organization 
dedicated to the promotion of independent 
video and film. Publication of The Indepen- 
dent is made possible, in part, with public 
funds from the New York State Council on 
the Arts, and the National Endowment for 
the Arts, a Federal agency. 

Subscription is included with membership 
in the Association of Independent Video and 
Filmmakers, Inc. (AIVF), the trade associa- 
tion sister of FIVF. AIVF is a national 
association of independent producers, direc- 
tors, technicians and supporters of indepen- 
dent video and film. Together, FIVF and 
AIVF provide a broad range of educational 
and professional services and advocacy for 
independents and the general public. 

Articles in The Independent are con- 
tributed by our members and supporters. If 
you have an idea for, or wish to contribute, 
an article to The Independent, contact the 
Editor at the above address. 

All contents are copyright of the authors 
and The Independent, except when otherwise 
noted, and reprints require written permis- 
sion from both. ISSN 0731-5198. 
• 

AIVF/FIVF STAFF MEMBERS: Lawrence 
Sapadin, Executive Director; Wendy Lidell, Assis- 
tant Director; John Greyson, Media Coordinator; 
Sol Horwitz, Short Film Showcase Project Ad- 
ministrator; Susan Linfield, Short Film Showcase 
Administrative Assistant; Fran Piatt, Membership 
Developer; Suyapa Odessa Flores, Administrative 

A. ccjcf stlt 

AIVF/FIVF BOARD OF DIRECTORS: Jane 

Morrison, President; Marc Weiss, Vice President; 
Kathy Kline, Secretary; Matt Clarke, Treasurer 
(FIVF) Board; Richard Schmiechen, Chair; Eric 
Breitbart, Pablo Figueroa, Jessie Maple, Kitty 
Morgan, Judy Irola, Manny Kirchheimer, Robert 
Richter, Lawrence Sapadin (Ex Officio). 



A PUBLICATION OF 

THE FOUNDATION FOR 
INDEPENDENT VI DEO & FILM 



CONTENTS 



Features 

BFF Finds Appreciative Audience 

Black Filmmakers Storm European Markets • Denise Oliver 

Sundance Institute 

How It Works & Who Gets In • Renee Shafransky 

Interview with Emile de Antonio • Part II 

Inside "Underground" and Other Projects • Susan Linfield 



15 
19 
21 



Columns 

Media Clips • Stop £ Go Programming on Public TV 

Also, NCTA Cable Convention • Kathleen Hulser & Sandy Mandelberger 

In Focus • Vanishing Edges 

Guide to Cropping • David Leitner 

Business • Selling a Dream 

Report from IFP-LA Hard Cash Seminar • Mitchell Block 

Books • Herbert Schiller's "Who Knows" 

The Age of the Data Barons • Kenneth Stier 

AIVF Forum • Referendum Ruckus 

Also, Integrity Urged for Public TV 

Festivals • Deadlines Galore 

London, Mannheim, Chicago • Wendy Lidell & Richard Schmiechen 

Notices 

Edited by Odessa Flores 

COVER: Warrington Hudlln (camera), chair of the BFF Board of Directors, on a shoot 



4 
9 
12 
23 
24 
26 
29 



CORRESPONDENCE 



Warnings Do Not Enter 

Preview is a subscription TV service owned 
by A TC which, in turn, is owned by Time, 
Inc. It programs feature films and shorts. 
Preview is known to pay very, very low rates 
for shorts. Our sources say this "festival" is 
an obvious attempt to obtain free program- 
ming. Participating in such a bogus event will 
probably have the effect of lowering the 
general rates paid for shorts. Consider 
yourselves warned. 

Dear Preview: 

We received your announcement today for 
your short film competition. As a film 
educator, distributor and maker, I am appalled 
at your thinly disguised effort to take advan- 
tage of independent and other filmmakers. 
Preview's a profit-making venture, not a 501 
(c) 3 operation. 

You are asking film and video makers to 
license their films to your company for over- 



the-air subscription television service for 
almost nothing. Offering to give prizes total- 
ing $2,100 to five of the top fifteen entries in 
exchange for having these films air on televi- 
sion is a rip-off. Your prizes may relate to 
film or video production quality, but only 
one in three "winners" will be getting any 
compensation for their film's use. Your com- 
pensation schedule does not reflect value as a 
function of air time. Thus it is possible that a 
ten-minute film will win 2nd place and 
receive $50 per minute and a thirty-minute 
film will win 3rd place and only receive $10 
per minute. Considering that we will not 
license any of our films for less than $100 per 
minute your fee to the winners (if any film is 
longer than eleven minutes) is not even close 
Continued on page 11 

The Independent welcomes letters to the 
editor. Send them to The Independent, 
FIVF, 625 Broadway, 9th floor, New York 
NY 10012. Letters may be edited for length 
and clarity. 



JULY AUGUST 1902 



THE INDEPENDENT 



MEDIA CLIPS 



Truth or Consequences, 
Fact & Fiction on PTV 



Kathleen Hulser 

The pathway to PBS prime time is fraught 
with perils: just ask any of the indie producers 
in the news from Peter Davis to Sharon 
Sopher to Helena Solberg-Ladd. Even for in- 
siders like outgoing CPB Program Fund 
Director Lewis Freedman, an enthusiastic 
reception from PBS can't be expected — wit- 
ness the rocky distribution saga of CPB's 
Matters of Life and Death, turned down by 
PBS and now in limp distribution through the 
older (and less powerful) Interregional Pro- 
gram Service. 

This spring's crop of controversies centers 
on the content of social documentaries. The 
contentious topics range from cussing and in- 
terracial dating in Davis' Seventeen episode of 
Middletown; to the US arming of King 
Hassan's Moroccan troops in a war against 
the Polisario Liberation Movement of the 
Western Sahara in Sopher 's Blood and Sand; 
to life after Somoza in Ladd's Nicaragua: 
From the Ashes. As for Matters of Life and 
Death, program managers who are running it 
in scattershot fashion nationwide feel the 
series has no identity. And they are right, ex- 
cept for the dusty artifice of Fred Gwynne's 
introductions (another throwback to the 
"Golden Age" of television!), Matters of Life 
and Death has no particular identity. In a 
well-meaning attempt to play by two sets of 
rules, CPB designed the package to allow 
almost independent projects to fit in — and the 
main theme of urgency was to meet the legis- 
lative requirement that at least some govern- 
ment program money trickled down to indies. 
But the local affiliates who were supposed to 
be seduced by the series strategy haven't been 
buying it. 

Though CPB and PBS disagreements 
aren't new, much of the tension in the recent 
traumas is ultimately linked to bad blood be- 
tween Washington and the locals. Although 
local stations would like to find a way to ag- 
gregate enough money to mount ambitious 
projects that might ward off the label of 
superficiality which dogs even "educational" 
TV, they are reluctant to give up any decision- 
making power. By the time any consensus is 
reached on what to produce, more time and 
folding green has been expended than any of 
it is worth. Thus the usual fare prevails: and 
the system which bills itself as an alternative 
to lowest common-denominator, ends up be- 
ing simply the LCD of a slightly smaller, 
upscaler viewing public when it produces a 
national series. 



PBS IN A FOG 

Even with storm tides crashing on the 
shores of L'Enfant Plaza PBS remains lost in 
its usual fog; anxious to offend no one, and in 
any case, preoccupied with the funding crises 
of its 288 member stations. Although PBS 
head Larry Grossman staunchly defended the 
independence of the system when the con- 
troversies heated up, the programmers/ 
schedulers still appear mighty unsure of their 
function. They hardly come off as big-stick 
censors (criticizing them is a bit like beating 
up a cabbage) but their lack of clarity allows 
other forces to flood the empty spaces. 




Sharon Sopher's "Blood & Sand— War in the 
Sahara" 

In Davis' case the result of PBS fogginess 
was withdrawal of the disputed Seventeen 
episode, and much silly discussion of what 
was typical or not typical of teens at Muncie, 
Indiana's Southside High School, the focus 
of the film. Sopher's piece was rescheduled at 
the last minute, and there's no question the 



late switcheroo decreased the number of sta- 
tions carrying the program. Ladd's Nicaragua 
documentary managed to reach the airwaves 
intact, albeit expanded with a wrap-up show 
which contradicted its views. But the program 
suffered an attack from NEH Chair William 
Bennett, raising the spectre of outright 
government interference in program content. 
In the New York Times, Bennett remarked 
the program was "unsuitable for funding" 
implying a subversion of the peer review pro- 
cess specifically designed to permit experts to 
judge rather than government appointees. 

POLITICS AND AESTHETICS 

All this is bad enough for indies. Two re- 
cent and lesser-known incidents at the CPB 
Program Fund, however, pose even more far- 
reaching questions about a possible program 
philosophy for PTV. Though the talk these 
days is once again of educational television, 
that may not be necessarily the sum total of 
non-commercial TV's potential. The two pro- 
grams in question mix aesthetics and politics, 
using art rather than documenting it — dis- 
tinctly non-commercial TV which is not 
overtly pedagogic. 

The CPB skirmishes concern two projects 
funded in accordance with peer panel recom- 
mendations, which were rejected for Matters 
of Life and Death upon completion. The 
original CPB guidelines said the Program 
Fund wished "to encourage producers to 
rethink and break through the conventional 
forms of broadcasting," adding that it hoped 
"new forms would emerge." Both Peter 
Adair's Some of These Stories Are True and 
Robert (Pull My Daisy) Frank & Gary Leon 
Hill's Energy and How to Get It seemed to fit 
the bill perfectly. Both mixed fact and fiction 
unconventionally, raising prickly issues of 
what counts as "truth" on the tube. Yet the 
same liberal CPBers who had not balked at 
controversial political content, rejected both 
projects on the basis of their unusual formal 
strategies. One lesson to be drawn is that con- 
trol of form does, insidiously, become control 
of content — and this is particularly damning 
in an entity which claims to search for diverse 
form. 

HAIG HYSTERICAL 

How do the rejected programs link art and 
politics? In Some of These Stories Are True 
Adair strings together three stories relating to 
the psychological dimensions of male 
violence, sexuality and power. One story, told 
by Lucian Truscott IV (author of Dress 
Grey), is an anecdote about his conflict with 
his old West Point commanding officer. 
Truscott recalls that his CO, Alexander Haig, 
was outraged when Truscott refused to attend 
mandatory chapel. Truscott actually won his 
case on civil rights grounds but more signifi- 
cant is the portrait of the military man, Haig, 
rendered hysterical by a challenge to his 
authority. 

This on the basis of content alone is prob- 
JULY AUQUST 1082 




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THE INDEPENDENT 




Teen cussing In "Seventeen" too extreme for PBS 



ably enough to unnerve Washington-based 
PTV programmers. But the reasons CPB of- 
fered for turning down the program don't 
mention Haig: the idea that of the three 
stories only two are true is what vexes them. 
According to Adair, when the tape was 
screened at the American Film Institute's 
1981 Video Festival a CPB executive was in- 
censed at the "trick" of not being told what 
was fictitious until the credits rolled at the end 
of the show. "This is the most immoral televi- 
sion I've ever seen. I will never believe in 
television again," she angrily concluded. 

Well, at least she got the point. Adair's 
documentary plus fiction is tricky, forcing the 
viewer to examine how and why each story- 
teller is persuasive (or not). Maybe it's frus- 
trating for thirty minutes but such reflections 
are certainly not irrelevant to educational TV . 

The Frank/Hill program may be even more 
frustrating for tube-fed audiences. Both film- 
makers proclaimed from the start their inten- 
tion to disregard standard documentary 
form. The peer panel which approved their 
project, a portrait of an inventor, included 
Richard Leacock and Shirley Clarke — figures 
familiar with Frank's work, whose critical 
judgements should carry weight. 

LIGHTNING POWER 

Energy and How to Get It follows the trials 
and tribulations of Robert Golka, a maverick 
scientist working to harness fireball lightning 
for a fusion process intended to produce 
cheap, safe energy. Golka performs his exper- 



iments with a Tesla (after turn-of-the-century 
electrical inventor Nikola Tesla) tower, using 
old pinball machines, car parts and assorted 
scrap. Needless to say, his hardware and 
outlook are far from the air-conditioned 
academic methods of most US research labs. 
Problems start when Golka's grant is cut and 
the Air Force hangar he rents is suddenly 
slapped with a 2,400% rent increase (the 
hangar, ironically, was the one used to house 
the bomber Enola Gay which dropped the 
big-A on Hiroshima). Not content with the 
abrasive and eccentric style of Golka on film, 
Frank and Hill also introduce a few characters 
of their own such as William Burroughs play- 
ing an evil energy Czar. Even in the absence of 
didactic speeches, it's clear the Golka fusion/ 
lightning research and Burroughs' cameos are 
a back-handed critique of government- 
sponsored megabuck technologies. Frank/ 
Hill make this point emotionally with their 
fictional character — putting Golka's offbeat 
research into context as a lone-cowboy activi- 
ty, half art/half science which may have prac- 
tical results. Another element in the emo- 
tional appeal is Agnes Moon, Golka's 
77-year-old companion who becomes as 
engrossing a character as the persecuted in- 
ventor himself. The film is edited in typically 
slapdash Frank fashion: digressions outnum- 
ber the main themes. But these puzzles are no 
thornier than say, the ominous incoherence of 
Patrick McGoohan's The Stranger. In sum, 
this flippy tale is not all that odd considered 
from the standpoint of other modern arts be 



they visual, literary or cinematic. 

In this case, as in Adair's, it seem the dou- 
ble whammy of unconventional aesthetics 
and dissident politics is the stumbling block 
for PTVers. Without a pigeon hole for 
guidance — Energy is not a scientific treatise, 
Stories is not adversary journalism — it's all 
too easy for the unimaginative to toss these 
two pieces aside. 

Since CPB gave $800,000 to the Media 
Probes series, one can safely assume that 
issues of how the media persuades are an ac- 
ceptable area for exploration. Media Probes 
did so in a slick fashion complete with celebri- 
ty hosts telling how media works: a main- 
stream use of TV for education, the prover- 
bial sugar-coated pill. Adair and Frank/Hill, 
however, operate as artists. Both raise pro- 
vocative questions through the very structur- 
ing of the material, leading the viewer to a 
mental stretching which is the opposite of the 
oft-cited hypnotic passivity of television. 
Their mixes of fact and fiction are a confron- 
tation with credulity which really interrogates 
the medium. And the end result is healthy 
skepticism about the forms of messages 
delivered, which may well last longer than any 
concrete warnings about particular decep- 
tions. 



Part 2 

What kind of PTV forum for ideas can we 
expect if political controversy is too hot to 
handle, aesthetic innovation is suspect, public 
affairs are shooed offstage and funds dry up? 
Forces are in motion at the other end of the 
political spectrum. The rise of a New Right 
with media smarts and messages to deliver 
just happens to jive with Administration 
wisdom about liberating the "market forces" 
of PTV — the notion that a supply and de- 
mand approach to ideas is better than a sub- 
sidized non-commercial medium. Robert 
Chitester, head of PBS affiliate WQLN in 
Erie, Pennsylvania, offered some revealing 
remarks in a recent New York Times article. 

"Drop the subsidies of PBS and deregulate 
telecommunications," advised Chitester. "A 
communicator must entertain you if you are 
to entertain the ideas or vision of the world 
being offered." Public television must con- 
front the "difficult creative challenge of pro- 
ducing programs that viewers will watch and 
pay for." 

How does Chitester solve that problem at 
his own station? He has a "separate" non- 
profit producing arm called Amagin which 
offers programs on themes of freedom (he is 
head of Amagin and executive producer of its 
programs). The first series, Free to Choose, 
features Milton Friedman expounding free 
market philosophy; other programs include 
Money and Medicine, about how supply and 
demand principles can improve health care, 
and The War Called Peace, about how the 
Soviet Union "a shrewd and dangerous 
adversary," is "waging a third world war." 
JULY AUGUST 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 




Stranger than fiction? Eccentric inventor portrayed in Robert Frank & Gary Hill's "Energy & How to 



Get It" 

The freedom of Amagin is bankrolled by 
foundations such as Scaife (backed by the 
Getty Oil fortune), and John H. Hartford 
(founded with monies from A & P). Chitester 
also plans a patriotic entertainment series 
featuring the music of Ray Coniff. 

Chitester told The Independent his strategy 
to achieve independence from government 
funding is to emphasize "very specific pro- 
gram areas that appeal to funders." Certain- 
ly, shows which inculcate reverence for com- 
merce's beneficial effects appeal to corporate 
funders and to foundations established with 
corporate monies. And entertainment has 
been the key to success for commercial televi- 
sion. Does that make these independent pro- 
grams suitable for public television? Many 
would say the whole aim of a non-commercial 
network is to allow for other voices than 
business, whose views are amply ventilated on 
other channels of communication. How 
much of Amagin's ability to attract funds — 
and avoid the stigma of government subsi- 
dy — reflects a tailoring of its editorial content 
to funders' preferences? In the Amagin 
brochure policy is described: "Through ex- 
ample, encourage a more enlightened view of 
the values of the market by working journal- 
ists, educators, clergy and other influence 
leaders . . . Utilize all available means to 
distribute programs and program materials 
within a commercial or non-commercial con- 
text." Program plans include as a goal "to 
promote an awareness and understanding of 
the principles underlying the Reagan Admin- 
istration's economic policies." 

Meanwhile, of course, as at any other PBS 
JULY AUGUST 1982 



affiliate, WQLN receives taxpayer subsidies 
for station operating costs, national intercon- 
nection, programming, etc. No high PTV of- 
ficials or federal funders have criticized Free 
to Choose or other Amagin shows with strong 
viewpoints as NEH Chair William Bennett at- 
tacked Nicaragua. Apparently, strong view- 
points are OK as long as they are supported by 
private money. Both Bennett and Chitester 
are avowed neoconservatives. And most neo- 
conservatives would agree with John Stuart 
Mill that the open expression of a full spec- 
trum of ideas is the basic route to an informed 
citizenry — one of the fundamental guarantees 
of freedom in a democratic society. The debate 
is over who shall fund what and whether 
supply and demand principles should govern 
the introduction of ideas to that expensive 
public medium, television. 

Perhaps the Chitesters are the future of 
PTV, able to solve pressing problems: the 
funding drought; the dearth of programming; 
the fumbling operation of PBS; quarrels with 
the government and the tedium of public af- 
fairs. Chitester wouldn't be the first to use 
PTV as a springboard to a commercial career, 
but it is noteworthy that he is doing it by mak- 
ing his PTV station both the voice of enter- 
tainment and the voice of business. His 
specialty is using PTV to promote the sort of 
corporate point of view made famous in Herb 
Schmertz's Mobil Oil editorial page "ads" in 
the New York Times. But the nitty-gritty for a 
public television system is: Should the price 
people or businesses are willing to pay deter- 
mine what ideas turn up on the public broad- 
cast system? ■ 



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THE INDEPENDENT 



CABLE CLIPS 



NCTA Conventions 
Hardware & Hoopla 

Sandy Mandelberger 



"Cable Delivers" was the theme of this 
year's National Cable Television Association 
Convention, held in Las Vegas May 2-5. And 
"deliver" it did, attracting a record 17,000 
participants, all anxious to make their claim 
on the cable gold mine. In a modern version 
of the 19th century Gold Rush, cable has 
become the get-rich buzzword for a wide 
spectrum of industries and individuals. Only 
time will tell if there truly is gold in them thar 
hills, or if the only ones to make money are 
those selling the picks and shovels. 

While the hoopla at these events tradi- 
tionally centers on the program offerings, the 
NCTA convention is very much a hardware 
show. Equipment manufacturers were out in 
full force on the exhibition floor, offering 
products ranging from cable construction 
equipment to production and postproduction 
hardware. 

The big news on the hardware front was 
the introduction of three systems by Jerrold, 
Scientific-Atlanta and Oak Industries, 
representing the state of the art in "ad- 
dressable converter technology". The elec- 



tronics of these systems allow individual con- 
verter boxes (which attach the incoming cable 
wire to the television receiver) to be selective- 
ly "addressed" for specific programming op- 
tions. This has tremendous implications for 
the emerging pay-per-view industry (where 
subscribers pay separately to receive special 
events). For example, if only 50% of a cable 
system's subscribers decided to receive a pay- 
per-view offering, a specialized signal would 
be "addressed" to their home unit instead of 
being transmitted system-wide. The introduc- 
tion of these systems coincides with major 
commitments to experiment with pay-per- 
view already announced by Home Box Of- 
fice, USA Network, ESPN, ABC Video and 
Oak Media. 

NE W PROGRAM SER VICES 

On the software side, the NCTA gathering 
provides the opportunity for the major cable 
program services to announce their plans for 
the upcoming season while busily wooing 
cable system operators to pick up their offer- 



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ings. The big excitment and big an- 
nouncements were reserved for some of the 
newer program services, several of which 
were exhibiting for the first time. The Cable 
Health Network, an advertiser-supported 
basic cable service, will launch in early sum- 
mer, offering perspectives on health, nutri- 
tion, exercise and well-being. At a press con- 
ference, CHN president Jeffrey Reiss an- 
nounced that the program service will debut 
with a potential audience reach of over 3 
million cable subscribers, a record for a new 
service. 

Westinghouse Group W announced plans 
to offer three major program services during 
the coming year: Satellite News Channels, an 
all-news co-venture with ABC; The Disney 
Channel, a multi-million-dollar family pro- 
gramming subscription service to be launched 
next spring; and The Nashville Network, a 
Country and Western music service co- 
venture with Opryland Productions. So far 
the Disney Channel has attracted the most in- 
terest. Both Group W and Disney Produc- 
tions have committed over $250 million to the 
new service, with a substantial percentage go- 
ing to creation of new programming to sup- 
plement the Disney library. Programming 
from independent sources will make up a 
considerable portion of the program mix, ac- 
cording to Disney Channel president Jim 
Jimmirow. 

Black-oriented "feel-good" music is the 
programming drive for the Apollo Entertain- 
ment Television service, making its official 
debut at the NCTA show. Produced by Inner 
City Broadcasting (owners of radio stations 
with black audiences in New York and the 
West Coast), this 24-hour music service will 
draw from record company promotional 
videotapes, vintage clips of classic per- 
formers and music specials and series pro- 
duced and shot at the newly renovated 
Apollo Theater concert/production complex. 
Apollo is interested in working with indepen- 
dent production outfits that are adept at pro- 
ducing magazine-style segments or live con- 
cert programs. 

TRENDS 

While no new cable services were announced, 
an indication that even the high-growth cable 
TV industry is not recession-proof, several 
panel sessions addressed the cable industry's 
concern with competitive delivery systems. In 
particular, cable operators were distressed by 
recent court decisions that have legitimized 
the claims of apartment building owners to 
construct and administer master antenna and 
microwave distribution systems, offering 
CATV-like movie and other services. A panel 
on direct broadcast satellite (transmission of 
programming directly to small satellite dishes 
in the subscriber's home) indicated that DBS 
could become cable's chief competitor by the 
end of the decade, particularly in the urban 
and rural markets that have not yet been 
wired. Permeating all discussions was 
widespread concern over the Justice Depart- 
JULY AUGUST f 00* 



THE INDEPENDENT 



ment's recent compromise on the AT&T an- 
titrust suit, which may clear the way for Ma 
Bell's expanded role in the new media. 
Strategies for containing the Bell threat were 
announced by NCTA leadership at both 
public panels and press conferences. 

Of more relevant interest to the indepen- 
dent production community, the convention 
revealed a growing commitment to original 
programming. Home Box Office and 
Showtime, the largest subscription services, 
announced several new made-for-pay pro- 
jects that will come to the small screen over 
the next year. HBO has committed to five 
feature film projects in conjunction with 20th 
Century-Fox, as well as a documentary mini- 
series with independent producers Dave Bell, 
Al Perlmutter and Harlan Kleiman. 
Showtime unveiled its first made-for-pay 
feature project, an Arthur Conan Doyle 
thriller, and a comedy series from the pro- 
ducers of Second City TV. Daytime, the 
ABC-Hearst co-venture that is providing 
four hours of women's programming every 
day, produces almost all of its own material. 

While there are very few rules and 
precedents for the barrage of first-run pro- 
gramming that is being produced for and by 
the major program services, independent 
producers with project ideas would do best to 
pitch multiple package or mini-series deals. 
This would allow for the program services 
and the production outfits both to amortize 
production and postproduction costs over 
several projects. Proposals are being ac- 
cepted by program development officers, but 
trying to secure full production monies from 
these sources is difficult except for high- 
ticket items. Independent producers are in a 
better bargaining position if they privately 
raise a percentage of the overall capital and 
approach the program service as a comple- 
tion funding particpant. 

PARTY TIME 

Beyond the hardware and the hard talk, 
cable is mostly show biz as usual, and throws 
elaborate parties to prove it. The highlight 
(and hot ticket) of the show was the im- 
aginative CBS Cable Oasis party, renting a 
section of Wayne Newton's ranch (I kid you 
not!). The Nevada landscape served as a 
backdrop for a simulation of a Middle 
Eastern desert oasis, complete with pitched 
tents, exotic cuisine, belly dancers, sword 
swallowers and live goats and chickens. In 
other words, cultural cable goes couscous. 

HBO sponsored a Rock Around the Clock 
bash to celebrate the rock and roll of the 
1950s, with live performances by Danny and 
the Juniors and the Shirelles. HBO officials 
denied rumors that the party was serving as a 
market research study for the possible crea- 
tion of a Fifties Channel. ■ 

Sandy Mandelberger, former Associate 
Director of Independent Cinema Artists and 
Producers, is currently director of television 
sales for Phoenix/ BFA Films & Video, Inc. 
JULY AUGUST 1902 



IN FOCUS 



The Case of 
Vanishing 

David Leitner 

"It was cropped. It's changed. It's not mine 
anymore. " 

So exclaims the aspiring photographer 
played by Melanie Mayron in Claudia Weill's 
1977 independent feature, Girlfriends, as she 
informs her rabbi (played by Eli Wallach) 
that although a magazine has used one of her 
shots, it's been altered. Ironically, 
Girlfriends, shot in I6mm, was blown up for 
theatrical release and underwent a similar 
trimming. One-third of its original image was 
discarded in the conversion from the box-like 
1.33 aspect ratio (image width divided by 
height) of I6mm to the wide-screen 1.85 pro- 



the 




jection ratio of 35mm. Since no allowances 
were made in the original cinematography for 
reframing to wide-screen, many altered scene 
compositions looked forced, awkward and 
uncomfortable. Unfortunately, critics and 
general audiences who viewed the film during 
its commercial run had no reason to presume 
that the film had been shot differently. 

Whenever a moving image — film or 
video — is printed, projected, rephotographed 
or transmitted, a bite is taken from the edges. 
Overlap between the full area of a recorded 
image and the surface that displays the image 
is necessary if framelines and sides are to be 
hidden from the viewer. The television 





SMPTE American National Standards 


35mm 


% Academy % 


Academy 


% Academy 


Aspect 


Dimensions 




Height 


Width 


Area 


Ratio 


(inches) 


Academy (1.33) 


100 


100 


100 


1.38 


.868 x. 631 


1.33 projection 


95 


95 


90 


1.38 


.825 x. 600 


1.66 proj. 


79 


95 


75 


1.66 


.825 x. 497 


1.85 pro j. 


71 


95 


67 


1.85 


.825 x .446 


TV scanned 


94 


91 


86 


1.33 


.792 x. 594 


TV safe action 


85 


82 


70 


1.33 


.713 x. 535 


TV safe title 


75 


73 


55 


1.33 


.630 x. 475 


16mm 


% 1.33 
Height 


% 1.33 
Width 


% 1.33 
Area 


Aspect 
Ratio 


Dimensions 
(inches) 




Full (1.33) 


100 


100 


100 


1.37 


.404 x .295 


16mm projection 


97 


94 


91 


1.33 


. 380 x. 286 


TV scanned 


94 


91 


85 


1.33 


.368 x. 276 


TV safe action 


84 


82 


69 


1.33 


.331 x. 248 


TV safe title 


75 


73 


54 


1.33 


.293 x. 221 


Blow-up to 35mm 












1.66 projection* 


78 


95 


74 


1.66 


.384 x .231 


Blow-up to 35mm 












1.85 projection* 


71 


95 


67 


1.85 


. 384 x. 208 


Super- 16mm 


99 


120 


118 


1.66 


.484 x. 291 


Super-16mm** 


% 1.66 


% 1.66 


% 1.66 


Aspect 


Dimensions 




Height 


Width 


Area 


Ratio 


(inches) 


Full (1.66) 


100 


100 


100 


1.66 


:484x .291 


1.85 


90 


100 


90 


1.85 


.484 x. 261 


1.33 


101 


83 


85 


1.37 


.404 x .295 


TV safe action 


85 


68 


58 


1.33 


.331 x. 248 


TV safe title 


76 


61 


46 


1.33 


.293 x. 221 


*These dimensions extrapolated by the author from those of 35mm projection. 




* * SMPTE standard Type W Super-16mm aperture is . 


493 x .292, with. 493 as a reference dimen- 


sion only. The full (1.66) and 1.85 dimensions listed 


are those of the Aaton camera aperture/ 


viewing screen, which 


is the only Super 


16mm camera in the field 


as of this writing. 



THE INDEPENDENT 



1.66 SUPER-16™ CAKRA APERTURE 


















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•Projection cut-off will crop at least 
an additional % height and width. 



35m 


'ACADEMY" CAMERA APERTURE 






















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Camera Aperture I 
TV Cut-offs _ , 
Projection Cut-offs 



•All cut-offs proportionately valid for 16a, 
except full-fraw projection cut-off which, 
for 16m, 1s 1.33 — identical 1n shape to 
TV Scanned area and slightly larger. 



J 



10 



JULYAUQU8T 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



receiver "over-scans" the exposed face of the 
cathode ray tube, while the aperture in the 
gate of the motion picture projector crops 
each frame of film. Since the height and 
width of the video image are not materially 
fixed (they can be independently varied by 
modulating the horizontal and vertical 
deflection circuits), it is impractical to specify 
a precise image cutoff that would universally 
apply to all home receivers. At best, safe ac- 
tion and safe title areas that correspond, 
respectively, to an approximation of 
minimum and maximum cutoffs can be 
recommended. In contrast, the film frame, 
which is dimensionally fixed, can be cropped 
in an exact manner according to easily met 
standard dimensions. 

ONE- THUMB EDISON 

According to legend, Thomas Edison, in 
describing to his friend George Eastman his 
research on a cinematographic apparatus for 
photographing a ribbon of incrementing im- 
ages, indicated with his forefinger and thumb 
a rough guess of the film width his invention 
would ideally require. George ran for the 
ruler, and 1 3/8" (35mm) was born. Edison's 
lab further established the 1.33 aspect 
ratio— three units of height for every four 
units of width — and in so doing, indirectly 
determined the shape of 16mm, introduced 
by Kodak for home movies in the early 1920s, 
and television. 

As television began to compete with box 
office receipts in the early 1950s, motion pic- 
tures discovered 35mm wide screen. Of all the 
processes that evolved, two remain in wide 
use. Panavision represents the technique of 
anamorphic wide-screen photography: by 
means of special optics, an image is horizon- 
tally squeezed during original photography 
and "unsqueezed" upon projection to obtain 
an aspect ratio of 2.35. Anamorphic 
cinematography is a world unto itself, and 
rarely is non-squeezed or "flat" photography 
converted to an anamorphic format. Conse- 
quently, only non-anamorphic wide-screen 
techniques will be considered in this article. 

DRESSED IN A MODEST MASK 

The second popular wide-screen method is 
the masking of a top and bottom portion of 
the 1.33 frame, so that a longer, more rec- 
tangular shape is obtained. This practice is 
wasteful of available emulsion area in the 
original negative, dupe negatives and release 
prints but requires no modification of con- 
ventional camera optics or projection equip- 
ment. The camera need only be fitted with a 
viewfinder ground-glass indicating the pro- 
jection cutoff, and the projector with an 
aperture to mask off the unwanted portions 
of the 1.33 frame. Two aspect ratios are in 
standard use today. 1 .66, which corresponds 
to 5 units of width to 3 of height, is the con- 
vention in most of Western Europe. 1.85, 
which appears sightly lengthier by masking 
additional height, is used in the US, South 

JULY AUGUST 1002 



America and occasionally in Europe (a lot of 
Yankee product over there). 

American practice is to shoot 35mm in- 
tended for wide screen with a 1.33 or 
"Academy" aperture in the camera, and to 
frame for 1.85 projection cutoff. If the film 
is transferred to tape, the full 1.33 image can 
be utilized. One drawback of shooting 1.33 
for 1.85 projection is that full responsibility 
for centering the 1.85 masking rests in the 
hands of the projectionist. Both projectors in 
a switch-over system have to be identically 
aligned from the outset of projection and 
maintained that way — all too often, a doubt- 
ful reality. In Europe, a 1.66 "hard mask" is 
sometimes mounted in the camera aperture 
so that the projectionist is left little choice in 
the matter. (A side benefit of this practice is 
that during a shooting, a boomed mike can be 
suspended considerably closer to the framed 
action.) Since motion pictures are increasing- 
ly produced with electronic distribution in 
mind, in-camera masking to an aspect ratio 
incompatible with television probably will 
not survive. 

Anamorphic and flat wide-screen 16mm 
never proved viable, but 16mm is increasingly 
undergoing transfer to 35mm as well as video- 
tape, and the loss of image "real estate" is no 
less a problem. A glance at the illustration of 
the 1.33 frame (valid for both 16mm and 
35mm) with its relevant cutoffs will bear this 
out. And assuming that a frame of 16mm is 
blown up to 35mm in such a way that virtual- 
ly no 16mm image is lost (i.e., the 16mm 1.33 
is made to fit exactly into the 35mm 1.33 
dimensions), it's apparent that the 35mm 
wide-screen cutoffs apply proportionately to 
the 16mm frame as well. The exact dimen- 
sions of these parameters in 16mm and 
35mm, including Super- 16, are listed in the 
accompanying tables. These dimensions are 
per Society of Motion Picture and Television 
Engineers/ American National Standards In- 
stitute fiat, which is not legally binding but is 
internationally recognized by most manufac- 
turers. The tables display slight discrepancies 
between corresponding 16mm and 35mm 
percentage, but these are insignificant with 
regard to the illustrations, which are ac- 
curately proportioned. From the larger il- 
lustration it is evident, for instance, that TV 
safe action limits cannot be used as an ap- 
proximation for 1.66 projection when 
shooting 16mm for blow-up to 35mm. 

Anyone handy with a ruler and graph 
paper can fashion a proportionately true 
chart from the given dimensions and match it 
to their camera viewfinder. The results can be 
enlightening. Some camera ground-glasses 
are marked for projection cutoff only. That 
is, the cameraperson views only what would 
clear the projector aperture. The viewing 
screen of an Aaton, on the other hand 
displays frame dimensions that correspond to 
the camera aperture, with no indication of 
projector cutoff provided. Perhaps the best 
design is the Arriflex viewing screen, which 
displays the camera aperture cutoff along 



with an indication of the "TV scanned area," 
the area a film-to-tape telecine or film chain 
should record and transmit. The TV scanned 
area, as the illustration shows, very nearly 
equals the area displayed in 1.33 projection, 
and since it is the more limiting, serves as an 
adequate index to both cutoffs. The 
aforementioned chart, if carefully 
photographed, can be useful in checking not 
only camera aperture alignment but also the 
alignment and cutoff of both projector and 
flatbed. 

A final note on wide-screen cutoffs when 
shooting 16mm for 35mm blow-up: It's prac- 
tically hopeless to count on 1.33 screening 
outside of the art house circuits and the large 
cities. True, Being There, with its thematic 
obsession with television, and One from the 
Heart both obtained 1.33 screenings, but 
those releases were carefully controlled. 
More generally, distributors and exhibitors 
couldn't care less, unless the latter can peddle 
more popcorn as a result. Unless shooting the 
wide Super- 16mm, have the ground-glass or 
viewing screen marked for 1.85 and be 
choosy about composition while you are still 
in control. ■ 



David Leitner is an independent film pro- 
ducer who works at DuArt Film Labs in New 
York. 



Continued from page 3 

to the fair market value of the films. 

You could argue that you are giving film 
and video makers "exposure," a chance to 
have their work seen by audiences or even a 
shot at getting some real compensation for 
their work, but this is not the case. 

• Exposure does not get independent film 
and video work, per se. If the films are worth 
showing on television, the film and video 
makers should receive the fair market value 
for the airing of their film or tape. 

• No reputable "competition" in the 
United States requires "winning" films to be 
aired on television, nor is airing customarily 
the aim of a competition. If you want to 
select films or tapes for airing why not make 
the prizes awards for merit and then offer a 
fee per minute for the television rights? 

• You do not list the names of your 
"distinguished panel of judges." This is a 
clever move. Clearly any artist connected to 
any professional guild or union in the film or 
television industry would avoid involvement 
with an organization that compensates its 
award winners so poorly. SAG, WGA, 
DGA, IATSE, AFTRA— to name a few— all 
support compensation for artists whose 
work is used on television. 

I hope independent film and video makers 
are sharp enough to ignore this competition 
and that word will spread. ■ 

Mitchell Block 
Direct Cinema Limited 

11 



THE INDEPENDENT 



BUSINESS 



Selling a Dream: 
The IFP/LA Seminar 



Mitchell Block 

On Saturday, March 27 at 8:30 am, a thfn 
line of independents snaked through the lob- 
by of the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles. 
Over eight hundred filmmakers and would- 
be filmmakers and producers in search of 
funding slowly moved into the lobby of the 
Embassy Ballroom to pick up their registra- 
tion materials for the seminar organized by 
the Independent Feature Project/Los 
Angeles (IFP/LA). The participants ranged 
in age from 19-year-old undergraduates at 
USC and UCLA to 60-year-old Hollywood 
independents still looking for that first deal 
and still wondering what happened to the 
studios. 

The seminar on how to finance indepen- 
dent features was well-organized and well- 
attended. Microphones were placed in the 
aisles for questions from the floor. And for 
those not in attendance, transcripts will be 
available from the IFP. 

Five different panels discussed aspects of 
financing, using specific films as case studies, 
ranging from the $1.3 million The True Story 
of Gregorio Cortez to the $1 million Tell Me 
a Riddle to the $600,000 Street Music. 
Perhaps the main problem in the conception 
of the panels was that no clear distinction was 
made between commercial projects and com- 
mercial methods. The audience was mixed: 
from theatrical feature film producers to 
regional independents to independent film 
artists. 

One never learned why investors invested, 
except on account of the glamor of film. In 
fact, investment was not portrayed as a likely 
road to financial gain. The criteria for sound 
investment, however, were made explicit: 
likelihood of completing a project on 
schedule within budget, prospects of recoup- 
ing costs at the box office and presence of 
famous talent. 

RIDDLE IS HIGH POINT 

Tell Me a Riddle the first panel, was the 
high point of the seminar. The award- 
winning story by Tillie Olsen inspired film 
producers Susan O'Connell, Mindy Affrime 
and Rachel Lyon to form Godmother Pro- 
ductions. They began by finding an ex- 
perienced tax attorney. Peter Buchanan, 
somewhat modestly described as "a 
lawyer... who has represented producers, ex- 
hibitors and other individuals within the mo- 
tion picture industry for many years," in the 
12 



handout provided by the IFP/LA, is really 
one of the better film/tax lawyers not based 
in Los Angeles. He advised these clients to 
"raise some seed money" to cover option 
prices, screenplays and other costs in putting 
together Tell Me a Riddle. They raised 
$50,000 in $5-$l0,000 units in a package 
called "Limited Partnership I" that 
Buchanan put together. Buchanan clearly 
covered many of the legal ques- 
tions/problems of setting up partnerships 
and raising funds for film projects. The se- 
cond step Godmother Productions took 
(Limited Partnership II) was raising $l 




Mindy Affrime, Rachel Lyon, and Susan O'Con- 
nell producers of "Tell Me a Riddle" 

million by selling a maximum of 35 units at 
$15,000 each. This took longer for the God- 
mothers to put together than the first 
package. In addition, they had to find a com- 
pletion guarantor — someone who financially 
guarantees that a film will be finished in ex- 
change for a percentage of the film and film's 
budget. 

The potential pitfalls of private sector 
fundraising were covered in terms of a 
general discussion by the Godmothers in find- 
ing their "investors." Investors said "no." 



Of course, the legal pitfalls of this kind of 
fundraising (selling securities) were described 
by Buchanan. It is illegal for filmmakers (or 
anyone raising money) to ask scores of peo- 
ple (strangers, friends etc.) to invest in any 
project without following very strict state and 
federal guidelines. 

None of the investors, producers or other 
panelists gave convincing reasons for why 
they went in on a deal. When "safe" money 
market funds pay 14% or more, why invest in 
a film? All of the panelists seemed to indicate 
the "deal" in strict financial terms was not 
what was being sold. "Lee Grant would 
direct Tell Me a Riddle and other stars would 
be in it," seemed to be the essence of the 
pitch. Of course, investors would get certain 
tax benefits for investing. 

If "deals" in a strict financial sense were 
being offered, it was difficult for this 
observer to hear what that pitch was. Cer- 
tainly, few of the films represented by the 
panelists were financial successes. George W. 
George's My Dinner with Andre, was one of 
the exceptions, yet to achieve even this suc- 
cess he first had to produce such films as 
Nightwatch and Rich Kids, both financially 
undistinguished. George said that he was 
"selling a dream." Perhaps that really is the 
truth? The Independent Feature Project has 
historically been more interested in films that 
represent "personal statements" than films 
that are "exploitive deals" such as Hallo- 
ween. David Puttnam's discussion of fun- 
ding did not mention "art"; rather, he struc- 
tured his film deals around strong music 
scores. (The Academy Awards and sales of 
the record from Chariots of Fire seem to sup- 
port this approach.) Motives for investing 
seemed irrational and emotional. For exam- 
ple, in Tell Me a Riddle, $150,000 was raised 
from an investor who wanted to be an actor 
(he was given a small part in the film). 
Another investor in Riddle was a woman who 
had just left Iran and identified with the op- 
pression of the main character. The National 
Endowment for the Humanities put up 
$150,000 in another project. Jenny Bowen 
commented that "investing in movies is more 
attractive than pork belly futures," and that 
the human element and process of filmmak- 
ing was the "element" to play up. No 
panelist commented that "a sucker is born 
every minute," but this seemed to represent 
an undercurrent of feelings during the course 
of the day. "Dreams" are something suckers 
buy, "deals" are something else. 

A TRUE STORY 

The second panel, called The True Story of 
Gregorio Cortez: New Directions in Indepen- 
dent Financing, centered on the adventures 
of executive producer Moctesuma Esparza 
raising funds for producer Michael Hausman 
(Ragtime and Mike Nichols' current project, 
Chain Reactions) and director Robert M. 
Young (Rich Kids, One Trick Pony and 
Alambrista). Taking these two partners with 
a track record to produce a segment of PBS's 
JULY AUGUST 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 




Victoria Plata & Edward James Olmos in "The Ballad of Gregorio Cortez" 



American Playhouse series makes a great 
deal of sense. As "independent" film 
packages go, Hausman and Young are an 
almost unbeatable combination representing 
experience, generally excellent reviews and 
modest financial risks. Esparza never dis- 
cussed the strategy of his package. Clearly 
"name" people can help any package, 
unknowns with limited track records do not 
really have a chance. Name people doing a 
job for the first time help. Esparza had as lit- 
tle experience producing feature films as Lee 
Grant (the Academy Award-winning actress 
who directed Tell Me a Riddle) had directing 
feature films. Both were successful in gaining 
experience doing new things because of 
careful packaging. 

The message of the "Hard Cash" seminar 
was not really in what was said but in what 
was not said. Moctesuma raised $450,000 
outright (he did not really make clear who his 
sources were) and $150,000 in matching 
funds from the National Endowment for the 
Humanities. CPB kicked in $450,000 and 
German television put in $50,000 at the rough 
cut stage. This independent project, like 
others (though Esparza seemed not to know 
of those who did it before him) received a 
brief theatrical release before the public 
television airing (new PBS contracts allow a 
theatrical window). This film, like many of 
the other case studies seemed to represent a 
better deal than "investment" for all con- 
JULY AUGUST 1982 



cerned, except those who gambled their time 
for credits rather than cash returns. No one 
in the audience raised questions, nor were 
answers volunteered regarding returns on in- 
vestments, amount of legal fees paid up 
front, nor the correctness of NEH investment 
in for-profit packages. 

A third panel, moderated by Josh Hanig 
(Song of the Canary), discussed financing 
with private investors, using Street Music as 
the case study. The remaining two panels 
focused on "The Hunters" (producers) and 
"The Hunted" (investors). Among the pro- 
ducers present were David Puttnam 
(Chariots of Fire, Foxes and Midnight Ex- 
press), Rob Nilsson (Northern Lights), John 
Waters (Polyester and Pink Flamingos), 
Charles Burnett (Killer of Sheep), Donna 
Deitch (Woman to Woman, and Desert Heart 
in fundraising stage), and George W. George. 

INVESTORS ARE POPULAR 

The investors were a well-kept secret until 
the day of the seminar. This panel consisted 
of Moustapha Akkad (producer/director of 
Mohammed, Messenger of God and Lion of 
the Desert and producer of Halloween), 
David Hemmings (actor, producer), Victoria 
Mudd (producer), Henri O' Bryant (investor, 
uniform manufacturer) and Jeff Prettyman 
(investor, The Decline of Western Civiliza- 
tion). Filmmaker Greg Nava moderated. 




If not, perhaps now is the time. As the 
national trade association for independent 
producers, we've been working since 1974 to 
provide the sort of representation you need. 
For instance: 

• Testifying before congress on legislation 
affecting independents 

• Monitoring developments in public TV, 
cable and telecommunications 

• Participating in media coalitions 

• Reaching out to the general public with the 
independent's viewpoint 

Along with our sister organization, the 
Foundation for Independent Video & Film 
(FIVF), we provide our members with such 
services as: 

• Comprehensive Health Insurance at in L 
credibly low rates 

• The Independent, our monthly film & video 
magazine 

• Short Film Distribution through the NEA's 
Short Film Showcase 

• Festival Liaison for independents through 
our Festivals Bureau 

• Comprehensive Information Services at our 
downtown NYC office— resource files, 
reference library, free consultations with our 
helpful staff (drop by soon!) 

• Screenings, Seminars & Workshops designed 
to reflect our members' needs and interests 

In all, AIVF continues to provide a strong 
collective voice, concrete services and a 
wealth of information for independent pro- 
ducers and supporters of independent video 
and film. Of course, we can't survive without 
your input . . . and assistance. Write, call or 
drop by our office today, and we'll be happy 
to tell you more about what membership in 
AIVF could mean for you. 

ASSOCIATION OF 
INDEPENDENT 
VIDEO AND 
FILMMAKERS, INC. 
625 Broadway, 9th floor, 
New York, NY 10012 
Phone: (212) 473-3400 




13 



THE INDEPENDENT 




Lila Kedrova comforts her granddaughter in the drama "Tell Me a Riddle" 



These last three panels were rich in anec- 
dotes and soft in hard data. Some samples: 

• Moustapha Akkad said that he was im- 
pressed with John Carpenter's willingness to 
direct Halloween without a salary; that was a 
deciding factor in funding it. 

• David Puttnam never mentioned the 
name of the key investor of Chariots of Fire 
or discussed why 20th Century-Fox did not 
choose to distribute the film in the US. 

• David Hemmings seemed concerned with 
filmmakers ruining investors so that it would 
be difficult coming back in the future. 

• Rob Nilsson used a slide show, a reel of 
Northern Lights and his lawyer to pitch his 
current project to potential investors. 

• David Puttnam cultivated his relationship 
with Paul McCartney and Peter Townsend so 
they would say "Yes" when would-be in- 
vestors called and asked them if they were 
committed to doing the score of a proposed 
project. 

• Charles Burnett commented that he paid 
his actors $250 a week on his $10,000 feature 
film Killer of Sheep. Everything else went to 
pay for stock and processing. 

• John Waters said that his father funded 
one of his first films so he would not go 
around the neighborhood asking people to 
put money into "a film about a 300-pound 
boy dressed as a girl who ate shit." He also 
said, "I have always tried to sell out, but 
nobody's bought me." 

14 



The panel of investors, "The Hunted", 
ended dramatically with a clever sleight-of- 
hand trick. The IFP/LA volunteers were in- 
vited to come to the front of the room. They 
stood in a long line in front of the investors 
and were thanked for their contributions. 
Their line of bodies shielded the investors, 
who then were hustled out the back door. 
Perhaps the IFP/LA was fearful that they 
would be asked for funding? The seminar 
ended with a white bread and cheddar cheese 
reception in the Sunset Room. 



ANALYSIS 

Last year's program on marketing and 
distribution and this year's program on rais- 
ing money demonstrated that the New York- 
based Independent Feature Project cannot 
really represent West Coast independent 
feature filmmakers. The strength of the Los 
Angeles wing of the IFP continues to grow. 
This second, annual IFP/LA outreach event 
is having an impact. The West Coast is 
organized. This writer thinks the New York- 
based IFP should move West and bring its lit- 
tle market with it. The American Film 
Market had over 1,400 buyers, and over $700 
million in sales were made. This fall the New 
York Independent Film Market will only at- 
tract 100 or so buyers, and the tie-in with the 
New York Film Festival is more in spirit than 



in actual numbers. Buyers go to Cannes and 
come to Los Angeles to buy "independent" 
features. Independents can make deals 
themselves with British and German televi- 
sion. The New York market misses many of 
the buyers who are coming to Los Angeles. 
Perhaps next year the seminar will be part of 
an independent market in Los Angeles tying 
in with the American Film Market, FILMEX 
and the Academy Awards? It is a shame that 
questions dealing with aesthetics, which 
relate to questions of profitability, and mak- 
ing films for mass audience, were not discuss- 
ed. Many of the films studied or mentioned 
were box office and/or critical failures. The 
Independent Feature Project continues to 
confuse "film artist" with "Hollywood- 
independent". Thus, almost all of the 
speakers were outsiders (to Hollywood) 
rather than selected producers making films 
within the Hollywood system. This writer 
considers filmmakers like Martin Scorsese, 
George Lucas, Steven Spielberg and 
Zanuck/Brown to be "independents", yet 
their cases are not discussed. Investors seem 
set up more for a "sting" than for a prudent 
film package. This in the long term will only 
hurt other independents. The panels 
answered many questions, but not enough of 
the right questions were asked. For example: 

• Has your film returned any monies to 
your investors? A profit? 

• Have your original investors backed your 
recent projects? 

• What compromises did you make to 
make your film? Are you happy with the way 
it came out? 

• Would you do it again? 

A distinction in terminology should be 
made between theatrical feature films, which 
are by definition for a mass audience, and 
regional or independent features which are 
only marginally successful at the box office. 
Saying that the film did not make money 
because it was poorly distributed is a copout 
a number of panelists took and got away 
with. This writer thinks that the problems 
with the films in far too many cases is that 
they were not very (profitably) commercial. 
Brilliant marketing can't save a poor film. 

For those who have not yet walked the 
path of serious fundraising, the seminar was 
helpful. To those who are looking and know 
what they are doing, the seminar offered little 
new information. From every point of view 
these seminars should continue, but perhaps 
the IFP/LA committee could consider 
scheduling more seminars for members 
covering more advanced materials for more 
serious filmmakers. As an outreach event it 
was a success. As an intro level workshop the 
teachers and committee (headed by seminar 
director Peter Belsito) deserve an "A". ■ 



Mitchell Block is founder and president of 
Direct Cinema an independent distribution 
company based in Los Angeles. He also 
teaches film in the LA area. 

JULY AUGUST 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



BFF Finds Europe 
Easy to Please 

• 

The Black Filmmaker Foundation wins 

acclaim and prime time TV slots during whirlwind 

tour through Holland & Britain. Tales & tips. 

• 
Denise Oliver 



The following article is based on a talk 
Denise Oliver gave to the New York Film 
Council in March. Since January 1981 Oliver 
has been Executive Director of the Black 
Filmmaker Foundation, now based at 
WNYC-TV in New York. Last year Oliver 
made two very successful selling trips to 
Europe (mainly Britain and Holland), travel- 
ing with a package of short, long, documen- 
tary and experimental films by American 
black indies. Her activities ranged from coor- 
dinating festivals to appearing on a Dutch TV 
show to criticize a Bill Moyers piece. 

The Black Filmmaker Foundation, found- 
ed in 1978, is a media arts center dedicated to 
distribution, exhibition, programming and 
support services for black independent film 
and video. The BFF runs a distribution 
cooperative which is issuing a new catalogue 
this month, featuring over sixty film and 
video works by black indies from the US, 
Africa, Great Britain and the Caribbean. On 
June 21-23 the BFF hosted a "Symposium 
on Black Independent Film Criticism" in 
New York. 

For information on BFF activities, pro- 
grams and services, contact Ayoka Chenzira, 
Black Filmmaker Foundation, 1 Centre St., 
New York NY 10007, (212) 619-2480. 

Denise Oliver, Executive Director of BFF (r). 
Below, BFF conference at Black American Film 
Festival In Amsterdam. (I to r) Charles Burnett, 



Our first European trip was to Berlin. 
Warrington Hudlin (chair of the BFF Board 
of Directors) represented the Foundation, 
and Charles Burnett, Michelle Parkinson and 
Charles Lane were also on hand. In spring 
1981 a whole crowd of us went to Amster- 
dam — myself, Hudlin, Chenzira, Burnett, 
Larry Clark and Kathleen Collins. We 
organized a major festival there, in coopera- 
tion with Fugitive Cinema/Holland. In 
January and February of 1982 we went to 
Amsterdam and London, where we organ- 
ized a festival of both black American work 
and black British films. We were impressed 
by the work of these black British filmmakers 
(Henry Martin, Horace Ove, Imruh Caesar, 
Menelik Shabazz, Lionel N'Gakane and 
Yugesh Singh Walia), and we are currently 
negotiating to distribute some of their work. 
As a result of our friendly contacts, we are 
also trying to raise money to bring them over 
here. 



While in London, we appeared on several 
radio shows, notably Alex Pascal's "Black 
Londoners," a show on a BBC station which 
is currently under fire from the Establish- 
ment but which receives strong black com- 
munity support. We also taped five or six 
short radio pieces to be broadcast in Africa 
and other parts of Europe through the BBC's 
Department of External Services. Woodie 
King Jr. did an interview spot for the night- 
time news, and Ayoka Chenzira was featured 
in a full-page spread in The Daily Mirror (a 
conservative paper). We are still receiving 
clippings as a result of the coverage both 
before and after the festival: in fact, I noticed 
an article on our festival in the April issue of 
Africa Woman. Press coverage is critical, so 
plan for it and save your clips. These notices 
gathered abroad can often help in the search 
for funds back in the US. 

To be an independent filmmaker is to be in a 
minority in this country. But if you are a 
black filmmaker you are in a double minority 
and probably have the most difficult time 
finding funding or distribution. Also, 
because black independents at this point 
don't tend to have a lot of feature films, and 
tend rather to have a lot of short films, 
there's no big TV market (with the possible 
exception of WNYC-TV). 

Denise Oliver, Warrington Hudlin, Katheleen Col- 
lins, Larry Clark, Ayoka Chenzira, and moderator 
Ard Hessllink of Fugitive Cinema, Holland. 




JULY AUGUST 1932 



THE INDEPENDENT 




Ayoka Chenzira (1) discusses her portrait film "Syviila: They Dance to her Drum" with Syvilla 



EUROPEAN SEAL OF APPRO VAL 

However, in Europe there is a market for 
the purchase of black independent film and 
video — primarily semi-theatrical and televi- 
sion buys. In the 1950s and '60s in the US a 
lot of our jazz musicians — jazz being a uni- 
que cultural and aesthetic phenomenon — 
found that they got no appreciation here, and 
very little money. There was no large mass 
audience or support mechanism and a lot of 
them left the US for Europe and stayed. 

In the 1970s and '80s, the situation for in- 
dependent filmmakers seems to be the same. 
Many are going to Europe (although not 
staying there) looking for three things. It may 
sound crass, but the first thing is money. It's 
already hard to put together enough money 
for a film — be it a 30 minute short feature or 
whatever. Given the present Administration 
stance on arts funding, it's getting even 
harder. So off to Europe they go to test the 
waters. The last two years or so a number of 
black filmmakers have gained European ex- 
perience. 

The second item other than money is 
aesthetic appreciation. Critical acclaim. It's 



Holland Television 

IKON 

Leo Schenk, Wim Kiile 
Borneolaan 27 + 
1217GX Hilversum 
Tel: 035-41351 

NOS 

Mr. Stager 

Post bus 10 

1200 JB Hilversum 

Tel: 035-7791 1 1 

VARA 

Trees Hazelhoff, Cees Pinxteran (features) 

Frank Diamand, Harry Prins (documentaries) 

Heuvellaan 33 

1217 Hilversum 

Tel: 035-711911 



almost as if you have to get a European seal 
of approval for your work before you are 
taken seriously in the US — particularly, with 
something "dull and boring and mundane" 
like a documentary. 

But in Europe they appreciate documen- 
taries. So you visit Berlin or Leipzig or Paris 
or the British Film Institute. And then you 
win some award, a citation and a mention in 
Variety — because then they will notice you. 
(If you were in Europe and got some acclaim 
you'll find it in Variety when you get back.) 

The third thing about Europe is — and this 
will sound most strange (considering that 
most European TV is government- 
funded) — a lack of censorship, a political 
and artistic freedom in terms of content. I 
say that because most documentary film- 
makers have found they have the chance to 
get certain things on European television 
much faster than it can be picked up by US 
public television. Things that are controver- 
sial are not being played as much as they 
should be on US public TV. There are a lot of 
reasons for that: where public TV is getting 
its money right now, for example. And fear 
of offending folks. But what we are finding is 
though we have a much-lauded freedom of 
speech and First Amendment, most people 
doing documentaries (and even dramas that 
have a smaller audience) are finding a much 
more open relationship in Europe. 

About a year and a half ago we made a 
decision to concentrate our BFF efforts and 
resources on Europe. We started with a joint 
film festival in Paris programmed with 
another organization. We then programmed 
sixteen films into the Berlin Forum of Young 
Cinema. With the critical acclaim for that 
retrospective (presented by Ulrich Gregor, 
Director of the Forum), we were approached 
by a number of the other countries about do- 
ing a film festival. The first was a group in 
Holland who are probably the major non- 
theatrical distributors in Holland — Fugitive 
Cinema, at that time headed by Rob 
Langestraat and Jan Roefkamp, who organ- 
ized the festival in conjunction with Ard 
Hesselink from the Milkyway Cinema. Ard 



16 



had screened numerous independent films in 
the US the previous summer, and had then 
approached the BFF about a festival. 

HOLLAND SURVEY 

TV and distribution are very different in 
Holland than here. We're used to network 
and cable. There, TV is directly controlled by 
the government — no funnelling through CPB 
and all that. It's broken up into a series of sta- 
tions with very different slants, very particu- 
lar ideological bents. 

Depending on what's at hand — whether 
it's a script or drama or idea for a documen- 
tary or finished film — you must match your 
content with the station that does that kind 
of thing. If you go to the wrong place, you 
waste your time; if you go to the right people 
it's great. The wonderful thing about the 
Dutch is that they are terribly efficient. They 
answer your letters immediately. They call 
you back. They don't lose your phone mes- 
sage. In fact, when we went into one Dutch sta- 
tion, within 20 minutes we had made a sale, 
within an hour they had gone upstairs and 
prepared a contract, and when we left the 
country we walked out with a check. You 
could spend at least two years at PBS running 
around from office to office, muddling your 
way through and trying to talk to the right 
person. 

AVRO is a general common denominator 
station that plays feature films and series 
from the US, with no particular interest in in- 
dependent work, with the possible exception 
of something musical. 

Then there's IKON, the Council of Chur- 
ches' station. Most people in Holland are 
members of the Dutch Reformed Church or 
other Protestant denominations. Interesting- 
ly enough IKON is not a boring station at 
all, but one that actively seeks programs 
about societies and cultures worldwide. 
Although they aren't considered the 
"radical" station, they are interested in a 
wide variety of things and use many 
documentaries. They are liberal, maybe left 
of liberal in the Dutch TV spectrum. While 
we were there, they programmed a five-part 
series on American black independent 
cinema. They interviewed all of the film- 
makers on the trip, showed long clips, and 
aired the series on prime time. (And they sent 
us copies of the programs!) We have never 
had that happen here. 

Next there's KRO, a Roman Catholic sta- 
tion, not as progressive as IKON, but still 
willing to take some things. NCRV, the 
Dutch Reformed station, is more conser- 
vative than IKON. NOS (the government sta- 
tion), IKON and VARA are the best bets in 
Holland. 

We have an ongoing relationship with 
VARA. Frank Diamand, head of its 
documentary programming, is currently in 
the US, working with Saul Landau on a piece 
about the New Right. He's very sympathetic 
to and familiar with American independent 
cinema. He is a filmmaker himself and has 
JULY AUGUST 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 




During London Festival, BFF reps meet for the first time with independent black British filmmakers, who are now founding their own organization 



done some marvelous documentaries on El 
Salvador, Nicaragua and Zimbabwe. Harry 
Prins works with him. And the people to see 
about features and dramatic acquisitions are 
Trees Hazelhoff (pronounced ter-ays) and 
Cees Pinxteran (pronounced case). 

The good in Holland is access to program- 
mers and easy sales: the bad is low prices. In 
Holland, the average price per minute runs 
from 100-200 guilders maximum, which 
means a top rate of $100 a minute. That's at 
least a hundred less per minute than PBS 
pays. Of course, if you get on the US net- 
works, they pay $l,000-plus per minute; but 
no independents, and certainly no black in- 
dependents have sold to US networks, so it's 
a moot point. 

European TV tends to be less into co- 
production, although they will co-produce in 
some cases. For the most part they are more 
interested in acquiring product. They will do 
pre-sales — look at your rough cut and give 
some money up front. They don't buy a 
whole lot of American independent films. For 
one, they are quite capable of producing a 
film about things over here. They send people 
out all over the world. I was really amazed at 
the quality of programs: European television 
is interested in everything. Their world 
coverage is far superior to ours, with more 
variety. It makes you feel bitter about US TV. 

VPRO is splashy, very commercial, with 
feature films or whatever. VPRO is supposed 
to be the most politically radical TV and radio 
station in Holland. But it is not as accessible 
as some of the others. 

You may be wondering if lots of synch 
sound poses language problems. Everybody 
in Holland speaks English — if they buy they 
subtitle but the Dutch are very up on 
American slang and pay little attention to 
subtitles. As for synch sound, all over 
Europe everything is subtitled one way or 
JULY AUGUST 1982 



another so they don't seem to mind. The 
language flow is tremendous. I sold a couple 
of things with synch sound. Europeans are 
much more patient with TV. And they treat 
formats differently, too. They might run a 
film about Mexico with a follow-up discus- 
sion. 

While I was there, for example, VARA 
aired Bill Moyers' piece on Vietnam veterans. 
Then, two people came on after it and tore 
the show apart. They weren't happy with it 
because they didn't think it told the truth. 
Dr. Ira Goldwasser is a psychiatrist who used 
to work in a US drug rehabilitation center 
and the radical health movement. After the, 
program he analyzed the relationship be- 
tween the American psyche, Reaganomics, 
the military build-up and the negative treat- 
ment of Vietnam vets. They also invited me, 
as an independent journalist, to talk about 
the piece. I would never be invited to be on 
CBS here to critique Bill Moyers' Journal. I 
was stunned that these sorts of programs run 
on prime time and had the highest ratings on 
VARA. Dutch TV is also very thoughtful 
about how and where it places pieces in the 
program schedule. We were never buried in a 
6 am Sunday slot. 

ENGLISH PLEASANT, POKEY 

After the Amsterdam festival, the British 
Film Institute (BFI) invited us to put on a 
similar but more extended festival in 
England. We organized two festivals. With 
the BFI, we took 55 black American indepen- 
dent films to England, which is the largest 
collection of black films that has ever been 
put together, either in the US or Europe. In 
conjunction with the Commonwealth In- 
stitute, we organized a second program of 
black English and American films (partly so 
we could see the British work). 
England is very strange. Not like Holland. 



The English don't make fast decisions; they 
are more conservative than the Dutch and 
more difficult to approach. They tend to 
want to mull things over. It may take time to 
get your foot in the door, and once in, you 
may wait for a decision. 

For the most part, the British are not in- 
dependent filmmakers as we define it: they 



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British TV Buyers 

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Tottenham St. 
London W1 

BBC TV Purchased Programmes 
Alan Howden 
Threshold House 
Shepherds Bush Green 
London W12 
Tel: 734-8000 

SELEC TV (cable) 
Penny Averill 
37 Bedford St. 
London WC2 9EN 



17 



THE INDEPENDENT 




On location for Warrington Hudlin's "Street Corner Stories" 



are producers making films for TV. England 
doesn't have a large film industry, so film is 
closely tied to TV. Of course, the giant is 
BBC — we see its programs here on PBS. The 
BBC is two channels which tend to have 
similar product. BBC-1 is sort of the first- 
class station and BBC-2 is the second. 
Challenging the BBC is a major struggle for 
British independents. Now Channel Four is 
being built and is supposed to do more 
"minority and special interest 
programming." It's buying American in- 
dependents — in fact at such a pace there's 
concern it may have overextended itself and 
bought too much. But Channel Four is 
definitely the place to make a sale. 

Any English jaunt should include a visit to 
the BFI: it's a superb screening facility with a 
gorgeous theatre. When you open up your 
seat and don your headphones, you hear the 
films translated. There are four or five 
screening rooms, a club room, and a good 
restaurant and cafeteria. The sound is good, 
the seats comfortable. We were very pleased 
with the presentation of films and the sup- 
port provided by Ken Wlaschin of the Na- 



British Distributors 

CI NEGATE LTD. 
David & Barbara Stone 
The Gate Cinema 
87 Notting Hill Gate 
London W1 1 
Tel: 727-2651 

CONTEMPORARY FILMS 
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55 Greek St. 
London W1V6DB 
Tel: 434-2633 

INSTITUTE OF CONTEMPORARY ARTS 

Archie Tait, Chris Rodley 

Nash House 

Carlton House Terrace The Mall 

London SW1 

THE OTHER CINEMA 
Tony Kirkhope 
79 Wardour St. 
London W1 
Tel: 734-8505 



tional Film Theatre and his staff. 

But we weren't happy to discover that 
there's not much of an educational market in 
England. There are only about 52 colleges 
and universities in England. (There are that 
many schools in a fifty-mile radius of 
Boston!) There are only about four London 
repertory cinemas that present "offbeat" 
things. And they haven't developed a good 
way to send films around to schools. So to 
sell a film in England, concentrate on TV. 

The main question was: how to deal with 
the British? We had one high tea with the 
Board of Governors of the BBC. And it real- 
ly was like a novel, with watercress and 
cucumber sandwiches and serving ladies in 
ruffled uniforms asking if you wanted one 
lump or two. You can't understand the 
upper-class dialect either, but they were very 
pleasant. However, we didn't make any sales. 
Here we were being typical pushy Americans 
("sell, sell, sell") and they were being resist- 
ant, very upper-class and closed. 

Jocelyn Barrow, a black member of the 
Board, was the one who originally invited 
us to meet the top BBC staff. She was very 
supportive of black independent work and 
went to almost all our screenings. We hope 
her efforts will finally wear away the BBC 
resistance to black work. 



BRITISH DISTRIBUTORS 

There are a few bright spots in the general 
film distribution scene. Miracle Interna- 
tional Films is interested in theatrical 
dramatic features. The Institute of Contem- 
porary Arts tends to be the educational ex- 
hibitor. Cinegate is limited but interesting. 
Cinegate turned out to be Barbara and David 
Stone from Brooklyn, NY, and they were the 
most enterprising non-commercial 
distributors in the UK. They have a corner on 
the market and also own a theatre chain. 
They talked fast: "We'll buy this, that, the 
whole package, home video etc.," which was 
a welcome change. They have been living and 
working there for eight years now. 

Mainline Pictures only handles 
Hollywood-type features. The Other Cinema 
is the best distributor for independent work 
(with such titles as Rosie the Riveter and 



18 



Union Maids) but has an unfortunate loca- 
tion in the red light district. They buy shorts, 
documentaries, women's films and features. 
Tony Kirkhope runs it. 

Circle Films, a feminist distributor, 
handles films by and about women; the 
works needn't have political emphasis. The 
other women's distributor, C.O.W., favors 
narrowly defined feminist-political films and 
is linked to a European network of feminist 
distributors. 

Contemporary Films has the largest 
catalogue of short films in England but a lot 
of them are like The Butterflies of the 
Thames or How to Wash Your Dog. And the 
word is that they may be overextended, so 
don't expect too much. Finally, don't forget 
cable TV. They don't have it yet. But they are 
preparing to have it. 

Most British distributors tend to want to 
make an outright buy for the rights and get a 
print. They don't usually have large volume, 
nor do they need a lot of prints. Don't expect 
to make a lot of money, but remember these 
distributors make it possible for your films to 
be in England, should anyone want to rent 
them. 

Another footnote: although France has 
traditionally preferred American commercial 
films, much has changed under Mitterand. 
Carole Roussopolous, a video producer in 
Paris, has gotten a huge grant from the 
Ministry of Culture to open a women's film 
and video archive. And she wants to buy 
from American women independents. 

Don't underestimate the importance of 
showing your work at European festivals. 
Not only do you win acclaim, awards and 
reviews, but there are also buyers at the festivals. 
And it may often be the only way to reach 
smaller markets — most film buyers and pro- 
grammers, including those from the Third 
World, come to Europe to screen films. 
Another point to keep in mind when plan- 
ning a European trip is that distances are short 
on the Continent, so it's worthwhile to visit 
several countries on one trip. Though 
negotiations can be conducted by mail and 
phone, it's always best to meet face-to-face 
Be sure to make advance appointments 
because buyers are often on the road. 

Information on European markets is 
available. The Independent Feature Project 
has much valuable material [contact Tim Ney 
at (212)674-6655]. We should learn from the 
experience of the IFP, people like Sandra 
Schulberg, and the success of films such as 
Rosie the Riveter, and become more system- 
atic about sharing information. Some of us 
may get our foot in the door but it takes a 
steady stream to keep it open. The challenge is 
maximizing European successes here in the 
US. A key BFF goal is proving that black 
films are universal, and deserve acceptance 
and funds right here at home. ■ 

Denise Oliver is a radio producer, script- 
writer and arts administrator who currently 
heads the Black Filmmaker Foundation. 

JULY AUGUST 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



Few Are Called 
And Fewer Are Chosen 



Hollywood pros coach indies at Robert 

Redford's exclusive Sundance Institute in Utah, and it's 

God's little acre for those who gain entry. 



The Sundance Institute, Robert Redford's 
famed Utah retreat for independents, sounds 
like "heaven for filmmakers," to quote Sun- 
dance Fellow Pablo Figueroa. Imagine 
Laszlo Kovacs filling in as gaffer on your 
shoot, Waldo Salt (screenwriter for Midnight 
Cowboy and Coming Home) consulting on 
your script and Mike Hausman going over 
your budget. Take Frank Daniel, "script- 
doctor" to scores of Hollywood films, one- 
time Dean of both the Prague Film School 
and the American Film Institute, and put him 
on the Program Committee. Set all of this in 
the Rocky Mountains. Provide accommoda- 
tions in custom-built cabins and feature 
Robert Redford as host. Then select ten film 
projects from across the country, bring their 
originators to this paradise for the month of 
June and gear every available resource 
towards getting their films into production. 

"I'm green with envy," is how one film- 
maker responded to this package at An Even- 
ing with the Sundance Institute, sponsored 
by AIVF on April 20. 

This panel discussion featured Sterling Van 
Wagenen, Executive Director of the Sun- 
dance Institute; Pablo Figueroa, independent 
filmmaker and Sundance Fellow; Frank 
Daniel of the Sundance Selection Committee; 
Alan Jacobs, Sundance Board member and 
Jane Morrison, AIVF President. The 
Association's meeting room was packed with 
producers, directors, actors and scriptwriters 
anxious to find out what Sundance had done 
and could do for filmmakers. 

Sundance is not a school, but a resource 
center that combines the talents of indepen- 
dent filmmakers with "seasoned," in- 
dependently oriented producers in the in- 
dustry today. It's also the first institution to 
capitalize on the recent move of many in- 
dependents from documentary to fiction. 



PROS NURSE PROJECTS 

Making its commitment to projects rather 
than filmmakers, Sundance is interested in 
seeing the work it supports get to the 
marketplace. It looks for filmmakers with a 
track record and nurses their projects 
through the difficult stages of script develop- 
JULY AUGUST 1982 



Renee Shafransky 

ment. It also gives independents who haven't 
had much experience directing actors a 
chance to be coached by industry pros like 
Sidney Pollack and Redford himself. 

Redford's interest in helping independents 
stems from his own experiences as an out- 
sider to the studio system. Sterling Van 
Wagenen recounted his initial meetings with 
Redford during the formative months of the 
organization: 

"Redford talked about the kinds of pic- 
tures he'd been involved in as a producer: 
films like Downhill Racer, Jeremiah 
Johnson, The Candidate— films which, in his 




Robert Redford, President & Founder, and Sterl- 
ing VanWagenen, Sundance Executive Director 

perception, were made very much outside the 
blessing of the studios... He had an enor- 
mous interest in seeing some kind of alter- 
native emerge, where filmmakers could be 
nurtured, where projects could develop and 
eventually, someday, where some kind of 
production and funding could take place that 
was not dependent on the kinds of economics 
or politics that existed within the mainstream 
system." 

In 1981, Redford's conversations with Van 
Wagenen developed into a kind of lab test for 
Sundance. An eclectic group of sympathetic 
ears within the mainstream, like Claire 
Townshend at Fox, George White of the 
Eugene O'Neill Theater Center, Annick 
Smith, executive producer of Heartland, and 
Frank Daniel pulled in ten projects from 
around the country in an attempt to find out 
what the impact of this resource bank of 



screenwriters, cinematographers, producers, 
distributors and exhibitors would be. Film- 
makers were brought to Sundance, advised 
on their scripts and encouraged to develop 
scenes on camera, using Sundance's video 
facilities and a core of actors, hand-picked by 
Pollack. They were also allowed to bring 
along some of their own favorite actors. 
Then, Sundance's resource people visited 
each of the projects, consulting with the film- 
makers on their mise-en-scene. According to 
Van Wagenen, in the first year, "some things 
worked and some were absolute disasters." 
A tape made at Sundance by Figueroa, 
slated for fundraising, was one of the more 
amusing catastrophes. 



POSH TENEMENT 

"I had a scene that took place in a tene- 
ment in East Harlem, and I was using Red- 
ford's guest house as a set," recalled 
Figueroa. "I also brought out three actors I 
had cast in the script. One of them said, 'I 
can't walk on these rugs and feel like I'm in 
East Harlem.' I would never show that tape 
to anyone." Figueroa added that these were 
comparatively welcome problems and crucial 
to his future rewrites of the script. 

Sundance's stress on script relates to the 
Institute's desire to focus on areas where it 
can make the most impact. Given limited 
funding and facilities, and Frank Daniel's 
assessment that scripts were weak, Sundance 
targeted script development and directing. 

Last year, Figueroa's script was "the size 
of the Bible." After Sundance, he rewrote it, 
cutting it by one-half. "Now," he says, "it's 
closer to what I really wanted." 

This year, Sundance's script resource peo- 
ple have been asked to coach projects before 
the June intensive residence session. Now, 
the program works in two phases: Script 
Development, beginning in November (after 
the selection process) and a Summmer Pro- 
ject in June, whose participants, by and 
large, will be those who were involved in 
phase one. The June session is devoted to 
scrutinizing the script, shooting test scenes, 
preparing shooting budgets and schedules 
and getting advice from set designers and 
cinematographers . 

19 



THE INDEPENDENT 




Director Sydney Pollack and script consultant 
Frank Daniel during a Sundance session 

TICKET TO HEA VEN 

How do filmmakers get a crack at all these 
goodies? Sundance's selection process is sim- 
ple, but entry into the candidate pool is dif- 
ficult. There are roughly 75 "nominators" 
who send along one nominee each to Sun- 
dance's Selection Committee. Ten of these go 
to phase one. 

It sounds straightforward — except that 
Sundance won't divulge the nominators' 
names. According to Alan Jacobs, the 
organization fears that publication of them 



would provoke an inundation of proposals. 
The people whose names were made available 
are used to that kind of pressure. Lewis Freed- 
man and Jennifer Lawson at CPB and Brian 
O'Doherty at the NEA were mentioned, but 
the only other clue was: "a broad range of 
film professionals in the profit and non- 
profit sector." 

"We need to be far more aggressive than 
we have been in terms of soliciting projects: 
being at film festivals, finding out who's do- 
ing what..." said Van Wagenen. He also con- 
fessed that, in the past, Sundance has 
responded to anyone who took the time to in- 
quire. 

This time, seven projects made it to the 
Summer Program. They range from 20-year- 
old Marisa (daughter of Joan Micklin Silver) 
Silver's Around the Block, about two girls 
growing up in New York City, to Robert 
(Alambrista) Young's An Act of Faith, about 
an American Catholic priest thrust into the 
revolutionary reality of contemporary 
Guatemala. 

Lucille Rhodes, known in the independent 
film community for her documentary por- 
traits of artists Muriel Rukeyser, Anna 
Sokolow and Alice Neel (They Are Their 
Own Gifts), is working on a project at Sun- 
dance with her partner, producer/director 
Larry Madison. 

FEAR OF COMMERCIALISM 

Nealy Hollow, set in Appalachia, is about 
a 17-year-old girl's struggle to save the family 
land from strip mining. Rhodes has been 
ideally matched with Tom Rickman (Coal 
Miner's Daughter) for work on her 



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SPECIAL EFFECTS • ANIMATION • MOTION GRAPHICS 

SLIDES TO FILM • IMAGE EXPANDER • ROTOSCOPING 

COMPUTERIZED OXBERRY STAND PHOTOGRAPHY 

ART • TYPE • KODALITHS • STATS • DROP OUTS 

LINE CONVERSIONS • COLOR KEYS • POSTERIZATIONS 

DARINO FILMS • 222 PARK AVE. SOUTH 
NEW YORK, NY 10003 • (212) 228-4024 



20 



screenplay. The Script Development Pro- 
gram put Rhodes in phone contact with 
Rickman, but in March she flew to his home 
in Santa Cruz, California for some intensive, 
in-person problem-solving. "I was having 
trouble building a certain kind of conflict. I 
wanted to write a script with more of a 
classical construction. My original piece was 
more of a mood piece, a vignette. What Tom 
helped me to do was to focus and strengthen 
the story." 

Some filmmakers have expressed anxiety at 
the possible "commercialization" of their 
scripts and Sundance's focus on reshaping 
them. Madison speculates that, "In sheer 
practical political terms, Sundance is looking 
at the kinds of films that are not being made, 
that they feel should be. There are more 
significant stories to be told. So when they 
say something like 'independent film scripts 
stink,' what they're really saying is , 'unless 
you learn the basic elements of how to write a 
screenplay, you don't have a chance in hell of 
getting your film made within the 
marketplace as it exists.' " 

As for the changes in her script, Rhodes 
said her characters hadn't lost their personal 
integrity, but what had changed somewhat 
was the timing. "Now it's an American pac- 
ing." Madison thinks Sundance's focus is the 
right one, "short of giving us $2 million.. 
Before we had a 30-40% chance of getting in- 
to production. Now it's 75-80%." 

The ultimate question is, of course, will 
any of these films be made? Will association 
with Sundance lead to funding? To date, no 
one has broken through. Van Wagenen 
knows of only one project on the verge of a 
development deal and Figueroa "hasn't rais- 
ed a single dollar yet." 

Though Sundance has been host to con- 
ferences gathering "everybody who is 
anybody in the world of independent 
distribution and exhibition," its hopes for a 
permanent network of these forces probably 
won't materialize immediately. Sundance 
may be the key to bringing all these areas 
together, but a much more interesting idea is 
the possibility that Sundance could become a 
studio itself, taking a percentage of the films 
that come through as a means of financing 
and expanding. 

"Even before the Institute was formed, 
people were talking about that," said Jacobs. 
He suggested the possibility of a wide- 
ranging production company that gets into 
joint ventures with independents. Though he 
wouldn't commit to any one idea, he in- 
dicated that the options were open. 

It will be a few years before the impact of 
Sundance on independent filmmaking, and 
filmmaking in general, is felt. According to 
Van Wagenen, Redford himself understands 
that getting a film made and also seen by au- 
diences "implies political solutions as much 
as it implies financial solutions." Let's hope 
Sundance can tackle both. ■ 

Renee Shafransky is a film critic and in- 
dependent producer. 

JULY AUGUST 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



De Antonio's 
Fireside Chat: Part II 



"The FBI made fifty quarter-inch tapes of the 

Underground soundtrack and circulated them among the field offices 

of the FBI. I'm now suing them for copyright infringement. " 



In 1975, Emile de Antonio, editor Mary 
Lampson and cinematographer Haskell Wex- 
ler met for a few days in a "safe house" with 
members of the Weather Underground to 
create a "film dialogue." The FBI soon 
discovered the project and subpoenaed the 
filmmakers — along with their negatives and 
tapes — to appear before a grand jury. The 
filmmakers refused to cooperate and many 
Hollywood luminaries, including Hal Ashby, 
Warren Beatty, Shirley MacLaine, Jack 
Nicholson, Martin Sheen and Jon Voight 
publicly defended them. Days before the 
scheduled grand jury, the subpoenas were 
suddenly withdrawn. The film which resulted 2 
from the meeting with the Weatherpeople is ° 
Underground (1976), a history of — and ode £ 
to — the movements of the Sixties. " 

In Part II of the following interview, de § 
Antonio discusses the Weatherpeople then^ 
and now, the making of Underground, and 
past and future projects. 

SUSAN LINFIELD: How and why did you 
make Underground! 

EMILE de ANTONIO: When I read [the 
Weather Underground's book] Prairie Fire, I 
suddenly had one of those intuitive flashes. I 
said, "I want to make a film about these peo- 
ple." So I asked a guy — who wants to remain 
nameless — "Do you know how to get hold of 
these people?" He did. 

We then began a series of meetings here in 
New York with Eleanor Raskin and Jeff 
Jones. We met in very circuitous routes, so 
they could be sure that I wasn't being followed. 
I don't think they were worried about me, 
but they were properly worried that 
somebody could have told the police that I 
was now talking to them. Even the guy who 
put us in touch, maybe. 

It depressed me that they were such bright 
people who knew nothing, who really had no 
theory about how the world was going. Some 
of their emphases were totally correct: that 25 
million black people have always been labor 
here; that until the black question is no 
longer a black question, this country will 
never be anything but sick. But how would 
Marx have written about that to make it alive 
to people today? Or Gramsci? Prairie Fire 
JULY AUGUST 19B2 



Susan Linfield 

was a good effort for bombers, but not for 
serious theoreticians. I'd hoped that the film 
would have brought out an intellectual 
dialogue. But they came with shopping bags 
full of rhetoric. I said, during the filming, 
"You people would be just as happy if this 
were a radio program and you just read 
Prairie Fire." And they replied, "Yeah, that 
would be great." 

In film you have to particularize. People 
want to know who you are, where you come 
from. I asked Kathy Boudin, "How does a 
middle-class woman like you get where you 
are?" 




DeAntonio in his Manhattan studio 

SL: They seemed willing to take your sugges- 
tions in the film. 

EdeA: They seemed willing! But it took 
hours and hours of anger. 

And other things happened in the making 
of that film that have never been spoken of 
which made me very uncomfortable. We had 
a terrible moment when we got to the safe 
house, and the soundperson — who still 
wants to remain nameless — said, "I want to 
go home." I said, "Don't be ridiculous. How 
can we let you go now? The Weather 
Underground is coming here. If you make 
the wrong move, the cops could come with 
guns. If you don't want to do the sound, 
we're going to have to tie you up." 

The Weatherpeople made a mistake. They 
didn't know him. They properly insisted on 



checking out Haskell Wexler and Mary 
Lampson for their politics and as security 
risks. But the soundperson was taken ab- 
solutely on somebody else's word. And he 
never had any politics. It almost blew the 
whole thing away. 

SL: What were your feelings in preparing for 
the film? Excitement? Fear? 

EdeA: All of those, sure. You can't pretend 
that you only did it for ideology. Danger is 
interesting. 

SL: I was surprised how, in the film, you 
very much accepted their statements that they 
weren't adventuristic or elitist. 

EdeA: A legitimate point. But don't forget 
that the entire left student movement was 
elitist and middle-class, in spite of all its talk 
about workers. 

The Vietnam War brought a kind of bogus 
prosperity to this country. You weren't going 
to talk to people making their bread and but- 
ter out of tanks and guns about how we 
ought to get out of Vietnam. 

The same thing is going on now in the nuke 
movement. As the Plowshares 8 were being 
taken out in handcuffs, Sister Anne Mont- 
gomery said, in her shy, lovely voice to the 
workers who were staring at them hostilely, 
"We do this for your children." And they 
said, "What about our jobs?" It's a question 
that SDS never addressed. 

SL: How did the FBI find out you were mak- 
ing the film? 

EdeA: I took the soundtrack to an LA 
sound house and said to the guy who ran it, 
"Since this track is complicated I'd like to 
transfer the sound myself. You can have all 
the money. I'll do the work." He said, "Ter- 
rific." 

I did not know that he went in the next 
room, turned on a dub and heard the 
Weather Underground talking about bomb- 
ing the Capitol. Later on in a deposition he 
said, "I knew then that de Antonio was a ter- 
rorist, so I took out my revolver, loaded it, 
and put it under a newspaper, and if de An- 
tonio had walked through that door I would 
have shot him." 

After listening to the tape he called the FBI. 

21 




Cinematographer Haskell Wexler shot the Weather people through a mirror in "Underground" 



They told him to keep on dubbing. 

The FBI made 50 quarter-inch tapes of the 
soundtrack and circulated them among their 
field offices. I'm now suing them for copy- 
right infringement. 

SL: I assume that you had mixed and per- 
sonal feelings about the Brinks robbery. 
Could you talk about how you felt? 

EdeA: (pause) Not willingly. But I don't like 
to duck questions. It's very hard because I 
really liked those people. 

I think they no longer perceive the realities 
of this country. I mean they perceive some of 
the realities too sharply, which is what got 
them into trouble. But they didn't perceive 
that in this case robbing a Brinks truck — if 
they did it — is pragmatically bad politics. 
There are other, easier ways to finance revolu- 
tionary activity. That was a kind of flashy, 
bravado thing. And killing the people was 
wrong. 

But I don't think that the violence of their 
act — mistaken or not — approaches the 
violence of the state, every day, in every city 
in the United States. Nobody gets excited 
about killing a black guy in Texas in the 
course of a routine interrogation. Or about 
the fact that we're getting ready to take apart 
another whole country; Vietnam wasn't 
enough. If you want to talk about adven- 
turism and murder, it's the US government 
that's made them the base of our foreign 
policy. 

SL: Given what was risked by yourselves and 
by the Weather Underground in making the 
film, do you feel it was worth it? 

EdeA: Absolutely. It's a good film; it played 
over PBS and has reached people. 

SL: You said at the time of the grand jury you 
hoped there would be an ongoing support of 
filmmakers in Hollywood. Has that happened? 

EdeA: No. Events like that need a crisis. 

SL: How "blacklist-able" do you think 
Hollywood is now? 

EdeA: Eminently. The techniques are 
smoother. I don't think there's any blacklist; 
22 



I think there's a silent greylist. 

SL: What are your future plans? 

EdeA: I'll write a screenplay about a radical 
subject, and Martin Sheen is going to play 
the lead. We're going to try to get people to 
play for scale and own the picture. We're go- 
ing to get the three or four leads for a total pay 
of maybe $20,000. 

SL: What ever happened to your CIA 
[Philip Agee] film? 

EdeA: That was shot down when [CIA agent 
Richard] Welch was killed in Athens. Nothing 
worse could have happened to me than hav- 
ing Welch killed. It's the worst that could 
have happened to him, too, I guess. 

When Welch was killed, they claimed Agee 
was involved in naming him, which was total- 
ly untrue. I know Greek radicals who say it 
was absolutely obvious to anybody who lived 
in Athens that that was the CIA's house. So 
when you read those crappy letters about 
what a sensitive, witty man Richard Welch was, 
a classical scholar and all that... CIA guys are 
thugs! They are secret political police, and 
getting killed goes with the job, frankly. It's 
like being a soldier. But it destroyed the film. 
People are afraid to buck the CIA. 

SL: What about the film you were once 
planning on the Long March? 

EdeA: I had lunch with the new [Chinese] 
Ambassador to Canada, an extraordinary 
Chinese lunch. But they were so bureaucratic 
and crazy. They said, "Why don't you just 
come to Peking, Hangchow?" I said, "No, 
I'm not interested in Nixon's trip; I want to 
do the Long March!," I wanted to intercut 
stuff that I would shoot today with the whole 
history of that triumph, one of the greatest 
moments in the short life of socialism. 

I could have made the film by taking two 
years off and proving that I was a sincere 
Chinese Communist. But I'm not a Chinese 
Communist. I'm an American communist. 

SL: How have you raised money for your 
films? 

EdeA: In the documentary collages, I've 
amassed enormous collections of valuable ar- 



chives. So, in making the next film, I would 
say to a rich person, "Look, I have this 
tremendous amount of stuff on, say, Viet- 
nam. As an inducement to invest in my new 
project I will sell you this for $1000. You can 
give it away and get a $100,000 tax deduc- 
tion. Plus there will be a little permanent col- 
lection on Hanoi donated by you." 

It's the boring responsibility of filmmakers 
to raise money. I myself don't like to ask the 
foundations and the government for money. 
I don't want to be judged by those assholes. I 
prefer to do my "bear act" (you know, I look 
a little like a bear): put on my bearskin and 
perform for people, tell them how wonderful 
it's going to be, and how brilliant I am. Then 
they write checks. It's worked up till now. 

SL: But you also have a long track record. 

EdeA: It doesn't hurt. I don't see much of a 
future [for independent filmmakers] unless you 
are willing to produce entertainment. And even 
if I were to make a fiction film, entertainment is 
not my first consideration. The film could be 
funny and sexy and even brutal, but those 
elements would not be there to sell tickets. 

I probably am moving away from 
documentaries towards fiction. But I've 
always regarded all the people in my films as 
actors, which is maybe non-human and im- 
personal of me. Ho Chi Minh and Nixon, 
Roy Cohn and Joe McCarthy. 

SL: You've talked, and other filmmakers 
have talked, about the paradox of making 
films for social change which don't reach a 
mass audience. 

EdeA: Sure. The very nature of our society 
is that the mass audience is cut off from ideas 
and clearly indoctrinated by the ultimate 
brainwashing tool, American TV. Godard, 
who's the most innovative filmmaker since 
World War II, has no audience here. And 
there's no decent distribution for indepen- 
dent films now. 

One of the most perverse aspects of our 
culture is that truth in American films comes 
out of comedy, where under the guise of not 
being serious you are actually much more 
serious. W.C. Fields' It's a Gift is the most 
radical film I've ever seen in America. It 
makes my work look consevative. Fields, an 
old right-winger, plays a guy in a hardware 
store during the Depression who reads an ad 
about orange groves in California. So he 
drives across the country in a rickety car, 
with his terrible wife and wretched children. 
In the end he is sold part of the town dump 
for an orange grove, and he's crestfallen, 
devastated — and then it turns out to be an oil 
well, so he's rich. In the last shot he's still 
with his terrible wife and disgusting children, 
but he has an English butler pouring him 
gallons of martinis. It's a devastating attack 
on the impersonal and inhuman aspects of 
capitalism. Marvelous thing. ■ 

Susan Linfield is a writer and independent 
documentary filmmaker who currently works 
at Short Film Showcase. 

JULY AUGUST 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



BOOKS 



Knowledge Is Power 
For New Data Barons 



Kenneth Stier 



Who Knows: Information in 
the Ago of the Fortune 500 

By Herbert I. Schiller. Ablex Publishing. 
Norwood, NJ. 1981. 

Much has been written but little has been 
understood of the coming so-called Informa- 
tion Age — often because it is seen as a neutral 
technological and economic inevitability. 
While a whole host of forces converge to 
realize this transformation, its consequence is 
the perpetuation of the free enterprise system 
and the consolidation of its more dominant 
sectors, at home and abroad. No major struc- 
tural changes in the alignment of power can 
be expected from the communications revolu- 
tion; not surprisingly, since those introducing 
the new technologies are those that stand to 
benefit most. 

"Justification of the new communications 
technology rests heavily on its promise to 
reduce inequalities and extend educational, 
cultural and human opportunities," explains 
Herbert Schiller. But despite the potential of 
the new technology, it seems the market 
economy will make sure that it is used princi- 
pally to "exacerbate old inequalities in new 
ways." This, then, is the over-arching conclu- 
sion of Schiller's latest book, Who Knows: 
Information in the Age of the Fortune 500. 
The elderly Marxian warrior speaks with 
characteristic vigor: "The economic role of 
the information and media industries and the 
services they provide are now primary factors 
in the maintenance of the material system of 
power, domestically and internationally. It 
follows that if effective opposition is to devel- 
op against the intensifying attacks on the 
standard of living and the democratic features 
of the social order, understanding the realities 
of electronic information production, dissem- 
ination and control in the United States is im- 
perative." 

While a new information order is emerging, 
it bears little resemblance to that demanded 
by the less developed world. Instead, transna- 
tional corporations guide the refashioning of 
world economic and communications struc- 
tures. Production is increasingly shifted to the 
less-developed nations, while management is 
controlled at First World corporate 
headquarters, facilitated by global 
telecommunications. The physical basis of 
this new authority is found in the electronics 
JULY AUGUST 1982 



industries, where the US has a considerable 
advantage through its massive expenditures in 
military and space research and development. 

INVISIBLE IMPERIALISM 

So spectacular has been the growth and 
power of the transnationals, particularly since 
World War II, that they transcend national 
loyalties and most attempts at international 
regulation, and threaten to undermine the 
very sovereignty of those nations where they 
operate. The new system raises imperialism to 
another level, where its weapons include not 
just the now familiar and visible media- 
cultural products but also invisible domina- 
tion. New private networks speed "stateless 
money" around the globe, circumventing the 
control of finance ministers. Satellites deter- 
mine the location and extent of valuable 
resources anywhere in the world through 
remote sensing. 

The new technologies are helping to reduce 
the developing nations to a servitude more in- 
tractable than colonialism itself. While hardly 
a unique attitude for imperialists, it is never- 
theless astonishing to see Schiller document 
the blatant sense of entitlement common 
among America's corporate and government 
leaders. One executive of a remote sensing 
company remarks: "The United States can- 
not afford to lose the reigning advantages that 
have come from developing technologies that 
have allowed us to become primary finders 
and developers of the world's non-renewable 
resources." A high-ranking State Department 
official comments that fear of foreign ex- 
ploitation "has motivated a number of coun- 
tries to assert control and sovereign claims 
over information and data concerning their 
natural resources that is in the hands of 
others. This is a claim that, of course, we 
can't agree with." It is apparent from such 
statements and the priority given the informa- 
tion industries, that our dominant class sees 
the new order as the key to the maintenance or 
restoration of corporate America's global 
economic power. And by now it goes without 
saying that what is good for the Fortune 500 is 
good for America and the world. 

INFO AT A PRICE 

While the stranglehold on the peripheries 
tightens, the public in the privileged center is 
having its rights eviscerated as well. Both the 



right to information (much of it publicly 
funded) and the right to free speech are 
threatened by this further corporatization of 
America. Information — our latest exploitable 
resource — is becoming privatized and com- 
moditized, available only at a price. The na- 
tional government is the largest generator and 
disseminator of information and, not surpris- 
ingly, commercial firms have always been the 
largest benefactors of this pool of informa- 
tion. Even now, it is alarming how much of 
this public charge of producing and diffusing 
information is contracted out to private 
firms, thus allowing private interests to fur- 
ther influence the direction of research. We 
are already living in a society factionalized be- 
tween the information rich and information 
poor. 




NASA's Landsat-2 has been conducting 
"multidisclpiinary" research for U.S. 
government and military agencies since 1975. 

I personally feel more immediately con- 
cerned with the expanding range and impact 
of corporate speech. Supported by a favora- 
ble legal environment and empowered by new 
technologies, corporations are using video to 
extend their influence to the public at large. 
Unlike most who feel maligned by the com- 
mercial media, the corporations have the 
power to respond, bringing their views direct- 
ly to the public. "Info-mercials," advocacy 
advertising, replies to network exposes and 
ongoing news magazine or special reports, 
mostly offered without charge, are just some 
of the formats corporations are using to in- 

23 



THE INDEPENDENT 



crease their presence. Consider how the Illi- 
nois Power company's reply to a 60 Minutes 
show was distributed to 2,000 "corporations, 
trade associations, journalism schools and 
community organizations." Or that Mobil's 
1980 special report Energy at the Crossroads 
(one of eleven energy specials) was carried by 
62 TV stations. 



LEGITIMA CY PROBLEMS 

As the socio-industrial crisis deepens, cor- 
porations are confronted with mounting 
doubt about how well the market system 
serves the public. Modern management in- 
creasingly sees coping with the legitimacy 
problems of advanced capitalism as its pri- 
mary challenge. As Mobil Oil's chairman 
Rawleigh Warner phrased the issue of corpor- 
ate communications: "In our view, we have 
no practical alternative to speaking publicly. 
We think it no exaggeration to say that we 
have to publish or perish, and we do not in- 
tend to perish if we can help it." 

In his final chapter Schiller takes pains to 
remind us that all this electronically enhanced 
hegemony is not totally invulnerable. How- 
ever, he has detailed all his previous chapters 
so convincingly that this last section comes 
across as a wishful afterthought. While it is 
heartening to see Japan and Europe awake to 
their threatened sovereignty and take correc- 
tive action (evidence of fissures in capitalist 
unity!), it makes little difference to the Third 
World whether Japanese or Americans are 
doing the exploiting. In any case, the capital- 
ist countries have proven themselves adept at 
mediating their trade differences when the 
stakes are high. 

Meanwhile, Third World response rests at a 
more rudimentary stage. It has focused pri- 
marily on the visible media of news flows and 
the deluge of cultural products, and is only 
now realizing the effects of more insidious 
media penetration. Short of the laborious and 
ultimately modest impact of international 
agreements or the possible breakdown of the 
system, Schiller finds most hope in the nas- 
cent resistance of the people in the core area — 
the US. He believes we will be goaded to ac- 
tion by a system increasingly unaccom- 
modating and repressive, with the correspond- 
ing pressures of mass unemployment. The 
"displacement crunch" makes a "revival of 
political action toward radical, systemic 
change a strong prospect. Social conflict in 
the core of the transnational corporate system 
is the forecast for tomorrow. This being so, 
the new international division of labor may 
find its strongest opposition, paradoxically 
enough, in its privileged center." 

Published amidst a surfeit of inaccessible 
left social theory, this book is a welcome 
return to hard and honest "vulgarity." I only 
wish I could share Schiller's faith in the pros- 
pects of intelligent opposition. ■ 

Kenneth Stier is a freelance writer particu- 
larly interested in communications issues. 

24 



AIVF FORUM 



Ruckus Over 
Referendum Question 



On June 2, AIVF Executive Director 
Lawrence Sapadin announced the results of 
the 1982 AIVF Board of Directors Election. 
The new Board members, in alphabetical 
order, are as follows: 

Matt Clarke 
William Greaves 
Lillian Jimenez 
Denise Oliver 
Robert Richter 
Thomas Turley 

Alternates to the Board: Daniel Edelman, 
Peter Kinoy and Martha Rosier 

In addition to the Board vote, AIVF mem- 
bers were polled on the following question: 
"Is the AIVF Board authorized to take posi- 
tions, on behalf of AIVF, on local, national 
or international issues that may not be directly 



related to media issues?" The Referendum 
results, after two careful counts, were as 
follows: 

YES— 170 
NO— 165 

We have reprinted selected correspondence 
received during the course of this referendum 
in the following forum. The new Board of 
Directors will take up the question of the sig- 
nificance of the referendum vote at its first 
meeting. 



AIVF Tagged Zealots 

Dear AIVF: 

I don't know the people up for election for 
Board members and therefore do not feel 
qualified to vote for them. 



Minutes of May Meeting 
AIVF Board of Directors 

• LEWIS FREEDMAN VISIT— CPB Pro- 
gram Fund Director addressed the Board, 
sharing his observations and thoughts about 
independents in public television and about 
AIVFs role as the independents' represen- 
tative. Mr. Freedman stated among other 
things, that AIVFhad an important role to 
play in developing a good working relation- 
ship between indies and many public TV sta- 
tions. In recent times, many stations have 
come to realize that they can benefit by work- 
ing with indies. Also, to effectively represent 
indies to CPB, AIVF should strengthen ties 
with other major independent producer 
organizations nationally. Finally, AIVF 
could help CPB develop better ties with the 
minority producing community. 

• GOETHE HOUSE— George Stoney asked 
FIVFto co-sponsor a seminar and screening 
program of new German documentaries to be 
held next November under the auspices of 
Goethe House and New York University. 
Board accepted unanimously. 

• PROGRAM FUND MEETING— In ear- 



ly May, CPB organized a meeting between 
several independent producers, station pro- 
grammers and PBS and CPB representatives 
to brainstorm about indie work on PTV. 
AIVF Board member Eric Breitbart attended 
and reported that those stations repre- 
sented — especially the smaller stations 
— expressed an interest in working more 
closely with indies, but that they, too, found 
the thematic structure of the Matters of Life 
and Death series unhelpful. 

• SHORT FILM SHOWCASE— In an- 
ticipation of a meeting between SFS staff, 
FIVF and the National Endowment for the 
Arts, the FIVF Board resolved to make the 
following recommendations to the Endow- 
ment to improve the Showcase: 1) more ac- 
tive search for submissions, 2) permit longer 
pieces than the current 10 minute limit, and 
3) compose review panels differently to pro- 
mote selection of more innovative work. 

AIVF Board meetings are generally 
scheduled for 7:30 pm on the second Wednes- 
day of each month. Meetings are open to the 
public. Members are encouraged to attend 
and share their views with the Board. For in- 
fo, call (212) 473-3400. ■ 



JULY AUGUST 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



But I feel more than qualified to give you 
my opinion on your outrageous proposal 
that AIVF Board members could even con- 
sider the possibility of speaking for me about 
political issues. It always amazes me how 
quickly politically sanctimonious souls will 
engage in anti-democratic maneuvers without 
so much as a hint of awareness of their gross 
overstepping of the bounds of reasonable 
representation. What I mean is really — where 
do you get the nerve to come up with such 
proposals??!! 

We've been through this before, when 
over-zealous members wanted to write 
Socialistic doctrine into the constitution and 
now, here we are again, a few years later. 
Don't these zealots ever learn anything? 
Could they possibly be that naivel Do they 
think they are so right at all times about all 
issues that we could only follow their 
enlightened path and no other? I mean, 
again, reallyl ! ! ! I'm outraged to put it mild- 
ly! 

Let me assure you that in joining AIVF, I 
had in mind the mixing and mingling with 
other struggling filmmakers and a general 
sharing of information, sources, etc. But 
never never never has it ever been my inten- 
tion or desire to be involved with anything 
political as part of a pre-aligned group 
(whose politics do not mesh, down the line, 
with my own). 

In conclusion, should this misguided, in- 
sulting, pre-fascistic referendum be passed by 
your (at that point, evidently) naive, ignorant 
bamboozling membership — then, I for one, 
will, without hesitation, withdraw from 
membership immediately upon notification 
of this fact. 

For God's sake — have you no common 
sense? Do you not know the history upon 
which this country was founded? Have you 
not read the Declaration of Independence or 
the Constitution and the Bill of Rights? lam 
shocked! at your audacity! Hand simple ig- 
norance!!! Have you no shame?!! 

Joan Rosenfelt 



Rift In Sight? 

Dear AIVF Board: 

In reference to your referendum question, I 
would like to cite the recent events regarding 
Ed Asner and SAG. In openly supporting the 
revolutionary struggle in El Salvador (which I 
happen to agree with), Asner, the President 
of SAG, unfortunately provided an avenue 
for those who disagreed with his union 
politics to mount an all-out campaign against 
his union policies. While, in fact, he had not 
intended to represent his political views as 
those of the union, his act resulted, in part, in 
the SAG rejection of a union coalition with 
the Screen Extras union. This was a crucial 
point in the consolidation of labor in the 
Hollywood industry. Asner's progressive 
policies were weakened in SAG and there is a 
large division within the union. While his 
method may have in fact only represent an 
JULY AUGUST 19B2 



individual's blunder, there is a lesson to be 
learned. 

The statements on the referendum ques- 
tion mailed to members seem to address dif- 
ferent aspects of the question. There is no 
doubt that AIVF should continue to col- 
laborate and cooperate with other groups on 
lobbying issues in Congress. We must assume 
that other groups interested in preserving and 
expanding laws which AIVF supports are 
groups we want to associate with and 
strengthen our ties with (re: D. Halleck's 
statement). However, were AIVF Board 
members to decide to support political issues 
which are not directly related to our lobbying 
interests and independent filmmakers, they 
run the risk of creating a rift in our "union." 
I am not opposed to taking these positions, 
but I strongly believe that this can only be 
done by a full membership vote on the par- 
ticular issue. This would provide a truer 
reading of those issues which should and 
should not be supported. Jacki Ochs 

Human Arts Association/Executive Director 

Integrity! Please 

The following AIVF statement of policy, 
produced in conjunction with FIVF's forum 
Clearing the Air: Independent Documen- 
taries on Public TV, concerns the increasing- 
ly fragile position independents are being 
forced to occupy within an increasingly 
fragile public system. 

The Association of Independent Video and 
Filmmakers (AIVF) is committed to protect- 
ing and promoting freedom of expression 
for independent film and video producers, 
and the right of the public to receive the 
broadest possible range of information and 
opinion. We have, therefore, been deeply 
concerned by several recent incidents which 
threaten to undermine the independence of 
the media: 

• The Chairman of the National Endow- 
ment for the Humanities (NEH), William J. 
Bennett, recently attacked as "unabashed 
socialist-realism propaganda" an indepen- 
dent documentary on the new regime in 
Nicaragua (From the Ashes. ..Nicaragua), 
aired over the Public Broadcasting Service 
(PBS). Bennett stated that the project should 
not have received federal funds, and that had 
he reviewed the proposal he would have 
vetoed it, notwithstanding its selection by a 
peer review panel. 

The integrity of the panel review process 
has come under more flagrant attack from 
other quarters: the US Department of 
Agriculture, according to a recent item in 
Science magazine (May 7, 1982), has begun 
performing FBI security checks on scientists 
nominated to serve on peer review panels, 
and is screening them for their political views. 

• Congress, at the urging of the Ad- 
ministration, has rescinded public television 
appropriations that were approved several 
years ago according to a "forward funding" 
procedure specifically designed to insulate 



PRINCIPLES ft RESOLUTIONS 
OF THE ASSOCIATION 



AIVF FOUNDING PRINCIPLES 

1. The Association is a service organi- 
zation of and for independent video 
and filmmakers. 

2. The Association encourages excel- 
lence, commitment and independence; 
it stands for the principle that video and 
filmmaking is more than just a job — 
that it goes beyond economics to in- 
volve the expression of broad human 
values. 

3. The Association works, through the 
combined effort of the membership, to 
provide practical, informational and 
moral support for independent video 
and filmmakers and is dedicated to en- 
suring the survival and providing sup- 
port for the continuing growth of in- 
dependent video and filmmaking. 

4. The Association does not limit its 
support to one genre, ideology or 
aesthetic, but furthers diversity of vi- 
sion in artistic and social consciousness. 

5. The Association champions indepen- 
dent video and film as valuable and 
vital expressions of our culture and is 
determined, by mutual action, to open 
pathways toward exhibition of this 
work to the community at large. 



AIVF RESOLUTIONS 

1. To affirm the creative use of media 
in fostering cooperation, community & 
justice in human relationships without 
respect to age, sex, race, class or 
religion. 

2. To recognize and reaffirm the 
freedom of expression of the indepen- 
dent film and videomaker, as spelled 
out in the AIVF principles. 

3. To promote constructive dialogue 
and heightened awareness among the 
membership of the social, artistic and 
personal choices involved in the pursuit 
of both independent and sponsored 
work, via such mechanisms as screen- 
ings and forums. 

4. To continue to work to strengthen 
AIVFs services to independents, in 
order to help reduce the membership's 
dependence on the kinds of sponsorship 
which encourage the compromise of 
personal values. 



26 



THE INDEPENDENT 



the system from political pressures. 

• PBS has recently requested editorial 
changes in, or rescheduled, potentially con- 
troversial programs rather than risk offend- 
ing its government and corporate funders. 

• Ranking Republican in the House 
Telecommunications Subcommittee James 
M. Collins was recently quoted as suggesting 
that perhaps documentaries should not be 
aired on public television at all. 

Taken together, these incidents are symp- 
tomatic of new and dangerous levels of 
government pressure on the arts, the 
humanities and independent media. These 
pressures intimidate individuals and institu- 
tions involved with independent productions 



which ao not conform to the ideology of the 
current Administration, thereby encouraging 
self-censorship. 

We oppose any efforts— direct or in- 
direct — to inhibit funding and dissemination 
of diverse opinions, or to punish those who 
seek to introduce controversial viewpoints to 
a national audience. While we consider the 
use of taxpayer dollars to support the arts 
and humanities necessary and appropriate, 
we firmly oppose government control of the 
content of the funded arts and humanities. 
We call for a policy of non-interference to 
preserve the integrity of work selected and 
funded. 



FESTIVALS 



FESTIVALS has been compiled by Wendy Udell, Marina Obsatz and 
Richard Schmiechen with the help of Gadney's Guides and the FIVF 
files. Listings do not constitute an endorsement, and since some 
details change faster than we do, we recommend that you contact the 
festival for further information before sending your prints or tapes. Ap- 
plication forms for some festivals are available to members on request 
from the FIVF office. If your experience with a particular festival differs 
from our account, please let us know so we can improve our reliability. 



Domestic 

• CHICAGO INTERNATIONAL FILM 
FESTIVAL, November, showcases an unlikely 
cross-section of films spanning European "art cir- 
cuit" features, US independent documentaries and 
features, short subjects, animation, TV commer- 
cials, Hollywood blockbusters and network TV 
productions. Not a single American winner in the 
1981 feature film competition, although US indies 
did well in other categories. Entry fees are relative- 
ly high, ranging from $50 for films under 12 min. 
to $100 for features. No fee for "invited" films, 
and last year the festival was persuaded to refund 
the fee for one American independent whose 
feature was not selected. The competitions award 
Gold, Silver and Bronze Hugos, plaques and cer- 
tificates of merit, and a few special cash prizes too. 
The press is also good, and Benni Korzen, pro- 
ducer of 35mm indie feature, Rent Control, 
reported at least eight requests from foreign 
distributors after good Variety reviews. Deadline: 
Sept. Contact: Michael J. Kutza, Director, 415 
North Dearborn, Chicago IL 60610; (312) 
644-3400. 

• CINEMAGIC SVA SHORT FILM SEARCH, 
autumn, was established two years ago by Starlog 
magazine. It's a science fiction and horror fantasy 
festival whose primary interest is in revealing new 
filmmaking talent. Sponsored by CineMagic and 
the School of Visual Arts, the festival accepts 
16mm and Super-8 films, 15 min. maximum. Total 
of $2100 in cash prizes awarded to eight winning 
films on basis of overall technique, creativity and 
impact. Deadline: Aug. Entry fee: $10. Sponsor 
pays return postage. Contact: CineMagic 
Magazine, John Clayton, Managing Editor, 475 
Park Ave. South, NY NY 10016; (212) 689-2830. 

• INDEPENDENT DOCUMENTARY 
FORUM, October, sponsored by the Columbia 

26 




Atomic bomb test in Richard Schmiechen's 
"Nick Mazzuco: Biography of an Atomic Vet" 

University Graduate School of Journalism, invites 
film &/or videomakers to participate. Contact: 
Tammis Chandler, (212) 280-4363. 

• INTERNATIONAL FILM AND TV 
FESTIVAL OF NEW YORK, November. Another 
festival where you pay your money, take your 
prize and hang it on your wall to impress potential 
clients who don't know any better. The fees are 
very high, but try it, it might work. For complete 
report see Ralph Arlyck's review in April Indepen- 



dent. Entry: Sept. Contact: Gerald M. Goldberg, 
President, 251 West 57 St., NY NY 10019; (212) 
246-5133. 

• INTERNATIONAL SKI FILM FESTIVAL, 
September, promotes & encourages the production 
of ski films. Opportunities for exposure to ski 
writers, sports magazine writers and media people 
in general. Estimated 40 entrants from various 
countries. The event is held at Magno Review 
Theater in New York City, and operates as a 
traveling exhibition at national ski shows. Films 
should be submitted in 16 or 35mm, no longer than 
60 min. and should not have been previously 
shown publicly. General categories covered: 
Special Skiing, Ski & Equipment, Race & Com- 
petition, Instruction-Technique. Plaques given to 1 
winner from each category. Fee: approx. $100. 
Deadline: first week in September. Contact: Jerry 
Simon Associates, Nancy Rogers, Production 
Coordinator, 1619 Third Ave., Suite 201, NY NY 
10028; (212)831-7501. 

• SAN FRANCISCO INTERNATIONAL 
VIDEO FESTIVAL, October, is a citywide 
celebration of the best in current video trends. 
Although it bills itself as an international festival, 
the representation has heretofore been overwhelm- 
ingly American. Cash awards are granted, and a 
traveling show of the "best of" is planned. A 
pioneer in exhibition styles, formats used include 
Broadcast, Cabaret, Theatre and Gallery. Entries 
must be in 3 A " regardless of original format, and 
accompanied by a $12 fee. All selected tapes will 
receive a $100 honorarium. Enter by Aug. 1. Con- 
tact: Stephen Agetstein, Director, SFIVF, 229 
Cortland, San Francisco CA 94110; (415) 
641-9207. 

• SOCIETY OF AMATEUR CINEMA- 
TOGRAPHERS INTERNATIONAL AMATEUR 
FILM FESTIVAL, September, restricts entry to 
"amateurs." Established since 1968, festival pro- 
motes all aspects of cinematographic art. 220 peo- 
ple expected to attend the event, which is held dur- 
ing SAC convention. Out of about 40 entries, ap- 
prox. six finalists win awards. Contest accepts 16, 
Super-8 and 8mm, 30-min. maximum, any subject. 
Entry fee: $3/film, SAC members; $5/non- 
members. Entrant pays postage. Deadline: Aug. 
Contact: Emil Bilisko, Chairman, 1508 West Erie 
St., Chicago IL 60622. 

• SPORT DIVER UNDERWATER PHOTO- 
GRAPHIC COMPETITION, HELD January 
through August, is for amateur filmmakers only. 
Sponsored by Sport Diver magazine, the festival 
estimates 2000 entries; 5 films win awards. Films 
are chosen on the basis of technique; story, com- 
position, lighting and overall quality are taken into 
account. No entry fee; entrant pays return 
postage. Forms available"in Sport Diver magazine. 
Deadline: Aug. Contact: Sport Diver Magazine, 1 
Park Ave., NY NY 10016; (212) 725-3475. 

• TRAINING FILM FESTIVAL, December, ac- 
cepts films that deal with management and 
employee development. Corporate trainers attend 
the event, sponsored by Olympic Media Informa- 
tion and Training magazine. The festival expects to 
receive about 60 entries from 30 filmmakers, in 
16mm with a 60-min. maximum. No awards; all 
films are published in a festival program guide. 
Entry fee: $7/min. of running time (fee returned if 
film not accepted). A sampling of categories are: 
Leadership Skills, Free Enterprise, Employee 

JULY AUGUST 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



Development, Personal Productivity, Manage- 
ment Development. Deadline: Sept. Contact: 
Olympic Media Information, 70 Hudson St., 
Hoboken NJ; (201) 963-1600. 

• CHARLES GREEN CENTER FOR FILM 
ARTS extends invitation to filmmakers w/ 
30-min. Super-8/16mm films to 11th Open Screen 
Film Festival, July 16. Audience will select 3 best 
films. First prize winner eligible for First Grand 
Prize Film Festival in Oct. Send $1, prepaid 
postage & insurance w/ films to: Charles Green 
Center for Film Arts, 58 East 3 St., NY NY 10003; 
(212) 260-2123. 

• CLEVELAND INSTRUCTIONAL FILM 
FESTIVAL, October 8, brings together curriculum 
directors and media specialists to view new 
curriculum-related 16mm films and evaluate them 
for classroom use. Looking for best possible 
visualization of concepts significant to teachers 
and students. Categories cover most subjects 
studied in grades K-12. Entries must have been 
produced in 1981-82. Fee: $20. Deadline: Sept. 10. 
Contact: Thomas A. Valenti, Center Director, or 
Jan Herron, MCERC, 4300 Brookpark Road, 
Cleveland OH 44134, (216) 398-2800, ext. 225, 
226,248. ■ 



No Go Video? 

Many festivals are beginning to accept 
videotape, although our most recent informa- 
tion may not reflect this. If a particular 
festival seems appropriate for your tape, you 
should call them and ask if they will accept 
video. If they don 't, encourage them to start. 
Enough requests may begin to influence their 
policy! 




Foreign 



• BANFF INTERNATIONAL FESTIVAL OF 
FILMS FOR TELEVISION, Aug. 15-21, ranks 
with MIP-TV and MIFED as one of the most im- 
portant TV festivals in the world. A high-budget 
affair, funded in part by $150,000 from the Bank 
of Montreal and $200,000 from the Alberta 
government. Entries must have been broadcast 
during the previous year, and prizes of $1,000 to 
$5,000 are awarded. Deadline: July. Fee: $50. 
Contact: Carrie L. Hunter, Director, Banff Cen- 
tre, PO Box 1020, Banff, Alberta, Canada TOL 
OCO; (403)762-3391. 

• BARCELONA INTERNATIONAL CINEMA 
WEEK, October, stresses communication through 
television and cinema and encourages new ideas in 
cooperation between the two media. Festival 
receives 35-40 entries from 10-18 countries at its 
week-long event. Short, Documentary, Television, 
Experimental and Dramatic films in 16 and 35mm 
are accepted. Medals are awarded to a film or 
films from each category (preference given to 
European premieres). No entry fee; entrant pays 
postage. Deadline: Sept. Contact: Association for 
the Promotion of Cinema and Television 
(APROCIT), Jose Luis Gaurner, Director, 
Avenida Maria Christina s/N, Palacio No. 1, 
Barcelona 4, Spain; Tel: 223-31-01. 

• CINANIMA INTERNATIONAL 
ANIMATED FILM FESTIVAL, November, held 
in Portugal for five days. Presents international 
animation productions. Sponsored by the Por- 
tugese Film Institute and recognized by ASIFA 
and FICC, the contest expects to draw 160 entries 
from 28 countries. Awards given for best film 
from each category covered. Included: Feature 
Film, Publicity, Informative, Student, Youth, 
Didactic, Children. No entry fee; entrant pays 
postage. Deadline: Sept. Contact: NASCENTE, 
Alvaro Ferreira, PO Box 43, 4505 Esphinho 
Codex, Portugal; Tel: (02) 92-16-21. 

• COMPETITION FOR SHORT FILMS ON 
JAPAN, October. Held in Tokyo for one week, 

JUL Y AUGUST 1 982 




Above: Errol Morris' "Gates of Heaven." Below, 
Tom Sigel & Pam Yates "Resurgence: The 
Movement for Equality Vs. the KKK" 

this festival accepts films about Japan in 35 or 
I6mm, 60-min. maximum. Two entries permitted 
per entrant per category. Categories: Films dealing 
with Japan, Japanese people, culture, arts, other, 
Japanese science, industry, economy. No entry 
fee; entrants pay postage. Deadline: Sept. Con- 
tact: Association for the Diffusion of Japanese 
Films Abroad (UniJapan Film), Toyoharu 
Kuroda, Managing Director, 9-13 Ginza 5- Chuo- 
ku, Tokyo 104, Japan; Tel: (03) 572-5106. 

• DEAUVILLE EUROPEAN FESTIVAL OF 
AMERICAN FILM, September, was established 
in 1975 to heighten European awareness of 
American cinema, both commercial and indepen- 
dent. This year for the first time they will be show- 
ing French films as well; in response, some say, to 
French criticism of market saturation by American 
product. Also planned for this fall is a retrospec- 
tive tribute to filmmaker Mervyn LeRoy. Held an- 
nually in the haute-bourgeois seaside resort of 
Deauville upon the closing of the town's race 
track, the value of the festival has become a sub- 



ject of debate among filmmakers. The selections 
tend toward the big-budget entertainment film, 
although official categories include both anima- 
tion and documentary. Some say Deauville has 
become little more than a fancy vacation spot with 
few prospects for sales, and lost prints have also 
been reported. The major press does attend, 
however. Features in 16 and 35mm, unreleased on 
the European mainland, accepted, provided they 
have shown at no other French festivals. No com- 
petition or entry fee. Entrant pays postage. 
Deadline: early August. Contact: Ruda Dauphin, 
401 East 80 St., #28H, NY NY 10021, (212) 
737-5040; or Lionel Couchan/Martine Jouando, 
Promo 2000, 33 Avenue MacMahon, 75017 Paris, 
France. 

• FIGUEIRA DA FOZ INTERNATIONAL 
CINEMA FESTIVAL, September. Tenth annual 
competition's purpose is to promote "young inter- 
national progressive" films, and it expects over 90 
entries from which 7 winners are selected. 
Categories include Feature Fiction, Long 
Documentary and For Children. No entry fee; en- 
trant pays all postage. Deadline: Aug. Contact: 
Centro de Esudos e Animacao Cultural (CEAC), 
Jose Vieira Marques, Director, Rua Castilho 61-2, 
Dt., 1200 Lisbon, Portugal; Tel: 576952. 

• INTERNATIONAL FESTIVAL OF NEW 
SUPERS CINEMA, October, gives exposure to 
independent films that demonstrate new ideas of 
art expression in Super-8. Sponsored by Latin 
Touch and the Venezuelan government, the 
festival expects 9000 to attend the 9-day event, 
which according to past statistics estimates 300 en- 
tries from 25 different countries. Awards of ap- 
proximately $1200 each will go the the three best 
films. Winners may show their films on TV if 
desired. Selections are made on the basis of form 
and content, language and technical aspects. No 
entry fee; entrants pay $10 for return postage. 
Deadline: Aug. Contact: Latin Touch, Julio Neri, 
Director, Ave. Rio de Janeiro, Edif. Lorenal B, 
Apto. 52, Chuao, Caracas, Venezuela; Tel: 
91-89-85. 

• INTERNATIONAL HOFER FILMDAYS, 
October, invites entries in order to show new US 
and European independent cinema. Festival 
estimates 13,000 in attendance. Independent 
feature films are accepted in 35 and 16mm in any 
length; no awards are given, but films get exposure 
to large European audience. No entry fee; 
deadline: Sept. Contact: Hof Cine Center e.V., 
Heinz Badewitz, Director, Postbox 1146, D-8670 
Hof, West Germany (FRG); Tel: (89) 19-74-22. 

• LEIPZIG INTERNATIONAL FILM 
FESTIVAL, November, is a week-long festival 
organized to showcase documentary films from all 
over the world — over 180 at last year's festival. 
American films last year included Pam Yates and 
Tom Sigel 's Resurgence, Green Mountain Post 



GROUP SHIPMENTS 

If three or more film/videomakers plan 

to enter the same foreign festival, 

FIVF can arrange a group shipment, 

thereby saving you money! What you 

must do is drop us a note telling us 

what festival you are planning to enter, 

and if we get enough interest in one, 

we will call you. 



27 



FIVF FESTIVAL BUREAU 




We need your assistance to monitor 
festivals accurately and keep producers 
apprised of the most up-to-date 
developments in this quickly changing 
area. 

Use this checklist to evaluate each 
festival you enter, and write us with your 
responses. Both good and bad impres- 
sions or experiences are valuable in 
tracking a festival's performance. 

The Festival Bureau's effectiveness 
depends on your participation. Thanks! 

1. Was the selection process fair? If 
not, how was it unfair? The rate struc- 
ture? 

2. How accessible/inpenetrable/helpful 
was the festival's office and staff? 

3. How was your print/tape handled? 
Was it returned promptly? Damaged? 

4. Was the festival well attended by: 

• critics/press people? 

• the public? 

• buyers (exhibitors, distributors, 
TV programmers)? 

5. Did you get enough press? Sufficient 
exposure? Did you make any sales? 

6. How was the festival set up to en- 
courage or discourage these results? 

• Were press conferences held? 

• Were exhibitions conveniently 
scheduled and located? 

• Was there sufficient publicity? 

• Were private screenings pos- 
sible? 

7. What was the best thing about the 
festival? 

e.What was the worst thing about the 
festival? 

9. Did you have a good time if you went? 

10. Did the festival live up to its pro- 
mises? Was it worth entering? 

Send your reports to: 

FIVF, 625 Broadway, 9th floor, New 

York NY 10012, or call: (212) 473-3400 



THE INDEPENDENT 



Films' Ecocide: A Strategy of War, Glenn Silber's 
El Salvador: Another Vietnam?, Manny Kir- 
chheimer's Stations of the Elevated and Richard 
Schmiechen's Nick Mazzuco: Biography of an 
Atomic Vet. A retrospective of the early works of 
Leo Seltzer and Leo Hurwitz, sponsored by the 
East German Film Archive, ran concurrently. 

The festival is well organized by Director 
Ronald Trisch, including a large marketplace with 
buyers from Eastern European countries, and also 
TV buyers and progressive distributors from 
Western European countries and Australia. 
American films are generally well-received. This 
past year El Salvador won the Golden Eagle, the 
festival's top prize. Films about Third World 
struggles, and those which address the theme 
"Peace for the World", are of particular interest. 

Filmmaker Richard Schmiechen will be pre- 
selecting and organizing shipping this year. There 
is no festival entry fee, but a fee of $60/ AIVF 
members or $70/non-members must be enclosed 
with your film to cover shipping to Leipzig. Films 
which are not pre-selected will be returned COD 
with voided checks. Films must also be accom- 
panied by a transcript and any promotional 
materials. Send films, fee, and publicity no later 
than September 1 to Richard Schmiechen, c/o 
AIVF, 625 Broadway, 9th fl., NY NY 10012. Info: 
(212) 691-7497.— R.S. 

• LONDON INTERNATIONAL FILM 
FESTIVAL, November 11-28. This major Euro- 
pean festival has been especially receptive to 
American independents over the years. They spon- 
sored a forum on us in 1980, and included over 20 
American independent films in the 1981 program. 
Festival categories include British, New Directors, 
US Independents, Controversy, For Children, 
Thrillers and Animation. In 1981 there were also 
special sections for jazz, Asian and Latin 
American films. This is primarily a features 
festival, although some documentaries and shorts 
are included. 

Last year's, festival attendance topped 70,000, 
including Prince Charles and Princess Diana, who 
conferred upon Nebraska-born Festival Director 
Ken Wlaschin the honorary title of Member of the 
Order of the British Empire. 1981 also saw a dozen 
films from the festival tour of the provinces, spon- 
sored by a grant from the new Channel 4 TV. 

Director Wlaschin will be traveling through 
Boston and New York in early July, although he 
says many American films have already been 
selected. These include Peter Davis' Family 
Business (from the Middletown series), Purple 
Haze and new films by Barbara Kopple and Les 
Blank. Contact may be made by calling Victoria 
Tarlow at (212) 243-0152. Wlaschin or his 
associates routinely scout festivals like Los 
Angeles, Venice and Edinburgh for entries, though 
the official entry deadline is Aug. 15. Contact: Ken 
Wlaschin, Director, National Film Theatre, South 
Bank, London SE 1, England SE1 8XT; (01) 
928-3842. 

• MANNHEIM INTERNATIONAL FILM 
WEEK, October 4-9. Selections for the 31st annual 
Mannheim Film Festival will be made by Festival 
Director Fee Vaillant, Mira Liehm and Penny 
Bernstein. They are looking for short fiction, 
social-political documentaries and first dramatic 
features in 16 and 35mm completed since January 
1981. American documentaries often do well at 
Mannheim, winning a number of the substantial 
cash prizes awarded annually. Last year's selec- 
tions included The Life and Times of Rosie the 
Riveter by Connie Field, The Dozens by Randall 




28 



National pride or guilt? Propaganda from Connie 
Field's "Rosie the Riveter" 

Conrad and Christine Dall, Ecocide: A Strategy of 
War by Dr. E. W. Pfeiffer, The Case of the Legless 
Veteran by Howard Petrick and Resurgence: The 
New Civil Rights Movement and the Rise of the 
KKK by Tom Sigel and Pam Yates. Resurgence 
took second prize in the documentary category. 

A number of TV sales have reportedly been 
made pursuant to screenings at Mannheim. The 
festival covers the cost of overseas shipment, and 
filmmakers are invited to be guests of the festival. 
Submissions to Penny Bernstein, New Time Films, 
132 West 31 St., 2nd fl., NY NY 10001 by July 23. 
Film cases should be marked with film title, ship- 
per's name and address and the insurance value. 
Entries should be accompanied by a synopsis, ma- 
jor credits, completion date, running time, length, 
press material and an entry fee for handling and 
return postage: Up to 60 min. — $10; over 60 min. 
—$15. Info: Penny Bernstein, (212) 695-2542 or 
929-0022. 

• MANNHEIM INTERNATIONAL YOUTH 
FILM CONTEST, October, takes place annually 
during the Mannheim International Film Week at 
National Theater in Mannheim. Competitive 
festival covers films specifically for and about 
children, teenagers and young people in general. 
Special attention is given to films dealing with 
youth problems of a political and social nature 
pertaining to that particular country. Categories 
include: Animation, Documentary, Experimental, 
Youth Problems, Agitations and Other. Cer- 
tificates are given to all films shown. Films ac- 
cepted in 35 and 16mm. No entry fee. Deadline: 
Sept. Contact: Reiner Keller, Organizer, Stadt 
Mannheim, Rathaus E-5, D-6800 Mannheim 1, 
West Germany (FRG); Tel: 0241-82920. 

• MONTREAL INTERNATIONAL FESTIVAL 
OF NEW CINEMA, held in autumn, was 
established as a showcase for the latest in indepen- 
dent films reflecting current social, artistic and 
cultural themes. Although smaller than the Mon- 
treal World or the Toronto Festival of Festivals, 

JULY AUGUST 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



the fest is popular with its participants who last 
year included Marguerite Duras, Amos Poe, Eric 
Mitchell, Marcel Hanoun, Bulle Ogier, Ed Harker 
and Sara Driver. Driver, whose film You Are Not I 
received excellent reviews in the Canadian press, 
said she received numerous requests from univer- 
sities and distributors as a result. The organizer of 
the festival, Cinema Parallel, is itself a distributor 
and is said to be very helpful and cooperative in 
spreading the word about participating films. 
Films in 16mm, made not more than two years 
ago, are accepted and judged by a selection com- 
mittee. All films shown receive a Certificate of 
Participation; prizes are given by various cultural 
organizations and/or juries. No entry fee required; 
entrants pay all postage. Deadline: Aug. 15. Con- 
tact: Cinema Parallel-Independent Cineastes 
Cooperative, Claude Chamberlan, Dimitri 
Eipides, 3684 Boul. St. Laurent, Montreal, 
Quebec H2X 2V4 Canada; Tel: (514) 843-4711. 

• NYON INTERNATIONAL FILM 
FESTIVAL, October, is almost exclusively 
devoted to documentaries in 16 and 35mm on 
social and political themes, but with due attention 
to psychological, cultural and religious themes, in- 
sofar as they illuminate the human condition. 
Documentaries of any length are accepted. 

In addition to the international competition, 
Nyon's Information screenings will include 
documentaries of special interest as well as a 
special retrospective salute to the films of the 
French Front Populaire of the mid- 1930s. Last 
year, US juror Robert Drew was honored with a 
week-long retrospective of his cinema-verite films 
of the 1960s. American films usually do well at 
Nyon and have won many prizes over the years, in- 
cluding the festival's Grand Prix to John Lowen- 
thal's The Trials of Alger Hiss in 1980. 

Swiss media professionals, European journalists 
and commercial people attend the festival. Televi- 
sion and theatrical buyers who wish to contact the 
producers will be provided with the documentation 
supplied on the entry forms. Producers are en- 
couraged to supply the festival with the maximum 
amount of publicity materials: photographs, 
biographies, reviews, synopses, etc. Also, an 
English transcript of significant passages of the 
sound track is useful. 

The director of Nyon, Erika de Hadeln, is ex- 
pected to make selections in New York sometime 
in August and will probably be accompanied by 
her husband Moritz de Hadeln, co-director of the 
Berlin festival. Both can be contacted through 
Gordon Hitchens, 214 West 85 St., #3-W, NY NY 
10024, (212) 877-6856, who can provide more in- 
formation and entry forms. No entry fees; festival 
provides round-trip air freight for participating 
films. Direct entries due in Switzerland by Sept. 
Contact: Erika de Hadeln, PO Box 98, CH-1260 
Nyon, Switzerland. (022) 61-60-60. 

• PARIS INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE FIC- 
TION AND FILMS FESTIVAL, November. Films 
should be submitted in 35mm only and should not 
have been released commercially in France. Con- 
test includes: Horror, Science Fiction, Fantasy 
Feature; prizes awarded. Winning filmmakers may 
have opportunity to sell and distribute in Europe. 
Deadline: Sept. Contact: Association Ecran Fan- 
tastique, Alain Schlockoff, Director, 9 Rue du 
Midi, 92200 Neuilly, France; Tel: 624-04-71. 

• PRIX ITALIA FESTIVAL, held September 21 
through October 3, has been established since 
1948. Open only to member radio and television 
organizations of Prix Italia, the festival is aimed 
JULY AUGUST 1902 



toward experts in the field, broadcasters from 
member organizations and specialized press. Judg- 
ing is conducted by juries that are also comprised 
of members. Format accepted is VTR 2" (PAL, 
SEC AM, NTSC) with an entry fee of 1,500 Swiss 
francs. Deadline for submission of entries: Aug. 
24. Contact: Dr. Alvise Zorz, Secretary General, 
c/o Radiotelevisione Italia, Viale Mazzine 14, 
00195 Rome, Italy; Tel: 06-3686. 

• SALERNO INTERNATIONAL FILM 
FESTIVAL, October, was established in 1946. The 
festival's Feature and Documentary contest ac- 
cepts films in 35mm in the categories of First 
Feature by New Director, Documentary and Film 
Music. In addition, the festival accepts 16, Super-8 
and 8mm films that cover such subjects as Short, 
Educational, Television, Animated, Medical- 
Surgical, Women and Experimental. Prizes and 
trophies awarded. Fees from 6,000 to 50,000 lira. 
Entrant pays postage. Deadline: Contact: Dr. Ig- 
nazio Rossi, President, Casella Postale 137, 84100 
Salerno, Italy; Tel: 089-251953. Second contact: 
Via F.P. Volpe (ex via Nizza), N. 29, Salerno, Italy. 

• VIENNA LE INTERNATIONAL FILM 
FESTIVAL, held Oct. 29 through Nov. 8, shows 
films that the selection committee feels 
demonstrate artistic progress and creativity. Ac- 
cepts long and/or short films from 16-70mm. 
Films for the selection process may also be sent on 
videotape. Entrants pay postage. Applications due 
Aug. 15. Contact: Viennale 1982, Kunstlerhaus, 
Karlsplatz 5, 1010 Vienna, Austria; Telefon: 65 98 
23. ■ 



HAVEN'T YOU JOINED YET? 

AIVF membership brings you services, 

health insurance, 10 issues ol The Independent, 

and a voice in Washington. $25/year. 

AIVF, 625 Broadway, NYC NY 10012. (212) 473-3400 



HEALTH INSURANCE 

FOR AIVF MEMBERS 

• 

AIVF now offers its members an excellent 

Group Life & Medical Insurance Plan. 

Highlights include: 

• $1,000,000 Major Medical Plan, which 
pays 85% of all eligible expenses not 

covered by the Basic Plan 

• $10,000 Group Life and $10,000 Group 
Accidental Death or Dismemberment 

Insurance 
• Partial psychiatric coverage 

• Reimbursement for illness, injury & 

hospital expenses 

• 

If you are a member, write: 

AIVF Health Plan, TEIGIT, 551 Fifth Ave., 

New York, NY 10017. If you're not, call 

AIVF at 473-3400 and ask for free 
membership & health plan brochures. 



NOTICES 



NOTICES are listed free of charge. AIVF members receive first priority; 
others included as space permits. Send notices to The Independent c/o 
FIVF, 625 Broadway, 9th Floor, New York NY 10012. For further info, call 
(212) 473-3400. Deadline: 15th of second preceding month (e.g. July 15 
for September). Edited by Odessa Flores. 



Buy •Rent •Sell 



m FOR SALE: Sony DXC-1800 Saticon tube col- 
or camera, 350 line resolution, 6-to-l power zoom 
lens. W/ case, batt. adaptor, cable for Sony 
VO-4800, elect view. Good condition, $2500. Con- 
tact: University Community Video, (612) 
376-3333. 

• FOR SALE: RCA 460 16mm sound projector. 
Excellent condition, $200 or best offer. Contact: 
Laura, (212)677-3291. 

• FOR SALE: Sony 2610 Va" VTR playback 
machine. Excellent condition, used very rarely. 
$1400 or best offer. Contact: Betsy Combier, (212) 
794-8902. 

• FOR SALE: Eclair NPR-3309, Alcan motor, 
Ang. orientable finder, 12-120, 2 mags, 2 battery 
belts, many filters, cases & accessories. All ex- 
cellent condition, $8000. Also brand-new Cartoni 
7x7 tripod, $2000. Contact: Morris Flam, (212) 
875-3090. 

• FOR SALE: JVC KY-2000B 3-tube video 



camera w/ molded carrying case, fluid head 
tripod, battery, AC unit, power zoom lens, VTR 
cable. All mint condition, $6350 including ship- 
ping. Contact: (212) 732-1725. 

• WANTED: Sony or Uher 5" reel portable 
recorder. Contact: Dan Klugherz, (212) 595-0058. 

• FOR SALE: Sennheiser microphone 12 volts, 
Canon XLR for Nagra, Lavalier condenser, 
MH-125 pre-amp power supply & capsule, MK-12 
omnidirectional. Best offer over $450. Also, Uher 
tape recorder for reporter or steno, 2-track stereo 
w/ power supply, rechargeable battery, leather 
bag, Uher M1517 mic. Perfect condition, $600. 
Contact: Jerry Gambone, (212) 460-8575, leave 
message. 

• FOR SALE: 2 6-plate 16mm Steenbecks. Mint 
condition. Contact: Cinetudes Film Productions, 
(212) 966-4600. 

• FOR RENT: Acme optical printer w/ 
operator. Freeze-frames, step-printing, split- 
screens, mattes (moving & fixed), duplication, 
reverse motion, blue-screens, enlargements & re- 
framing. Good & flexible rates. Contact: (212) 
431-3170. 

29 



THE INDEPENDENT 



• FOR RENT: Complete production equipment 
& personnel for documentary & feature film pro- 
jects. W/ Aaton 16mm or Super-16 camera & 
Nagra, mag transfers, Steenbeck 6-plate editing 
table. Contact: Michael Hall, (212) 242-5217. 

• FOR SALE: CP-16R body, viewfinder, 4 
magazines, 2 batteries & chargers. Mint condition, 
$4900. Contact: Michael Hall, (212) 242-5217 or 
(203) 261-0615. 



Courses • Workshops 

• HOW-TO COURSES w/ legal emphasis of- 
fered in (I) low-budget feature film production, 
budgeting, shooting, editing & distribution; (2) 
production & marketing of low-budget programs 
for cable TV; (3) how to conceive, develop & sell a 
video game idea. Also 90-hour Contracts course, 
taught at law-school level using law-school 
casebook. Excellent for producers & businessper- 
sons. Licensed by NYS Education Dept. Contact: 
New York Film Institute, 132 Nassau St., NY NY 
10038, (212) 964-4706. 

• YF/VA offers following workshops: 
Choreography & the Camera, 3-part workshop for 
dancers, choreographers & performers explores 
movement interaction between video camera & 
performer, Aug. 20-22; Basic Portable Video Pro- 
duction, intro course in all aspects of in-the-field 
production, $270, July 6; 3 A" Videocassette 
Editing, intensive weekend devoted to editing 
theory & technique, limited to 8, $200. Contact: 
YF/VA, 4 Rivington St., NY NY 10002, (212) 
673-9361. 



Editing 



• UPPER WEST SIDE fully equipped cutting 
room w/ 6-plate Steenbeck, 24-hr. access 
available. Very good rates. Contact: J. Barrios, 
(212) 865-5628. 

• AVAILABLE: 6-plate Steenbeck w/office 
space in Midtown. Reasonable rates. Call: (212) 
226-1275. 

• FULLY EQUIPPED rooms for 16/35mm 
editing & postproduction available. Video editing, 
sound transfers, narration recording, extensive 
sound effects library, interlock screening. Contact: 
Cinetudes Film Productions, 295 West 4 St., NY 
NY 10014, (212) 966-4600. 

• TEATOWN 3 A" editing system available for 
rental. Fully equipped w/ JVC decks, controllers, 
special effects generator. Provides quality, cost- 
efficient & personalized atmosphere. Rates: 
$50/hr. w/editor; $85/hr. w/editor & special ef- 
fects. Special day & project rates available. 24-hr. 
access, 7-day service upon request. Contact: 
Marlene Hecht, (212) 245-2821. 

• 6-PLATE STEENBECK w/ rewind table, 
Reeves splicer, film bind, synchronizer, hot 
splicer, split reels, film shelves for rent. Available 
24-hrs., $100/wk. & $25/day. Contact: Hart 
Perry, (212)431-3170. 

• FOR RENT: Large, comfortable editing room 
at West 53 St. & Broadway w/ KEM Universal 
8-plate editing machine, private phone, etc. Price 
negotiable. Info: E. Morris Films, (212) 582-4045. 

30 



THE AIVF 1st ANNUAL 

INDEPENDENT 
DIRECTORY 

This INDEPENDENT DIRECTORY will 
provide full listings of AIVF members na- 
tionally: your skills and achievements, your 
productions and credits. Each listing will be 
cross-referenced with handy indexes, mak- 
ing multi-use reference easy and efficient. 
A separate Distributor's index will enable 
programmers to book your tapes and films 
directly, while your skills will be at the 
fingertips of potential employers, for 
technical consulting or production work. 

Over 11,000 copies of the Directory will 
be distributed to fellow AIVF members, pro- 
ducers, programmers, cable operators, 
broadcast station managers, librarians... 

DEADLINE FOR LISTINGS: July 15, 1982 
DEADLINE FOR ADVERTISING: June 30, 1982 
PUBLICATION DATE: September, 1982 

All members and new members have 
been sent a brief questionaire, which will be 
the basis for their listing. If you are a 
member and have not received one yet, 
please write or call AIVF. If you're not a 
member yet, but would like to join and get 
listed, contact us at: 

AIVF MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY 

625 Broadway, 9th floor 

New York, NY 10012 

(212)473-3400 



Films & Tapes Wanted 

• DESIN COMPANY, a newly formed pay-TV 
distributor w/ offices in NY & LA, seeks high- 
quality feature-length motion pictures. Fairly re- 
cent theatrical release a plus, but not mandatory. 
Contact: Joe Carbone, (516) 378-2170 or Mike 
Klubock, (213)467-1827. 

Funds • Resources 

• FOUNDATION FOR COMMUNITY SER- 
VICE CABLE TV solicits proposals from local 
non-profit programming organizations & com- 
munity groups in CA. Available for video projects 
which demonstrate innovative & model use of 
public access, community service & other local 
programming being offered via CATV. Deadline: 
Oct. 15. For applications contact: Kathleen 
Schuler or Evelyn Pine FCSCTV, 5616 Geary 
Blvd., Suite 212, San Francisco CA 94121, (415) 
837-0200. 

• ARTS IN EDUCATION GRANT PROGRAM 
deadline postponed from July 1 to Oct. 1. Pro- 
gram provides matching grants for residencies of 1 
week or more to public & private elementary & 
secondary schools. Interested schools should con- 
tact their local regional arts council. For info con- 
tact: Cindy Olson, Minnesota State Arts Board, 
(612) 297-2603 or toll-free 1-800-652-9747. 

• NEA APPLICATION DEADLINES: AFI In- 
dependent Filmmaker Program, Sept. 1; 
Film/ Video Exhibition, June 1; Film/ Video Pro- 
duction, Sept. 15. Note: Applications for Radio 
Production, Radio Workshops & Residencies & 



Radio Services should be submitted under Radio 
Projects, July 20. For info contact: NEA, 2401 E 
St. NW, Washington DC 20506. 

• CCH GRANT deadlines for funding program 
for media projects to increase public understan- 
ding & appreciation of humanities has been 
established by California Council for the 
Humanities & California Public Broadcasting 
Commission. Deadline: Sept. 30. Applicants 
should discuss project ideas w/ CCH staff first. 
Proposals for Humanities & Public & Community 
Programs due July 31. Contact: CCH, 312 Sutter 
St., San Francisco CA 94108; or CPBC, (916) 
323-3727. 

• VIDEO / FILMMAKER-IN-SCHOOLS 
RESIDENCIES available from Film Study Center. 
Professional filmmakers, animators & 
videographers interested in working within an 
educational setting needed. Short & long-term arts 
residencies involving workshops & classes w/ 
students & teacher. Deadline: June 15. Contact: 
Howard Aaron, Northwest Film Study Center, 
1219 SW Park Ave., Portland OR 97205, (503) 
221-1156. 

• ARTS MANAGEMENT FELLOWSHIP 
PROGRAM accepting applications for 1983 
spring & summer sessions. Spring session begins 
Feb. 7, 1983 w/ application deadline of Sept. 7, 
1982. Summer session begins June 6, 1983 w/ ap- 
plication deadline of Jan. 7. 15 positions available 
in each three-month session for professional train- 
ing for arts administration careers. For guidelines 
& application forms contact: Arts Management 
Fellowship Program, NEA, 2401 E St. NW, 
Washington DC 20506, (202) 634-6380. 

• LATINO/HISPANIC ORGANIZATIONS in- 
vited to submit proposals to operate Minority Pro- 
gramming Consortium. Invitations issued under 
CPB's Minority Consortia Policy, to provide 
financial support for production, acquisition & 
distribution of minority programs for public 
broadcasting. Deadline: July 15. Contact: Tom 
Fuller, Office of Human Resources Development, 
CPB, Washington DC 20036. 

• FUNDING FOR SPONSORS available from 
RISCA's Artist in Education Program, for school 
& community residencies in visual arts, music, 
dance, literature, architecture & media. Sponsors 
apply now for next year funding. Applications by 
artists seeking employment in program accepted 
August. Contact: Jane Mahoney, RISCA, 312 
Wickenden St., Providence RI 02903, (401) 
277-3880. 

• MENTORS, a consultancy program for media 
artists, makes available information for video, 
film & radio producers currently in production or 
postproduction of project who need creative 
assistance w/ solving specific thematic, structural 
or conceptual problems. Student projects under 
aegis of school or university not eligible. Contact: 
YF/VA, (212)673-9361. 

• ROSALIND RUSSELL FILMMAKING 
GRANT for film production sponsored by Filmex 
Society. 60 min. maximum, any sound, profes- 
sional or non-professional. Treatment or script of 
proposed film required. $5000, travel & hotel ac- 
commodations to attend Filmex. Deadline: Sept. 
Contact: Rosalind Russell Filmmaking Grant, 

JULY AUGUST 1962 



THE INDEPENDENT 



Filmex-Los Angeles International Film Exposi- 
tion, 6230 Sunset Blvd. Hollywood CA 90028, 
(213)469-9400. 



In A Out of Production 

• THE LATE GREAT ME: Story of a Teenage 
Alcoholic reflects real-life stories of ever-growing 
number of young people who become trapped by 
dependence on alcohol. Through its main 
character, film addresses questions & brings out 
wide range of issues that need discussion from au- 
dience. Produced by Linda Marmelstein & directed 
by Tony Lover for Daniel Wilson Productions. 
Available in 16mm, $800. Contact: Daniel Wilson 
Productions, 300 West 55 St., NY NY 10019, (212) 
765-7148. 

• SMITHEREENS by Susan Seidelman accepted 
to the main competition of 35th Cannes Film 
Festival. Smithereens is perhaps the first American 
independent film selected to the festival, produced 
on budget of $80,000. Film follows adventures of a 
willful young woman (Susan Berman) trying to 
find a place for herself in Lower Manhattan New 
Wave music scene. Congratulations! 

• WHY AREN'T YOU SMILING? An Organiz- 
ing Tool for Office Workers examines the issues 
facing women working in office — low pay, lack of 
respect & advancement, racism & technological 
changes. Tracing history from 1800s to present, it 
shows how women are organizing to fight these 
grievances. 15 min., available in slide or videotape. 
Contact: Community Media Productions, 325 
Grafton Ave., Dayton OH 45406, (513) 223-8229. 

• PREGNANT BUT EQUAL: The Fight for 
Maternity Benefits records history of fight to pass 
1978 Pregnancy Discrimination Act, focusing on 
organizing efforts of one group of factory 
workers. 24-min. documentary is new release from 
Women's Film Project. Available in 16mm, VHS, 
Betamax & V* " cassette. Contact: Women's Film 
Project, PO Box 19377, Cincinnati OH 45219. 

• TODOS SANTOS CUCHAMATAN, produc- 
ed & directed by Olivia Carrescia, out of produc- 
tion & ready for distribution July-Aug. 40-min. 
documentary focuses on continuity & change in an 
Indian village in highlands of Guatemala. 
Available in 16mm & 3 A" videotape. Will be 
entered in Margaret Mead Film Festival in Oc- 
tober. Contact: Olivia Carrescia, (212) 228-5108. 



Opportunities • Gigs 

• PRODUCTION TEAM, EXPERIENCED in 
film/video, available immediately. Specializing in 
camera, lighting, electronic effects. Reel available. 
Contact: Jon Heap or Trevor Odell, (212) 
222-6553 or 776-0725. 

• PRODUCTION ASSISTANT/RESEARCHER 
w/ documentary experience available for work on 
film/video projects. Call: Jennifer Woolcock, 
(212) 874-0132, evenings. 

• PRODUCTION/EDITING assistant available 
for work on dramatic or documentary films. 
Limited professional experience as grip & assistant 
editor. Dependable worker, willing to relocate. 
Contact: John Hayes, 4065 Utah, St. Louis MO 
63116, (314)772-6819. 

JULY AUGUST 1902 



PLANNING 

TO MO VE? 

It takes 4 to 6 weeks to process changes 

of address, renewals and other changes in 

your mailing status. Don't wait until after 

you have moved to send AIVF your new 

address. Give us as much advance notice 

as possible and include your current mailing 

label, and you'll keep on receiving The 

Independent without interruption 



• FILM STUDENT w/ some experience seeking 
production work. Bilingual in Spanish; available 
any time. Contact: Jorge Nercesian, (201) 
353-0645. 

• ENGLISH COMPOSER w/ experience in 
video sound track composition & recording. 
Dependable & able to meet deadlines. Reasonable 
rates. Contact: David Hakes, (201) 435-7972. 

• VOLUNTEER RESEARCHERS being 
recruited for public television film documentary 
exploring status of women in the US labor force. 
Graduate students w/ strong background in 
history, sociology or economics of women in the 
marketplace, & faculty experts who will be 
available as technical assistants for this project, 
contact: SF Synching-Up Service, 1338 Mission, 
San Francisco CA 94103 or call (415) 566-8073. 

• INDEPENDENT PRODUCER seeks in- 
telligent, meaningful, contemporary stories of any 
length for fall shooting. Prefer existentially- 
inclined material illustrating Angst & conflict in 
modern world. Some pay, good percentage & 
credit provided. Send synopsis to: Ramsey Najm, 
Gotham Filmworks, 425 Riverside Dr., NY NY 
10025, (212) 866-2522, leave message. 

• BARBARA ZIMMERMAN SERVICE clears 
rights for music, film clips, text or pictorial 
material. Will service anything from single music 
license to long-term project. For info contact: Bar- 
bara Zimmerman Rights & Permissions, 145 West 
86 St., NY NY 10024, (212) 580-0615. 

• CINEMATOGRAPHER w/16mm equipment 
& lights available for fiction & documentary work. 
Negotiable package deal. Contact: Al Santana, 
(212) 636-9747. 

• WEST COAST RESEARCHER available for 
film, music & library research. Extensive 
knowledge of Sherman Grinberg Film 
Library/LA, USC & UCLA libraries. Have work- 
ed on docs & features. For info contact: Jeff 
Goodman, 1443 Scott Ave., Los Angeles CA 
90026, (213) 617-0416. 

• UNDERGRADUATE seeks summer intern- 
ship in filmmaking (editing, production etc.). Has 
worked w/ Super-8, video & editing equipment. 
For info contact: Susan Murphy, 43 Elm St., 
Plattsburgh NY 12901. 

• EXPERIENCED camera operator w/ own 
crystal CP-16 camera & car available for documen- 
taries/industrials. Excellent work at reasonable 
rates. Contact: Renato Tonelli, (212) 625-0394. 



Publications 

• AUDIOCRAFT: A Comprehensive Introduc- 
tion to the Tools & Techniques of Audio Produc- 
tion on sale by the National Federation of Comm- 
nity Broadcasters. Production manual for radio 
stations includes 30-page glossary of audio terms. 
$15 each; bulk orders available upon request. Con- 
tact: Betsy Rubinstein, NFCB, 1314 14 St. NW, 
Washington DC 20005, (202) 797-8911. 

• GRANTS INDEX reports on grants given by 
the Foundation Center in 1981. Helps non-profit 
organizations identify foundations by program- 
matic interests as demonstrated by past grant- 
making patterns. Available for $30 from: Founda- 
tion Center, 888 Seventh Ave., NY NY 10106, or 
call toll-free (800) 424-9836. 

• GUIDE TO DISARMAMENT MEDIA 
describes 26 films, videotapes & slide shows useful 
for organizing & educational work on disarma- 
ment. 8-page guide provides lists of related 
resources, distributors & low-cost film libraries, 
plus advice on how to put on a successful program. 
Send $1 to: Media Network, 208 West 13 St., NY 
NY 10011. Bulk orders also available. 



Screenings 



• MOM A presents a 1 -year-long retrospective of 
60 yrs. of filmmaking in Great Britain, British 
Cinema. Scheduled for May '83, British Cinema 
will screen 200 feature-length films & 150 shorts, 
including documentaries & animated films at Roy 
& Niuta Titus Aud. Contact: Alicia Springer, 
MoMA, (212) 956-7289. 



Trims • Glitches 

• NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE 
ARTS Chair Frank Hodsoll announced the follow- 
ing appointments: Hugh Southern, Deputy Chair 
of Programs; Ruth Berenson, Associate Deputy 
Chair for Programs; Anna Steele, Associate Depu- 
ty Chair for Programs; Benny Andrews, Program 
Director of the Visual Arts; Adrian Gnam, Direc- 
tor of Music Program; Kate Moore, Director of 
the Endowment's Office of Policy, Planning & 
Research; Jeffrey Mandell, General Counsel to the 
Chair; Caroline McMullen, Special Assistant to 
the Chair. Contact: Florence Lowe or Kathy 
Christie, NEA, (202) 634-6033. 

• MINNESOTA STATE ARTS BOARD chang- 
ed their address as of May 3 to: 432 Summit 
Avenue, St. Paul MN 55102, (612) 297-2603 or 
toll-free (800) 652-9747. 

• FILM TRANSIT: Jan Rofekamp (Holland) & 
Francine Allaire (Quebec) will be representing 
Dutch independent film/video for distribution in 
North American market. Interested TV & cable 
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THE INDEPENDENT 



THE 

INDEPENDENT 

SEPTEMBER 1982 • VOL. 5, NO. 6 

• 

Publisher: Lawrence Sapadin 

Editor: Kathleen Hulser 

Assistant Editor: Frances M. Piatt 

Contributing Editors: Suyapa Odessa 

Flores, John Greyson, David Leitner, 

Wendy Lidell, Susan Linfield 

Contributors: Nanette Cuccia, Pacho 

Lane, Linda Ann Lopez, Lucinda Mercer 

Gail Silva, Morrie Warshawski 

Designer: Deborah Thomas 

Art Director: John Greyson 

Art Assistant: Deborah Payne 

Advertising Director: Barbara Spence 

Staff Photographer: Sol Rubin 

Typesetting: Skeezo 

Printer: Expedi Printing 

• 

THE INDEPENDENT is published 10 
times yearly by the Foundation for Indepen- 
dent Video and Film, Inc. (FIVE), 625 Broad- 
way, 9th Floor, New York NY 10012, a non- 
profit, tax-exempt service organization 
dedicated to the promotion of independent 
video and film. Publication of The Indepen- 
dent is made possible, in part, with public 
funds from the New York State Council on 
the Arts, and the National Endowment for 
the Arts, a Federal agency. 

Subscription is included with membership 
in the Association of Independent Video and 
Filmmakers, Inc. (AIVF), the trade associa- 
tion sister of FIVF. AIVF is a national 
association of independent producers, direc- 
tors, technicians and supporters of indepen- 
dent video and film. Together, FIVF and 
AIVF provide a broad range of educational 
and professional services and advocacy for 
independents and the general public. 

Articles in. The Independent are con- 
tributed by our members and supporters. If 
you have an idea for, or wish to contribute, 
an article to The Independent, contact the 
Editor at the above address. 

All contents are copyright of the authors 
and The Independent, except when otherwise 
noted, and reprints require written permis- 
sion from both.' ISSN 0731-5198. 
• 

AIVF/FIVF STAFF MEMBERS: Lawrence 
Sapadin, Executive Director; Wendy Lidell, Assis- 
tant Director; John Greyson, Media Coordinator; 
Sol Horwitz, Short Film Showcase Project Ad- 
ministrator; Susan Linfield, Short Film Showcase 
Administrative Assistant; Fran Piatt, Membership 
Developer; Suyapa Odessa Flores, Administrative 
Assistant. 

AIVF/FIVF BOARD OF DIRECTORS: Robert 
Richter, President; William Greaves, Vice President; 
Lillian Jimenez, Chair; Kathy Kline, Secretary; Matt 
Clarke, Treasurer, Lawrence Sapadin, (ex officio); 
Pablo Figueroa; Judy Irola; Jane Morrison; Denise 
Oliver; Richard Schmiechen; Thomas Turley. 



A PUBLICATION OF 

THE FOUNDATION FOR 
INDEPENDENT VI DEO & FILM 



CONTENTS 



Features 

Early Bird Gets the Worm in Portland 9 

Oregon Media Project Carves Out Solid Cable Deal • Morrie Warshawski 

"Clearing the Air" Panel 1 1 

Indies & PTV Execs Clash Over Access, Quality & Standards • Susan Linfield 

PTV Marketing Project Proposes Model 1 3 

New Approach to Airwaves • Lucinda Mercer & Nanette Cuccia 

Columns 

Media Clips • Cutbacks or Curtains for PTV 4 

Also, Suit on Kids' TV & More on Gold water Cable Bill • John Greyson 

Field Reports • In Minnesota with Frank Hodsoll 7 

New NEA Chair Holds Symposium for Media Arts People • Lawrence Sapadin 

AIVF Forum • Unions & Guilds Talk Low Budget 15 

Now Open to Smaller Crews & Scale Productions 

Festivals • Interview with Telluride Founder 1 7 

Also, Latest News on San Francisco • Pacho Lane, Wendy Lidell & Gail Silva 

Notices 20 

Edited by Odessa Flores 

Cover: Portland cable's 'Media Mix' program offers independent fare: (top to bottom) 'Elle, ' 
an animated film by Maxine Martele; 'The Mid-Torso of Inez, ' an experimental drama by 
Jim Blashfield; and 'Old Believers, ' a documentary on Russian old believers in Oregon, by 
Margaret Hixon. Article on page 9. Photos courtesy of the Media Project & John Stewart 



CORRESPONDENCE 



IFP Hosts on Two Coasts 

Dear Independent: 

In his article on the Independent Feature 
Project's Los Angeles seminar, Selling a 
Dream: The IFP/LA Seminar, Mitchell 
Block chose to editorialize on the IFP's An- 
mrai American Feature Film Market. Since 
1979, when the IFP and the Film Society of 
Lincoln Center co-sponsored the American 
Independents Festival, the Market has been 
scheduled to coincide with the New York 
Film Festival. A number of European buyers, 
festival scouts, domestic cable and theatrical 
distributors see the Market in New York as 
the main event in securing independent 
feature films. 

The word "independent" has many con- 
notations for different people, but should be 
qualified for Mr. Block. The Independent 
Feature Project was founded by independent 
producers who wanted to build upon their 
successes in Europe distributing low-budget 
features such as Northern Lights and Alam- 
brista, while collectively facing the numerous 
obstacles in financing and distribution that 
they had found here in the US. While accus- 
ing the IFP of confusing "film artist" with 
"Hollywood-independents", Mr. Block sug- 



SEPTEMBER 1982 



gests that the definition be clarified by in- 
cluding Martin Scorsese, George Lucas, 
Steven Spielberg and Zanuck/Brown with 
low-budget producers. At the same time he 
also proposes separating their theatrical 
feature films for a mass audience from 
"regional or independent features which are 
only marginally successful at the box office." 
It appears that Mr. Block has failed to 
understand the principles upon which the In- 
dependent Feature Project was first founded. 
As for Mr. Block's suggestion that the IFP 
move its market to Los Angeles, the costs of 
entering the American Film Market have 
been prohibitive in the past. The IFP main- 
tains offices in both New York and Santa 
Monica so it may better respond to its 
members on both coasts. It does not intend 
to be thrown into either an inwardly com- 
petitive state or an outward attempt to com- 
pete directly with the American Film Market. 
Timothy Ney, IFP Exec. Dir. 
Peter Belsito, IFP/LA Seminar Dir. 
Continued on page 8 

The Independent welcomes letters to the 
editor. Send them to The Independent, 
FIVF, 625 Broadway, 9th floor, NY NY 
100 12. Letters may be edited for length and 
clarity. 

3 



THE INDEPENDENT 



MEDIA CLIPS 



Cutbacks or Curtains 
For Public TV? 



JOHN GREYSON 

Wading through the contradictions that 
typify official Washington statements these 
days is a bit like skinny-dipping in the 
Everglades — no matter how nimble, you're 
bound to get bit (and them gators is big\) In 
early July, the Temporary Commission on 
Alternative Financing for Public Broad- 
casting concluded that there is no short-term 
or interim alternative to federal support for 
maintaining a healthy public television (PTV) 
system, and recommended continued federal 
funding at authorized levels. Several days 
later, a Reagan Administration policy panel, 
the National Telecommunications & Infor- 
mation Administration (NTIA), retorted (as 
an appendix to the report): "We do not 
believe that recommendations to continue 
federal financing of public broadcasting for 
the indefinite future should carry much 
weight." 

From the public TV standpoint, the Com- 
mission came to the right decision. Created 
by Congress in 1981, it was charged to in- 
vestigate alternative funding sources for the 
public system, including corporate dona- 
tions, revenue-generating business services 
(such as teletext) and subscription TV op- 
tions. Corporation for Public Broadcasting 
President Edward Pfister concurred, adding 
that such continued government support 
must be based on federal funding principles 
such as insulation, incentive and diversity to 
preserve the noncommercial nature of public 
broadcasting. However the NTIA's counter- 
position carries more clout than the Commis- 
sion's, since it is regarded as a policy-making 
arm of the executive branch. Could the state- 
ment signal a new direction for the Reagan 
Administration's abuse of public television 
— instead of cutbacks, a call for the curtain? 

At the heart of this debate is the future role 
new communications systems (the arts cable 
networks in particular) may play in usurping 
PTV's hold over its traditional cultural fare. 
The Commission maintains that cable could 
never replace the public system. The NTIA 
countered: "It is conceivable that within 
three to five years, new media services may 
command as large an audience share, if not 
larger, than public television typically com- 
mands today." Larry K. Grossman, presi- 
dent of PBS, firmly disagreed: "I regard the 
notion that new technologies are going to 
take care of all social and informational 
needs in our society as utter nonsense." 
Grossman also challenged NTIA's disregard 
of local programming. "Eliminating stations 
and turning public television into a highly 
centralized national program service is con- 



trary to the public policy of Senator Harrison 
Schmitt and other Reagan Administration 
allies who want local control to reflect com- 
munity needs. Now to have the NTIA 
wondering about the need for local public 
television stations and focusing on a highly 
centralized system as more efficient seems the 
height of irony." (Irony of ironies: Grossman 
has been one of the leading advocates within 
public television of PBS Cable — just such a 
centralized service.) 

JOHN GREYSON 




Bruce Christensen, president of the Na- 
tional Association of Public Television Sta- 
tions, reacted to the NTIA statement by say- 
ing it "seems to be a reversal of what we had 
understood (the Administration's) policy to 
be." Unfortunately, such hostility towards 
PTV has a history; the current situation bears 
striking similarities to the attacks by the Nix- 
on administration on National Educational 
TV. Then, the issue was controversial public 
affairs programming. As the cultural cable 
services proliferate, encroaching on aspects 
of PTV's staple fare (BBC series, ballet, 
opera et al.), many have suggested that it is 
PTV's long history of such alternative public 
affairs programming that makes it essential 
and unique. But Nixon never liked such pro- 
gramming, and it's a sure bet Reagan likes it 
even less. (For a report on FIVFs recent in- 
die/PTV forum concerning recent "con- 
troversies," see page 11.) Perhaps it's not a 
coincidence that this past year under Reagan 
also saw the highest audience ratings yet for 
PTV (on the average, over a 50% share at 
least twice a week). Next year may bring the 
biggest indie/PTV battle ever, and we'll be 
on the same side — for our right to have 
public television at all. 



Winners May Lose 

1982 Short Film Showcase 

NEA's Short Film Showcase (ad- 
ministrated by FIVF) has announced winners 
for its 1982 competition, but its very ex- 
istence is in danger due to cutbacks in federal 
arts funding. Sol Horwitz, the Showcase's 
Project Administrator who is currently seek- 
ing alternative funding sources, said, "It 
would be a rebuke to creative America if, 
after years of distributing the finest shorts, 
the Showcase were forced to fold. This pro- 
gram has brought independent films to 
millions of American moviegoers who or- 
dinarily would have no way to see such 
works." 

This year the Showcase chose four new 
films as winners in its national competition: 
Interior Designs (Jane Aaron, NYC); By 
Daylight and in Dream (Robert Blaisdell, 
Carmel CA); Brides (Sharon Sachs, NYC) 
and Phases (C. Henry Selick, Mill Valley 
CA). Chosen from over 200 entries by two 
panels of independent filmmakers, film con- 
sultants, exhibitors and distributors, the 
shorts range in subject matter from an 
animated meditation on interior/exterior 
landscapes to a documentary portrait of an 
elderly poet. Panelists included independent 
filmmaker Robert Gardner, Joanne Koch of 
the Lincoln Center Film Society, Ted Pedas 
of Washington's Circle Theatres, John 
Springer of John Springer Associates and 
William Thompson of Cinema 5. The four 
films, as in previous years, will be blown up 
to 35mm and distributed to commercial 
theatres around the country on a free loan 
basis once additional funding has been 
secured. 

Last Year, Docu-Dramaa; 
This Year, Docu-Dentlsts 

Who says independents lack entrepreneurial 
smarts? New York documentarian Robert A. 
Endelson recently patented a dental floss 
dispenser in a credit card, no doubt inspired by 
the difficulties crews encounter while in- 
gesting tuna fish sandwiches between takes. 

Compact and flat, the dispenser can be 
carried in a wallet or shirt pocket. Thread can 
be pulled out and clipped off. The patent 
says the dispensers can be made with the 
name of the user on it, as is done on credit 
cards, or given away as advertising 
premiums. AIVF member Les Blank 
categorically denied rumors that he had been 
contracted to make a promo PSA for the new 
product entitled Werner Herzog Eats His 
Floss. 

Qoldwator's Cable BUI Mow 
Pro-Owner, Anti-Access 

Wrung through the wringer of the Senate 

Subcommittee and Committee process, Barry 

Goldwater's "comprehensive" cable bill 

(S.2172) of last March* has emerged with all 

SEPTEMBER 1082 



THE INDEPENDENT 



sorts of alarming stains, and access advocates 
feel it will take more than bleach to clean up 
the mess. "This bill would make it impossible 
to ensure any accountability or public 
responsibility for this industry," said James 
Bond, former Atlantic City Councillor, ad- 
dressing the National Federation of Local 
Cable Programmers (NFLCP) annual con- 
vention in July. "Under current rules, local 
governments have authority to regulate cable 
systems and develop a plan for comprehen- 
sive cable services. It is this local regulatory 
authority which ensures that the public in- 
terest is protected. This bill will largely 
remove that authority." 

Cynthia Pols of the National League of 
Cities (NLC) echoed his concern. "Truthful- 
ly, I don't see that there's anything 
we like about it. It's the jurisdictional thrust 
of the bill — the taking of power away from 
the states and local governments and giving it 
to the Federal government." 

Provisions of the amended bill include: 
• Ceilings on all types of access channel re- 
quirements, restricting local governments to 
require no more than 10% of "available" 
channels to be set aside for non-commercial 
access. Systems with less than 20 channels 
would be exempt from access requirements. 
In addition, systems would be able to petition 
the FCC to waive access requirements, and 
operators could also put all access program- 



ming (leased, government, public) on a com- 
posite channel if the level of demand didn't 
warrant discrete channels for each sort. 
Ruben Oliva, NFLCP Legislative Assistant, 
sums up: "There are enough loopholes in 
S.2172 that if a cable company doesn't want 
to provide access, it can find a way not to." 

• Unrestricted cross-ownership, which frees 
up networks, broadcasters, newspapers, 
phone companies and the like to monopolize 
communications in their communities even 
more. 

• Municipal ownership (i.e. a city choosing 
to own their own cable system as a public 
utility — Conway, Arkansas being the latest 
example) is prohibited, unless the city has 
"acquired" the system at "fair market 
value." 

• Exclusive jurisdiction over cable systems 
is given to the Feds (the FCC), and any law 
(state, local or otherwise) which conflicts 
with S.2172's provisions would be superseded. 

• No "grandfathering": Once the bill passes 
(if we let it), all existing franchises must be 
brought into compliance with the bill within 
sixty days. 

Goldwater is definitely feeling the 
anti-S.2172 pressure mobilized by the Na- 
tional League of Cities and the NFLCP. 
"The current campaign against my bill is the 
worst case of lying by a Washington represen- 
tative that I ever encountered," he stated, 



referring specifically to Cynthia Pols and the 
NLC's interpretation of S.2172's provisions. 
In early July the Senator sent letters to 
several mayors petitioning their support. The 
NLC has promised to respond officially to 
such unwarranted slander. 

Ruben Oliva feels the bill may eventually 
go through with "all sorts of amendments," 
since she says many senators have problems 
with it but believe that this country needs 
comprehensive cable legislation now. "It's a 
Republican bill, yet it goes against every 
precept of their 'New Federalism' concept, 
which supposedly gives power back to the 
states and cities. The FCC is overburdened 
already — one Commissioner told me she felt 
the bill shouldn't pass, since the FCC 
couldn't handle the extra regulatory 
workload." 

As we go to press, the bill has just been 
passed by the Committee, and from here goes 
to the floor of the Senate, flying in the face 
of nearly 200 bills currently before state 
legislatures. These include initiatives to tax 
cable services, curb "indecent" program- 
ming, establish municipal ownership, declare 
cable a public utility, strengthen franchise 
provisions — most of which will become so 
many tons of wasted paper if Goldwater' s 
soiled laundry goes through. 

♦See Media Clips, May, 1982. 



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SEPTEMBER 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



Customs Confiscates Author's 
Videotape on CIA Operations 

For most media producers, the only prob- 
lem posed by Customs when crossing borders 
is the possible erasure of videotapes when 
they inadvertantly go through the X-ray in- 
spection. CIA critic and author Fred Landis 
ran into graver difficulties: returning from 
Mexico City in early March, he was detained 
by customs officials, who then turned him 
over to the Los Angeles police. According to 
Customs officials, an outstanding felony 
warrant stemming from confusion in the pay- 
ment of an Avis rental car led to Landis' ar- 
rest. Existence of the outstanding charge was 
confirmed when Landis' credentials were run 
through a Customs computer at the airport. 

"Somebody went to an awful lot of trouble 
to make problems for me when I came 
through the airport," Landis maintains, 
arguing that the Avis billing mix-up was 
mended months ago. Although he was freed 
on a $2400 bond, Customs officials are 
holding his doctoral dissertation on CIA 
psychological warfare and media operations 
in Chile, as well as a tape he produced last 
year entitled CIA Media Operations: A Study 
in Imagination and Perversity. Concerning 
CIA manipulation, primarily of print media, 
it details how the CIA virtually took over the 
major papers in Chile, Jamaica and 
Nicaragua to use as instruments of 



destabilization. Favored propaganda techni- 
ques are illustrated, including the front-page 
pairing of stories on left-wing leaders with 
sensational, unrelated stories. For instance: 
On December 5, 1980, Nicaragua's La Prensa 
ran a photo of FSLN leader Humberto 
Ortega adjacent to a photo of a mutilated 
body; during the 1980 elections, Jamaica's 
Daily Gleaner placed photos of three cabinet 
ministers over the headline of "23 Men Rape 
15-Year-Old Girl;" and so on. 

Customs officials claim they have the right 
to review Landis' tape material for evalua- 
tion under existing laws prohibiting the im- 
portation of "seditious or pornographic 
material." 

The Game of Wars 
Thatcher Plays Pac-Man 

Video games occupy a social territory of in- 
creasing concern, as parents' groups con- 
demn them for their addictive, expensive 
qualities while owners use the "kids will 
always congregate" line to defend them as no 
more than juke boxes and pool tables for the 
Eighties. The debate has yet to reach govern- 
ment circles in this country, but in Britain a 
video game was withdrawn by its parent com- 
pany after it met with widespread publicity 
and a politician's protest. 

Named Obliterate, it could be played on 
the state telecommunication services' Prestel 



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FCC Sued for Neglecting 
Kids' TV Programming 

Action for Children's Television (ACT), a 
children's advocacy organization, filed suit 
against seven members of the Federal Com- 
munications Commission (FCC) and the 
Commission itself on May 18, charging that 
the defendents had "failed and refused to 
take final action in the children's television 
proceeding initiated twelve years ago." 

Back in 1970, ACT petitioned the FCC to 
require each television station to air a 
minimum amount of daily programming for 
young audiences. The FCC formally promised 
to look into the situation. In 1979, ACT made 
additional recommendations during a Commis- 
sion inquiry on children's advertising: 

1. Reduce the number of commercials per 
hour in children's weekday programs; and 

2. Eventually phase out commercials on 
children's shows. 

ACT President Peggy Charren said, "The 
FCC has had more than a decade to see to it 
that broadcasters fulfill their public service 
obligation to the child audience, yet program 
choice for children is now more limited than 
ever." Charging that the Commission under 
Mark Fowler "responds only to industry 
needs now," Charren hopes the heat created 
by the suit "will remind each Commissioner 
of his or her personal obligation to the 
citizens of this country." No damages are be- 
ing sought; the court will be asked to order 
the FCC to take final action in the decade-old 
proceeding. "Children who were pre- 
schoolers when the FCC proceeding began 
are teenagers now, and a whole new genera- 
tion of young people is growing up with a 
lack of TV viewing options," she noted. 

ACT's most recent study, concerning the 
representation of minorities and women on 
kids' shows, underlined this conclusion. 
Released in mid- July, the report found that 
of 1,145 characters portrayed during 38 
hours of children's programming aired in 
Boston (January, 1981), only 3.7% were 
Black, 3.1% Hispanic, and .8% Asian. Ton- 
to of Lone Ranger fame was the sole Native 
American. Contrast these with conservative 
US population statistics: 11.8% Black, 6.4% 
Hispanic, 1.5% Asian, and .6% Native 
American. 

Women represented only 16% of the major 
dramatic characters in the sample, and were 
portrayed, according to the study, as 
"younger than males, more likely to be mar- 
ried, less active and with lower self- 
esteem." ■ 
SEPTEMBER 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



FIELD REPORTS 



The Education 
Of Frank Hodsoll 



LAWRENCE SAPADIN 

Frank S.M. Hodsoll, Reagan-appointed 
Chairman of the National Endowment for 
the Arts (NEA), came to the Endowment 
with credentials as a lawyer and career politi- 
cian, but little experience in the arts. To make 
up for lost time, Hodsoll has been conduct- 
ing symposia in several disciplines 
funded by the Endowment. Last June he 
convened one such symposium for the NEA 
Media Arts Program at Film in the Cities 
(FITC), an attractive and well-managed 
media arts center in St. Paul, Minnesota. 

Hodsoll invited two classes of guests: 
"Participants," seated around a large con- 
ference table, who were free to engage fully 
in all discussion; and "Special Observers," 
seated off to the side, who were authorized 
only to observe. However, everyone chatted 
together during breaks and meals. I was in- 
vited an an observer for FIVF. 

Among the participants were Karen 
Cooper, Film Forum Director; William 
Greaves, independent producer and AIVF 
Vice President; video artist Ed Emsh wilier; 
Jean Firstenberg, American Film Institute 
Director; Fay Kanin, President of the 
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and 
Sciences; actor Robert Redford and actress 
Jane Alexander as well as representatives 
from public television, public radio, CBS 
television, Newsweek, the Federal Com- 
munications Commission and the William 
Morris Agency. Among the observers were 
Tom Borrup of University Community 
Video, John Giancola and Ruby Rich of the 
New York State Council on the Arts and Ron 
Green, the newly elected head of National 
Alliance of Media Arts Centers (NAMAC). 

DETAILED AGENDA, SOLEMN TOPICS 

FITC, under the deft leadership of Ad- 
ministrative Director L. Wade Black, hosted 
the symposium for the NEA, and did an ex- 
traordinary job of coordinating what could 
easily have been a very chaotic conference. 
During the weekend, the NEA staff and par- 
ticipants plowed through a long and detailed 
agenda with such solemn headings as "Direc- 
tions and Needs," "Opportunities and Im- 
pediments," "Criteria of Excellence," "Au- 
dience," "Education" and "Policy: 
Priorities and Strategies." 

Hodsoll, who looks more like a linebacker 
than an arts administrator, opened the sym- 
posium, saying his purpose was to "look 
broadly" at the field to determine what could 
and should be done by the NEA. He des- 
cribed Media Arts as "one of the NEA's top 
SEPTEMBER 1902 



programs." Key questions: How should the 
NEA provide support for the media arts in a 
period of (arts) budgetary restraint? What 
should the relationship be between the com- 
mercial and non-commercial media? 

Several participants spoke about the 
"Directions and Needs" of the media arts 
field. Producer Robert Wise commented 
that Hollywood must learn to support indies 
to produce "their own stories their own 
way," and that NEA support continues to be 
essential to independent production. Karen 
Cooper sketched a history of independent 
media from the abstract animation of the 
1920s to the current independent scene. Pro- 
ducer George Schaeffer bemoaned the state 
of commercial television and urged media ar- 
tists to look into cable. Jane Alexander 
decried Hollywood's abandonment of the 
dramatic narrative in favor of high-tech gim- 
mickry and expressed an interest in working 
on independent productions. 

BLUE SKY 

Participants' remarks were rarely dull but 
often lacked focus. By the afternoon of the 
first day, discussion veered giddily off into 
the blue sky of new video technologies, with 
Red Burns of the Alternative Media Center 
speaking of the "soul" of the new 
technologies, while Ed Minkel of the FCC 
strained to anchor the new media to that 
other great abstraction, the marketplace. Bill 
Greaves brought the discussion back to earth 
by reminding the participants that the real 
"impediment" to independent media was 
lack of money. As the Friday session wore 
on, faulty air conditioning and general 
fatigue led to a certain glibness as par- 
ticipants wrestled with the concept of critical 
standards. "Criticism is to art what or- 
nithology is to the birds," quoted Media Arts 
Director Brian O'Doherty from a source 
unrecorded in my notes, while Ruth Beren- 
son, one of Hodsoll's associate deputies, 
defended popular taste as a valid measure of 
critical excellence. Hodsoll said that he would 
encourage plurality of criticism within the 
field and on his review panels. 

On Saturday morning, after describing the 
ideas behind his Sundance Institute (see the 
July/ August Independent), Robert Redford 
predicted that diversity will be the issue of the 
future. The participants went on to explore 
concrete approaches to supporting indepen- 
dent production: tax incentives for invest- 
ment features; an arts contribution check- 
off on income tax forms; a tax on commer- 



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8 



cial movie theater tickets. In the end, Virgil 
Grillo, Assistant Director of the Media Arts 
Program, offered the sober and realistic 
thought that we may be at a point where the 
exhibition of film art must be subsidized. 
Hodsoll remarked that the NEA is commit- 
ted to innovation and distribution of in- 
dependent work, but that it could not con- 
sider the kind of heavy government subsidies 
that exist in other countries. 

PRIORITIES 

At midday the NEA polled participants on 
priorities among the areas discussed the first 
day. Participants were asked to rank their 
priorities (based upon a list typed up by NEA 
staff) under two different standards: import- 
ance to the field, and importance for govern- 
ment support (the implication being that 
some things were more suitable for govern- 
ment support regardless of their absolute 
value to the field). The results were revealed 
after lunch, to everyone's surprise and 
dismay. Due to some confusion on the part 
of the participants and procedural 
peculiarities of the poll itself, neither set of 
priorities seemed to reflect the tenor of the 
discussion over the preceding day and a half. 
The priorities for government support were: 
/. film and tape preservation, 2. assistance in 
distribution and promotion of independent 
film, 3. tax incentives, 4. protection of 
copyright interests in home video recording, 
and 5. arts programming on TV and radio. 
Priorities for the field were /. distribution 
and promotion, 2. encouragement of in- 
dustry to rely less on blockbusters and more 
on diverse low-budget films, 3. distribution 
of small features, 4. preservation and 5. sup- 
port for public television and radio. 

The participants were visibly uneasy with 
the results, and tension was in the air. 
However, Hodsoll reassured participants that 
the poll was only intended to serve as a basis 
for the rest of the afternoon's discussion, not 
to dictate policy for the Media Arts Program. 

HODSOLL IN SUM 

The single most striking aspect of the NEA 
Symposium was that it never questioned the 
value of independent media. Frank Hodsoll 
is clearly no ideologue. He is not the James 
Watt of arts funding; rather, he seemed in- 
telligent, fair and eager to listen and learn. 
He was obviously convinced of the import- 
ance of innovation and diversity, and seemed 
persuaded that the commercial media would 
never adequately support those values. 

On the other hand, it came as no surprise 
that the Endowment, under Reagan, should 
tilt toward such safe projects as film and tape 
preservation and programming in the arts. 
Nevertheless, the commitment to funding in- 
dividual artists and media art centers seems 
secure, at least within the limits of a seriously 
reduced NEA budget. 

Frank Hodsoll could turn out to be an ex- 
cellent NEA Chair. It is unfortunate that he 



is saddled with an administration that has 
given such short shrift to arts funding. The 
education of Frank Hodsoll has been an 
unusual and perhaps useful process for the 
field. Now let's see what he does with the 
Endowment. ■ 

Tools of Truth 

Letters, continued from page 3 

Dear Independent: 

Many thanks for the interview with Emile 
de Antonio. It was a provocative give-and- 
take about documentary. It was also a classic 
illustration of the D.H. Lawrence adage: 
"Trust the tale, not the teller." I admire de 
Antonio's films; but his criticisms of cinema- 
verite are not only off-base, they are directed 
at his own work. What is Point of Order if 
not a cinema-verite documentary? Does de 
Antonio really think that cinema-verite films 
lack a point of view? A cursory look at 
Wiseman's High School would certainly find 
a "point of view." 

De Antonio maintains that documentary 
without explicit, unambiguous analysis is "a 
tool of the state", because relecting everyday 
life only reflects the "dominant ideology." It 
is ironic that de Antonio and so many other 
left-wing filmmakers are willing to concede 
reality to the dominant ideology of the state. 
Where are the "motor forces of history?" 
Theoretically, every good leftist should 
recognize the dialectics of everyday life. If 
each thesis contains its antithesis, then a filmed 
"reflection" of reality should show a host of 
contradictions, ambiguities and oppositions. 

Cinema-verite does not impose the point of 
view of the state; it allows the point of view 
of the filmmaker to be expressed through the 
unpredictable events of everyday life. It is 
this unpredictability in cinema-verite which 
allows other, often contradictory points of 
view to be expressed as well. This is not 
disorganization or capitulation; it is honesty. 
In this way cinema-verite challenges the 
ideology of the state in both form and con- 
tent. Cinema-verite is not verite; it is film 
truth, which is an important and 
acknowledged qualifier. 

I hope Mr. de Antonio will make many 
more films. I admire his work. I also hope 
that he can find a rhetorical "point of view" 
which is more consistent with his determined- 
ly antiauthoritarian output. If de Antonio 
weren't concerned with presenting ambiguity 
and oppositions, I doubt if he would have 
cast Martin Sheen in the unsympathetic role 
of the judge in In the King of Prussia. I think 
it was Shaw who once said, "An argument 
between a right and a wrong is melodrama; 
an argument between two rights is drama." 
Films which insist on imposing their unam- 
biguous, unadulterated points of view on the 
audience will never rise above melodrama. 
De Antonio knows this; he expresses it in his 
films. I wish he'd say it in his interviews. ■ 

Alex Gibney 

SEPTEMBER 1962 



THE INDEPENDENT 



Early Bird 
Gets the Worm 

• 

A lesson in negotiation. Oregon 

media group wins favorable programming deal with cable 

operator before the Portland franchise is signed 



When the subscribers to Cablesystems 
Pacific (CSP) in Portland, Oregon turned 
their sets on last spring to the local origina- 
tion arts channel, they were greeted with a 
rare treat: works by Northwest filmmakers 
packaged for cable in a one-hour format 
called Media Mix. 

That first program featured two films 
directed by Carl Jones: Savage!, focusing on 
wrestling at the Portland Sports Arena; and 
Nobody Lives Here, an unflinching look at 
life inside Washington State Penitentiary, in- 
tercut with an interview with both films' 
cinematographer, Richard Blakeslee. One 
Portland critic called it "among the best 
television I've seen all year." 

The Media Project, Inc. (MPI) is a non- 
profit organization devoted to helping in- 
dependent media artists in the Northwest 
through a wide range of services, which in- 
clude distribution of films and tapes, 
worktops, seminars, publications and ad- 
vocacy. As independents around the country 
know, it is easier to shove a Betamax through 
the eye of a needle than to get a local cable 
operator to pay for airing independently pro- 
duced work. How did The Media Project 
manage to make Media Mix happen, and 
what lessons can other indies learn from their 
tale? 

In 1980, four companies were vying for the 
franchise that was eventually awarded to 
CSP (owned by Rogers Cablesystems of 
Canada). The Media Project's Board of 
Directors became involved in the franchising 
process early. A press release was sent to all 
the cable companies, asking in part that they 
"set aside, on a monthly basis, a specific 
amount of programming monies which 
would support the airing of regional works 
presently available and those in production." 
Meanwhile, the Board devised a model con- 
tract, and urged each cable operator to sign it 
during the bidding process, before the fran- 
chise was officially awarded. Thus a commit- 
ment in writing could be in effect while the 
cable bidder was still seeking community sup- 
port, and willing to make compromises. 

START BEFORE FRANCHISE 

The original contract MPI devised was a 
beauty. It completely sidestepped the issues 
of public access programming (since this was 

SEPTEMBER 19B2 



MORRIE WARSHAWSKI 

being handled by other local groups) and 
focused directly on the interaction between 
cable and independents. Among other things, 
it provided fair payment for the airing of 
monthly programs of independent film and 
video works, adequate publicity for each pro- 
gram, MPI's coordinating efforts, the annual 
production of 500 hours of new local pro- 
gramming by independents and the creation 
of a Directory of Production Services. 

Two of the cable operators (the ones, coin- 
cidentally, who were not seen as serious con- 
tenders) were totally uninterested in talking 
to MPI. A third, Cox Cable, actually signed 
the contract and gave MPI a non-refundable 
deposit of $1,500, thus proving the adage 
that it never hurts to ask! 

But, as we learned in the winter of 1981, 
Cox did not get the franchise; the fourth con- 
tender, Cablesystems Pacific, did. They had 
been willing to talk to MPI, and agreed on 
many things in principle, but would not sign 
anything. Promises, promises. 

In the world of cable it is not unusual for 
the first phalanx of a cable operation, the 
franchising team, to promise the moon and 
stars. It is also not unusual for the second 
phalanx, the programmers, to deny 
categorically any knowledge of those pro- 



mises, to bitch about those "wild and 
crazy" franchising people and dismiss most 
of their actions as impetuous, ill-advised and 
committed in the intense heat of the franchis- 
ing battle. 

KEY WRITTEN COMMITMENT 

I became Executive Director of MPI in the 
summer of 1980, and began rifling through 
our files to get a sense of our past dealings. 
Luckily, there was a letter from a develop- 
ment manager at CSP stating that a fund 
would be "earmarked for local program ac- 
quisition" and that MPI could "assume that 
most if not all of that money" would be 
available to it. As Adam Haas, Programming 
Director at CSP, says, "We have an 
enlightened management that believes local 
programming is an important 
service," — another stroke of luck. 

With letter in hand and good intentions on 
both sides, a contract for Media Mix was 
knocked out. It falls short of the "model" 
contract MPI had originally proposed, but is 
still a major step into the cable world for in- 
dependents in the Northwest. 

The agreement calls, in the first year, for 
the coproduction of six one-hour programs 

Another 'Media Mix' offering: the locally-produced documentary 'They Hailed a Steamboat 
Anyplace' by Jack Sanders & Jim Blashfield courtesy media project 




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featuring works from MPI's extensive Pro- 
gram Catalog, as well as interviews with the 
filmmakers themselves. A rate was 
negotiated for the payment of lease rights, 
for the works each to appear in one-month 
windows (with a maximum of six showings in 
any window), as well as an honorarium for 
the appearance of each filmmaker. After the 
initial lease period, MPI will own all future 
rights to the programs and can lease them to 
other cable operations or distribute them in 
any way it sees fit. 

Haas notes, "What we are doing is dif- 
ferent from anything happening in the whole 
country. Indies feel cable should be a bonan- 
za for distribution of their work but right 
now they are having a hard time selling to 
cable. We know Jaws 2 will make money on 
HBO, but we don't know what kind of im- 
pact independent work will have on our 
subscribers and on our profits, the bottom 
line in the industry." 

It is still too early to gauge the response to 
Media Mix accurately, but so far indications 
are that press and subscribers are happy with 
the move. This augurs well for the future of 
independent work on cable channels around 
the country. 

HOMEWORK! 

There are some lessons that indies can 
learn from MPI's foray into cable: As 



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always, do your homework. Find out who 
the players are in your community, who is in- 
vesting in each franchise and what each com- 
pany has done with indies in other parts of 
the country. It is essential, too, to know the 
language of cable and to understand the 
needs of a cable operator. The whole issue, 
for instance, of multiple plays within a "win- 
dow" is a key element in a cable deal. 

"Cable is unlike any other animal in the 
communications media," says Haas, 
"because our programming is for special in- 
terest subscribers. Local programming will 
not be successful without numerous repeats. 
This has to be taken into account. It is not 
like we are trying to milk indies through 
repeats. We want to make sure viewers see 
the programming. It's the repeat showings 
that ensure viewer ship." 

Since cable operators like to buy packages, 
it helps to approach them as a group or under 
the auspices of one organization that has 
some credibility in the media community. 
There are numerous advantages, from a cable 
operator's point of view, to dealing with an 
organization as opposed to individuals. It is 
much easier and less time-consuming to strike 
one deal for a package of works than it is to 
make deals for works on a case-by-case basis. 
An organization can act as the intermediary 
for guaranteeing the prompt delivery of 
works in good condition and disburse 
payments to artists, thus saving the cable 
company time and hassle. More important is 
an organization's ability to generate publicity 
for the programs through its own member- 
ship and press connections. This service, 
especially, is difficult for the individual 
media artist to provide. 

Ed Geis, Arts Channel Coordinator for 
CSP, offers a last bit advice: "I cannot stress 
enough how important it is for independents 
to get a commitment in writing during the 
franchising process. Media Mix would not 
have happened without the franchising com- 
mitment." In MPI's case, meticulous records 
were kept of all meetings and telephone con- 
versations. We would either draft a "note to 
file" or send a letter to all parties present at a 
meeting confirming any agreements and 
understandings made that day. As we 
learned, this type of documentation is often 
as good as a signed contract. 

At first MPI approached the entire process 
of cable negotiations from a very aggressive 
and adversarial position. Once the contract 
was signed, however, CSP and MPI realized 
they were partners in an agreement that re- 
quired mutual trust and cooperation. The 
success of Media Mix rests heavily on this 
cooperative relationship, the kind of rela- 
tionship that more and more indies will want 
to cultivate as they become actively involved 
with cable operators in their communities. ■ 

Morrie Warshawski was, until recently, the 
Executive Director of The Media Project. He 
is currently working as a freelance consul- 
tant, writer and babysitter. 

SEPTEMBER 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



Heated Exchange: 
Indies Confront PTV 

• 

Filmmakers cry censorship 

and limited access — public TV execs cry 

quality and journalistic standards 



A volatile crowd of over 150 independent 
filmmakers confronted public television of- 
ficials at the June 24 FIVF panel discussion 
Clearing the Air: Independent Documen- 
taries on Public TV. Politically motivated 
censorship and independents' access to the 
air were the hot topics. 

The forum was called in response to a 
number of recent incidents, including the 
rescheduling of Sharon Sopher's Blood and 
Sand; the National Endowment for the 
Humanities' attack on Helena Solberg- 
Ladd's From the Ashes... Nicaragua Today 
as "socialist-realist propaganda" (and "a 
piece of junk"); and the dropping of two 
CPB-funded films from the Matters of Life 
and Death series (see July /August Indepen- 
dent). The panel, moderated by AIVF Ex- 
ecutive Director Lawrence Sapadin, includ- 
ed Matters of Life and Death Executive Pro- 
ducer Carol Brandenburg; Don Burgess, Sta- 
tion Manager of WHYY (Philadelphia); 
Barry Chase, PBS' News and Public Affairs 
Director; David Loxton, Co-Director of 
WNET's TV Lab; New York Times TV critic 
John J. O'Connor; and producers Sharon 
Sopher and Helena Solberg-Ladd. While 
(PTV) representatives tried to keep discus- 
sion within the context of the complex public 
television organizational structure, the au- 



SUSAN LINFIELD 

dience insisted that the issues be viewed as 
symptoms of the current atmosphere of 
political intimidation. 

The most heated exchanges of the evening 
concerned questions of "standards." PTV 
representatives insisted that aesthetic quality 
and journalistic integrity, not political con- 
tent, is the determining factor in PBS pro- 
gramming decisions. Carol Brandenburg said 
that CPB's move to can the two Life and 
Death pieces was essentially an aesthetic deci- 
sion, and that the finished works were simply 
"different" from what had been promised. 
Don Burgess claimed that he does not run 
away from broadcasting controversial shows, 
but that he "damn well will look like a fool" 
if he airs a documentary whose information 
turns out to be "totally incorrect." (Has 
there ever been a case of this?) Barry Chase 
insisted that the postponement and 
rescheduling of Blood and Sand from prime 
time to a 10:00 pm slot (a move which had, in 
David Loxton 's words, a "devastating" im- 
pact on the number of stations which carried 
the show) was due to journalistic weaknesses 
in the film. 

WHA T IS QUALITY? 

However, some of the panelists — and most 
of the audience — took sharp issue with the 



"quality control" interpretation of PBS pro- 
gramming. The reactions ranged from skep- 
ticism to outright derision. Times critic John 
O'Connor said, "I'm concerned because I 
sense a pattern of neo-conservative pall 
descending on PBS." (In a chilling parallel, 
he added that his own editors at the Times 
were exercising increasing editorial control 
over what he writes — particularly in his 
reviews of politically controversial documen- 
taries.) Media Network director Marc Weiss 
warned that the Blood and Sand and 
Nicaragua controversies are only the "open- 
ing shots" in what is sure to be an ongoing 
struggle as the Reagan Administration 
clamps down, ideologically and financially, 
on the traditional "alternate" funding 
sources such as NEA, NEH and CPB. 
Solberg-Ladd called the PBS panel discus- 
sion which followed Nicaragua's airing, sup- 
posedly organized in the interest of jour- 
nalistic balance, "a salacious attack on my 
film." (She also questioned — rightly 
so — why AIVF did not immediately support 
her and repudiate the NEH comments.) Chris 
Choy of Third World Newsreel claimed that 
CPB admitted that her film on Southeast 
Asian refugees wasn't aired for political 
reasons. Bart Weiss of West Virginia State 
College decried what he called PBS' 



PTV panel divided on the question of 'standards' and 'taste.' (I. to r.) Barry Chase, PBS; Carol Brandenburg, WNET; John O'Connor, New York Times; 
Helena SolbergLadd, independent producer 




SEPTEMBER 1982 



11 



THE INDEPENDENT 





During forum, producers & public TV reps debate whether public television is under scrutiny from Washington. (I. to r.) Sharon Sopher. independent 
producer; David Loxton, WNET; Lawrence Sapadin, AIVF 



"thought police mentality," whereby the 
public is deemed too ignorant of an issue to 
be exposed to a supposedly partisan treat- 
ment of it (this was one of Chase's reasons 
for axing Blood and Sand from prime-time). 
Jay Kaplan of the New York State Council 
for the Humanities summed up, "The good 
news of the evening is that censorship is still 
disavowed by its practitioners; the bad news 
is that 'quality' and 'journalistic integrity' 
are now the explanations for its practice." 

THE PRIME TIME BROADCAST CARROT 

The controversy also extended to the rela- 
tionship between producers (the station 
units, such as WNET's TV Lab, which pro- 
duce shows) and programmers (PBS, which 
decides when those shows will be aired). In- 
creasingly critical is PBS' growing role in 
determining not only when programs will air, 
but also which programs and in what form. 
The promise of prime time broadcast is now 
the "carrot" PBS can use to achieve its 
desired editorial changes, a trend which Lox- 
ton said he "adamantly" opposes. "What I 
will not allow to happen," he said, "is have 
the programmer come in and require changes 
as a condition for getting a show onto prime 
time." In fact, however, this is precisely what 
did happen in the case of Blood and Sand, at 
least according to Chase. He has said that 
Blood and Sand lost its prime-time spot 
because Sopher refused to make some "re- 
quested" changes. If this is true, it seems 
clear that the power relationship between 
PBS and producers needs to be changed if 
further PBS editorial control is to be avoid- 
ed. Protests by WNET station producers will 
evidently not be enough. 

Of even more concern to filmmakers is the 
question of in whose interests PTV program- 
ming and funding decisions are made. Con- 
gress established the public broadcasting 
system precisely as an alternative to commer- 
cial TV, specifying that "diverse" views 
should be encouraged. Speakers at the forum 
pointed out that the "P" stands for public; as 
12 



Chris Choy put it, CPB told her "to make 
her film for Joe Blow from Ohio, but this is a 
multi-class, multi-national country." Some 
people seemed genuinely surprised at the 
power that a few individuals such as Chase 
exercise in determining what will and won't 
be seen; as AIVF President Jane Morrison 
said, "Personal decision-making has no place 
in public television. The real issue of this 
evening is: how is information going to get 
out to the American public?" Still others 
cautioned that, as a practical matter, the area 
of political documentaries is one of the few 
niches public TV can carve out for itself to- 
day, as the cable companies increasingly take 
over the production of "upscale" culture 
programs which used to be public TV's 
domain. 

IDEAS FOR CHANGE 

Some specific ideas for change emerged 
from the meeting: 

/. Written contracts. Sopher suggested that, 
"for protection," independents should enter 
into a contractual agreement with PBS, "say- 
ing an agreement has been made to air X pro- 
gram at a particular time, without changes." 
This will help prevent sudden rescheduling or 
the kind of demands for editorial changes 
Sopher faced. 
2. A documentary series time slot without a 



Categorically Speaking 

In the latest issue of its official newslet- 
ter, the CPB has announced a liberalization 
of its funding guidelines for the "Matters of 
Life and Death" series. It will now accept 
proposals which don't fall into that 
mysterious category. Does this mean that 
CPB is dropping the thematic pretense for 
this series? Not quite. The CPB will now 
consider "proposals dealing not only with 
Matters of Life and Death, but also 'Matters 
in Between. ' ". The catchy title for the new 
series? Life and Death and Other Matters. 



thematic umbrella. PBS insists that, without 
a permanent, stable time slot set aside, local 
stations will not accept independent 
documentary programming. Independents 
insist that, as Ralph Arlyck put it, "Being 
forced into categories that don't fit is death." 
The solution: reserve a time slot each week 
for independent documentaries, so station 
programmers can have the security of know- 
ing what to plan for, without twisting the 
films into conformity with some meaningless 
thematic structure such as "matters of life 
and death." (see box below) 
3. Democratization of the PTV decision- 
making processes. Public TV — supported by 
public money and supposedly accountable to 
that public — should not be run like private 
TV, with a small group of career executives 
deciding what we have the right to know. (In 
fact, PTV is resembling the commercial sta- 
tions more and more, for as the Administra- 
tion decimates government funds for PTV, 
corporate donors such as Exxon play a grow- 
ing role in deciding what reaches the air — not 
by censoring programs they don't like, but 
simply by refusing to put up the necessary 
money.) The problem with PTV is not the in- 
dividuals who run it so much as the structure 
which allows them to — a point that was often 
obscured at the meeting. Structural changes 
in the entire PTV funding and programming 
system are needed. 

On a more general plane, it seems clear 
that the ideological content of the media in 
this country is coming under intense scrutiny. 
The recent controversies are, indeed, only the 
"opening shots." Independent filmmakers 
must continue to try to develop a unified 
response to the attacks on our right to public 
television access. We should also remember 
that it is not just by chance that, during the 
1950s, the filmmaking industry was targeted 
for some of the most visible, vicious and ef- 
fective blacklisting in the country. ■ 

Susan Linfield is a writer and independent 
documentary filmmaker who currently works 
at Short Film Showcase. 

SEPTEMBER 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



Groundwork for 
A Niche of Our Own 

• 

Proposed public TV marketing project 

would break down barriers to nationwide broadcast 

by offering programs to fill a regular slot. 

• 
LUCINDA MERCER & NANETTE CUCCIA 



What does a public television programmer 
think when he or she hears from an indepen- 
dent? When Independent Cinema Artists and 
Producers, a non-profit distributor to cable, 
asked for their reaction to independents' 
work, twenty-six programmers gave twenty- 
six different responses. Why this variety? 
Partly because there is great variety in the 
public television system. Some of the 288 sta- 
tions are government- or community-owned, 
some are college affiliates or public, non- 
profit corporations. Some, like WNET, 
KCET and WGBH, are producing stations: 
they provide much of the programming seen 
on PBS. Others have a specialty; for exam- 
ple, KOCE in Huntington Beach, California 
is a much smaller producing station which 
focuses on educational and how-to program- 
ming, providing approximately 2/3 of the 
PBS telecourses. The rest of the stations, 
though, do very little producing and must 
purchase 50 to 90% of their programming. 
They rely on PBS for prime-time program- 
ming (Dance in America, Masterpiece 
Theatre etc.), and of course, a few hours of 
news accounts a day. What about the rest of 
the time? They show old movies, reruns of 
"classic" television shows and, we hope, in- 
dependent film and video. 

To lay the groundwork for the public 
television marketing project, ICAP selected 
stations of all different sizes, size being deter- 
mined by their "buying power." A station's 
buying power is a measure of its funding 
level, CPB Community Station Grant, au- 
dience and several other factors. Buying 
power is used in cooperative buying situ- 
ations, such as PBS' Station Program 
Cooperative, where the prime-time schedule 
is marketed, to determine how much an in- 
dividual station will pay for a program. A 
station with a buying power of 2°7o will 
therefore pay $2,000 for the rights to broad- 
cast a show which cost $100,000 to produce. 
If enough stations buy a program, then it is 
scheduled. 

When ICAP spoke with station managers 
in June, it found most extremely friendly and 
helpful. The survey questions focused on 
several basic areas: kinds of programming 
used and amount of payment; interest in in- 
dependent work and time now spent working 
with independents; length and subject matter 

SEPTEMBER 19B2 



preferences; and the technical problems of 
promoting, feeding, previewing and taping 
our weekly two-hour feed of independent 
film and video. 

Here again, there were a wide variety of 
answers. Interestingly, most programmers 
don't really know how much they spend on a 
program; they just deal in terms of total 
budget. However, when we named a per- 
minute figure based on their percent buying 
power times $500 a minute, most did not 
flinch. Indeed, some named figures much 
higher than that as a reasonable price for 
"high-quality" work. 

EFFICIENCY PITCH 

What about the amount of time they spend 
working with independent producers? We 
were hoping that our weekly market of in- 
dependent work, offered on standardized 
terms so the negotiating and transaction costs 
are cut down, would appeal on the basis of 
efficiency. Maybe, maybe not; the answers 
differed widely on this question too. Nathan 
Katzman of KQED in San Francisco figured 
that they spend the equivalent of one full- 
time person's salary on working with in- 
dependent producers. On the other hand, 
Fred Willis at WKNO in Memphis, Tennessee 
said that they don't see even one independent 
a month. The Bay area is teeming with indies, 
and KQED is more dedicated to local issues 
and local production than most. That clearly 
is not the case in Memphis. Only one pro- 
grammer, Dan Everett at WGBH, picked up 
on the efficiency aspect immediately. 

There was also no uniform opinion as to 
the subjects and lengths most desired. Half 
and full hours are clearly preferred, since sta- 
tions don't need filler to round out the hour, 
but several programmers mentioned that 
odd-length programming was okay if it 
would work for a pledge drive. They were 
almost unified on filler, but not quite. Most 
are dying for it; a couple said, "No way." 
They have more than they need, and besides, 
they can get it cheap. The question of subject 
matter was worse. Every possible category 
was mentioned — science, documentary, com- 
edy, drama, arts — but none by all. The only 
thing everyone agreed on was that documen- 
taries should be balanced and fair. No station 



has enough money to present the other side 
of a one-sided program. 

This brings us to the one point on which all 
the programmers united: grave concern for 
the "quality" of independent work. Because 
they need high quality, both to satisfy PBS 
standards and to attract viewers, all the pro- 
grammers felt they would have to preview all 
the work offered in this market. Quality, an 
ambiguous term at best [See Susan Linfield's 
article, page 11, for further discussion of the 
quality question. — Ed.], means here that 
production values are high, the presentation 
is interesting and the work has a professional 
and finished quality. A program dropped by 
PBS for quality reasons would not be picked 
up by an individual station. However, a con- 
troversial program not taken by PBS might 
well be purchased by an individual station 
which does not have to be as politically 
careful as the national system does. As Ar- 
thur Hook of KUID in Moscow, Idaho put 
it, "There is nothing magic about indepen- 
dent work." Al Rose, Director of Program- 
ming at WNJT in Trenton, New Jersey was 
even stronger about it, commenting, "In- 
dependent work has no appeal; the audience 
wouldn't watch it." Luckily, not everyone 
feels this way and most are more than ready 
to give it a try. 

The need to preview brought up some in- 
teresting technical questions with respect to 
the number of feeds necessary when they tape 
for preview and broadcast, etc. Most pro- 
grammers wanted two feeds, one for preview 
and one for real, but again there was no 
uniformity as to the best time to feed. 

The Public Television Marketing Project is 
a first step towards lowering the barriers 
faced by independent producers. By making 
access as easy as possible for both sides, in- 
dependents, stations and audiences stand to 
gain. As Gerald Dodd of WPTD in Dayton, 
Ohio said, "Building new links with indepen- 
dent producers will be insurance for the con- 
tinuation of public television service. " ■ 



Lucinda Mercer works at Independent 
Cinema Artists and Producers. Nanette Cuc- 
cia is studying telecommunications at New 
York University and works as a marketing 
analyst for United Satellite TV. 



13 



THE INDEPENDENT 




JOHN GREYSON 



Public TV Market Project 

for Independent Programming 



The public television marketing project 
will develop, test and evaluate a regular 
weekly "market" for offering independent- 
ly produced film and video to the public 
television system. On another level, it will 
also analyze and map the interest of public 
television stations in the wide variety of for- 
mats and genres that characterize independent 
production. Specifically, it is designed to: 

1. Facilitate independent access to the in- 
terconnect by providing an efficient ad- 
ministrative service; 

2. Schedule feeds at regular times to build 
station familiarity with the service; 

3. Standardize terms in order to eliminate the 
transaction costs of individual negotiations; 

4. Maximize flexibility for stations by per- 
mitting individual licensings on a per- 
minute basis; 

5. Pool promotional expenses involved in 
mailings, telephone follow-up, and use of 
the DACS; and 

6. Provide for and test two alternative pro- 
motional strategies: a) Packaging and pro- 
motion of individual feeds by national in- 
dependent programmers such as Global 
Village; and b) Encouraging participation 
by local media arts organizations in the 
licensing, packaging and promotion pro- 
cess — preferably in concert with local 
public television, but with the option of ac- 
ting independently. 

The project is to be distinguished from 
past series or package offerings of indepen- 
dent work to public television. It will be 
conducted as an open market with no 
prescribed themes or limitations on form 



and content; in other words, it will serve as 
a common carrier rather than a program- 
mer. It may include one or more small 
packages assembled by independent pro- 
grammers, but even within these packages, 
material may be licensed selectively. The in- 
itial schedule of 15 weekly two-hour feeds 
will be assembled by category, but for the 
purpose of making the material accessible 
to station programmers and to facilitate 
evaluation of the project. 

CONSULTANTS FOR CREDIBILITY 
AND PROMOTION 

A programming consultant with a 
background in public television program- 
ming will evaluate submissions. A title will 
be accepted if, in the opinion of the consul- 
tant, it is likely to be licensed by at least 
10% of the system in terms of buying 
power. The programming consultant will 
also be responsible for supervising flagging, 
in accordance with PBS practices, and general 
promotion of the market to the stations. 

A marketing consultant will have primary 
responsibility for evaluating the results of 
the project. He or she will also refine the 
methodology, see that the feeds are 
assembled in a consistent and categorical 
manner and ensure that procedures are 
standardized as much as possible. 

Submissions will require an evaluation 
fee ($20-40, depending on length and for- 
mat) to help defray administrative costs and 
permit processing of however many submis- 
sions are actually received. If a title is ac- 
cepted, the producer must then provide a 1 " 
or 2" broadcast-quality video master or pay 
the costs of transfer (approximately 
$135/hour for film). The producer will be 



requested to provide %Vi" x 11" promo- 
tional materials, which will be bound and 
mailed without cost. Independent program- 
mers using the market will be subject to the 
same costs as individuals, but their submis- 
sions will not be subject to rejection. 

Titles will be offered at a uniform rate of 
$500/minute times the individual station's 
proportional buying power. E.g., WQED 
in Pittsburgh is listed at 2% of station buy- 
ing power, so it would pay $10/minute. Of- 
fered material will be sold regardless of the 
number of stations choosing to purchase. 
Terms will be standardized: unlimited plays 
for six months on a non-exclusive basis for 
short titles, and for longer titles, the public 
television standard of four "releases" in 
three years with exclusive local broadcast 
rights. There will be no reserve price or 
"minimum buy." A station will therefore 
be assured of the title's availability, cost 
and terms without further inquiry or 
negotiation. Surcharges, 10% for ad- 
ministration and 5°7o to PBS for use of the 
interconnect, will be added to licensing fees 
to help cover operational expenses. Thus, 
WQED would pay an additional 
$1.50/minute for a total of $11.50/minute 
with the full $10/minute going to the pro- 
ducer (unless, of course, the work is sub- 
mitted through a distributor). 

MEDIA ARTS GROUPS INVITED 

Participation of local media arts 
organizations is sought to increase the 
visibility of the offering, to facilitate 
packaging and promotion at the local level 
and to provide a unique opportunity for 
coordination between local public television 
and media arts organizations. There will be 
no attempt to prescribe the form this rela- 
tionship would take. A wide variety of ar- 
rangements are possible. A media arts 
organization might simply suggest station 
acquisition of particular titles; it might of- 
fer to promote particular titles, if the sta- 
tion will acquire them; or it may seek local 
underwriters for creating a package of its 
own design. 

It should be emphasized that this is a 
market access project and that costs and 
risks are being borne by the producers, 
distributors or independent programmers. 
Solicitations will explicitly acknowledge 
these risks. It will also be clearly stated that 
the project is an experiment and that, given 
the limited schedule, there is no guarantee 
that all material judged suitable for public 
television can be scheduled. Of course, if 
the project demonstrates the viability of an 
ongoing market, then all suitable material 
will eventually be offered. The evaluation 
fee is designed to provide means for con- 
tinuing under propitious circumstances, 
and for this reason submissions may be held 
until the viability of the service can be 
determined. ■ 



14 



SEPTEMBER 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



AIVF FORUM 



Unions Vie 
For Indie Biz 



Last December, FIVF held a forum at 
which representatives of the Writers' Guild, 
Directors' Guild, NABET and IATSE ad- 
dressed AIVF members on the possibilities 
(and impossibilities) of shooting a low- 
budget production with a union crew. Subse- 
quently, AIVF established an Ad Hoc In- 
dependent Producer/Union Committee to ex- 
plore the issues raised at that forum further. 

Since then, the Committee has met with 
Tom Turley, Business Manager of NABET 
15, John Sucke, Assistant Executive 
Secretary of the Screen Actors' Guild (SAG) 
and Doug Hart, Vice President of IATSE Local 
644 (camera) to discuss individual contracts. 

Lately, there has been an explosion of ac- 
tivity within the unions and guilds around the 
low-budget issue. In mid-June, the East 
Coast Council of IATSE voted to address the 
issue of low-budget production formally. 
"We will address ourselves to the size of the 



crew, cut out manpower where it's not need- 
ed. We'll see certain artists working for scale 
and we'll change some of the working condi- 
tions for a picture," said Council Chairman 
Edward Callaghan in Hollywood Reporter 
(6/17/82). "We're going to show the pro- 
ducer that whatever money he can get to pro- 
duce, we'll come in within the budget he pro- 
jects with the best work." 

Just two weeks later, the Council of Mo- 
tion Picture and Television Unions, which in- 
cludes the DGA, SAG, WGA, American 
Federation of Television and Radio Artists, 
Theatrical Teamsters and United Scenic Ar- 
tists as well as the nine IATSE locals 
represented by Callaghan, called a special 
meeting resulting in a resolution to formulate 
a unified low-budget policy for all the 
Eastern unions and guilds. 

On Wednesday evening, September 22, 
1982, representatives of the Directors' 



Summary of Minutes 

The AIVF/ FIVF Board met on July 7, 
1982 and took up the following matters: 

• ICAP PTV MARKETING PRO- 
POSAL. The AIVF/ FIVF Board una- 
nimously endorsed a proposal by In- 
dependent Cinema Artists and Producers 
(ICAP) for marketing and satellite 
distribution of independent programs to 
public television stations. [See article page 
13.] 

• ELECTION OF OFFICERS. Robert 
Richter, President; William Greaves, Vice 
President; Lillian Jimenez, Chair; Kathy 
Kline, Secretary; Matt Clarke, Treasurer. 

• PERMANENT BOARD COMMIT- 
TEES. The decision to establish perma- 
nent board committees grew out of discus- 
sions held at a recent day-long 
Board/staff retreat. The following com- 
mittees were authorized by the Board: 

A. Executive Committee (includes 
regional growth and chapter develop- 
ment): Jimenez, Richter, Clarke, Sapadin 
(ex officio) 

B. AIVF Membership Committee (in- 



cludes regional growth and chapter 
development): Richter, Kline, Turley 

C. AIVF Advocacy Committee (cable, 
PTV and other media issues): Greaves, 
Richter, Dan Edelman (alternate) 

D. FIVF Development Committee (fun- 
draising, Advisory Board development): 
Jimenez, Richter, Greaves 

E. FIVF Program Committee (seminars, 
screenings, workshops, festivals, publica- 
tions including The Independent): Clarke, 
Figueroa. 



AIVF and FIVF encourage membership 
participation in their standing commit- 
tees. If you are interested in any particular 
aspect of our work (advocacy, screenings 
etc.), join a committee today. Have a say 
in what your organization is doing. Call 
(212) 473-3400 or write: AIVF, 625 Broad- 
way, 9th floor, New York NY 10012. 



AIVF Board meetings are generally 
scheduled for 7:30 pm on the second 
Wednesday of each month. Meetings are 
open to the public. Members are en- 
couraged to attend and share their views 
with the Board. For precise date call the 
AIVF office. ■ 



PRINCIPLES & RESOLUTIONS 
OF THE ASSOCIATION 



AIVF FOUNDING PRINCIPLES 

1. The Association is a service organi- 
zation of and for independent video 
and filmmakers. 

2. The Association encourages excel- 
lence, commitment and independence; 
it stands for the principle that video and 
filmmaking is more than just a job — 
that it goes beyond economics to in- 
volve the expression of broad human 
values. 

3. The Association works, through the 
combined effort of the membership, to 
provide practical, informational and 
moral support for independent video 
and filmmakers and is dedicated to en- 
suring the survival and providing sup- 
port for the continuing growth of in- 
dependent video and filmmaking. 

4. The Association does not limit its 
support to one genre, ideology or 
aesthetic, but furthers diversity of vi- 
sion in artistic and social consciousness. 

5. The Association champions indepen- 
dent video and film as valuable and 
vital expressions of our culture and is 
determined, by mutual action, to open 
pathways toward exhibition of this 
work to the community at large. 



AIVF RESOLUTIONS 

1. To affirm the creative use of media 
in fostering cooperation, community & 
justice in human relationships without 
respect to age, sex, race, class or 
religion. 

2. To recognize and reaffirm the 
freedom of expression of the indepen- 
dent film and videomaker, as spelled 
out in the AIVF principles. 

3. To promote constructive dialogue 
and heightened awareness among the 
membership of the social, artistic and 
personal choices involved in the pursuit 
of both independent and sponsored 
work, via such mechanisms as screen- 
ings and forums. 

4. To continue to work to strengthen 
AIVFs services to independents, in 
order to help reduce the membership's 
dependence on the kinds of sponsorship 
which encourage the compromise of 
personal values. 



SEPTEMBER 1982 



IS 



THE INDEPENDENT 



CLEANING 



HOUSE 



FIVF is spring-cleaning a little early this 
year. The following items are available to 
members on a first-come, first-served 
basis, at the prices listed. For an appoint- 
ment to look at this used equipment, call: 
John Grey son, FIVF (212) 473-3400. 

• Electrovoice Omni-Directional Microphne, 
Model 625-A...$50 

• Sennheiser Microphone K3U, includes: power 
modual, ME40 Super Cad Head, 
windscreen. ..$350 

• Miller professional fluid head LPS 1 70 tripod, 
with legs and spreader, #6537... $500 

• Star-D light-weight professional tripod 
#1059.. .$70 

• 2 Sony B/W reel-to-reel V2 " porta-paks with 
recorder, camera, AC adaptor, battery pack & 
charger, with cases. ..$300 each 

• Panasonic 19" B/W TV (#2234).. .$40 

• Sony 6° PVM-8000 Trinitron color field 
monitor, with 2 power cords, 1 UHF to BNC, like 
new.. .$600 

• Sony CMA-5 camera adapter. ..$100 

• Sony CMA-1 camera adapter. ..$35 

• Sony AV-8650 Vi " reel-to-reel editing deck (no 
forward drive, needs minor repairs).. .$50 




Joel DeMott & Jeff Kreines, producers of not -yet 
-seen 'Seventeen' 

Guild's new low-budget committee will be 
meeting with AIVFs Independent Pro- 
ducer/Union Committee at the AIVF offices 
to report on recent developments within the 
DGA, and to get our ideas about how they 
might formulate their low-budget contract. 
All AIVF members are invited to attend. For 
more information, call (212) 473-3400. Call 
in advance to confirm date and time. ■ 

— Union Committee 

Editorial Qoof 

Anyone can make a crass mistake, and my 
roundup of recent disputes at PBS (see 



July/ August Independent) included a real 
blooper. The Middletown series is, in fact, a 
collection of films by independent film- 
makers. Peter Davis landed the Xerox grant 
and NEH funding that made the whole pro- 
ject possible, but he actually directed only 
one of the six films— The Wedding. AIVF 
members Joel DeMott and Jeff Kreines, two 
filmmakers based in Montgomery, Alabama, 
were responsible for Seventeen, and spent 
over two years in Muncie, Indiana shooting 
and editing. 

"We work alone using one-person rigs with 
a Nagra SM built in. We customized the rigs 
to be able to make our own kind of documen- 
tary," explained DeMott and Kreines. "We 
are glad Peter Davis financed the films, and 
he offered us total freedom, as well as back- 
ing us when things got difficult with PBS and 
Xerox. Unfortunately, the Middletown 
publicity materials and most press accounts 
didn't make it clear who was responsible for 
making the film." 

At this point, many people are wondering 
if they will ever see the much-disputed film. 
"Due to the objections of some of the Mun- 
cie people, we are still trying to decide 
whether to release the film," says DeMott. 
For information contact DeMott/Krienes 
Films, 5330 Kennedy Ave., Millbrook AL 
36054. 

—Kathleen Hulser 



CINETUDES FILM PRODUCTIONS. LTD, 

295 W. 4th Street, New York City 10014 • 966-4600 






EDITING & POST-PRODUCTION FACILITIES 

FILM & VIDEO 



■■ 






ATELIER CINEMA VIDEO STAGES 

295 W. 4th Street, New York City 10014 • 243-3550 



aaitf^jijfjMn 



18 



tea 



THE INDEPENDENT 



FESTIVALS 



PL: Who picks the films at Telluride, and 
how? 



Telluride: A Trip 

To the Celluloid Canyon 



PACHO LANE 

Bill and Stella Pence are the founding 
directors of the successful and prestigious 
Telluride Film Festival. In addition, they 
have also created a second festival, the Santa 
Fe Festival, which is now entering its third 
year. 



because the town is very small. You meet 
everybody everywhere you go — you can't 
help it! We do it in the park at Telluride, and 
set up a dummy question to get conversation 
rolling. Then people can ask the filmmakers 
whatever questions they like. 



PACHO LANE: How 

Telluride? 



did you start PL: What makes Telluride so successful? 



STELLA PENCE: Originally we got in- 
volved because our friend, James Carr, was 
curator of film at the George Eastman 
House. When he came out to see our theater 
in Aspen and do a program, we asked him to 
do another one at our theater in Telluride. It 
was such a blending of talents — his and 
Bill's, and also Tom Luddy's (then director 
of the Pacific Film Archive and co-director 
of Telluride and Santa Fe), that we decided it 
would be a great idea to do a film festival and 
just have a good big party. We knew a lot of 
people in distribution and production who 
we wanted to bring together. So it began 
without any grandiose ideas. After the first 
weekend, we saw that we really could make a 2 
contribution, filling a hole in the film festival | 
scene. 5 



SP: Our mentor in film festivals was Albert 
Johnson, whose San Francisco Film Festival 
was legendary. We used to go regularly, and 
we got from Albert many of the ideas we use: 
tributes, clips. But Telluride is unique 
because people come from all over the world 
and all film disciplines, and they're together 
in this box canyon for four days, like an in- 
cubator. It's a terrifically intense experience, 
and there's enormous exchange between the 
townspeople, the festival attendees and the 
guests. Telluride is not at all commercial, far 
less so even that Santa Fe. No star-gazing, no 
autograph hunters. 



PL: Is your commitment more altruistic or Eg 
financial? 5 



SP: We don't think in those terms. It's cer- 
tainly not a financial commitment because it 
doesn't make any money. We take a very 
small salary, and most of the work is 
volunteer. It's a struggle every year to keep it 
going. It's almost gotten bigger than we are. 

PL: What's the program at Telluride? 

SP: Entirely eclectic. We like to draw atten- 
tion to things you can't see anywhere else. 
We like people to come with their eyes wide, 
wondering what they're going to see, and 
then go home having seen an old Russian 
serial, and found out what a camera operator 
or an art director does, and how a director 
directs a film. 

PL: Have you always had seminars as well as 
films? 

SP: It's tough to get the guests and the par- 
ticipants together without a forum for con- 
versation, although it's easier in Telluride 
SEPTEMBER 19S2 




'Dan's Motel' by Jerry Barrish, one of the few 
American dramatic features chosen for 'New 
Directors/New Films' 



SP: Bill, Tom Luddy, Bill Everson and I 
usually pick them. People send films to us. 

PL: You mean it's not by invitation only? 

SP: No, no. We welcome films and look at 
everything we get (pant, pant). We go after 
some things, and then some stuff comes to 
us. For example, last year Volker Schlon- 
dorff called us to say, "I want my new film to 
premiere at Telluride; I'm going to pick it up 
at the lab and bring it myself." And he did. 
Bill and I will be looking for films at Cannes 
this year, but not from Schlondorff or Dusan 
Makavejev, because they'll come to us. We 
look for little films that won't get anywhere, 
won't get American distribution. For exam- 
ple, My Dinner with Andre: Louis Malle 
called Tom and said, "I want you to show this 
at Telluride," so Tom sent us a print, and we 
loved it and showed it. 

Right now it's much easier for us than ever 
before. Even the majors are starting to court 
us which is a riot! So if someone calls to ask, 
"Gee, how can I get a film in Telluride?", I 
say: send it, we'll look at it and let you know. 
No entry forms or fees, no competitions — we 
don't have anything like that because it's 
strictly an informal thing. But do send films 
by the beginning of July. 

PL: What are the benefits to the filmmaker? 

SP: It's the annual meeting place of the 
Association of Specialized Film Exhibitors, 
people who own art theaters all over the 
country. Every year they converge on 
Telluride to see one another and the films. 
So, for a filmmaker who wants to reach these 
specialized exhibitors, it's a perfect forum. 
For another thing, Telluride has 
garnered — one of those sweet-mystery-of-life 
things — a reputation for real excellence in 
programming, and when a film plays at 
Telluride, that means something. Distri- 
butors like New Yorker Films, New Line and 
Films Inc., who handle films out of the 
mainstream, want their films to show in 
Telluride because they know they'll get a real 
launching. But most of all, Telluride is a 
chance to come together. That's what really 
makes a film festival successful — the innova- 
tion in what you see and the opportunities to 
talk with the people who made the films. 

PL: How can festivals be more responsive to 
the needs of independents? 

SP: That's a toughie. I know there's a real 
need because of the onslaught of films we get 
every year from independents. We have 
found that when we show an independent 
film — no matter what the length — it's always 
much more successful and far more openly 
received if shown in conjunction with a non- 

17 



THE INDEPENDENT 



independent film. So to help the in- 
dependents, a festival should try to get the 
largest audience for their films. For example, 
our 2 o'clock show is always packed, and 
we'd show Schlondorff's new film with an in- 
dependent short, and if it's good, we've done 
the filmmaker a good turn, because people 
will go away saying, "Hey, Pacho Lane's was 
pretty damn good and I never would have 
gone to see it if I didn't have to." Maybe in- 
dependent filmmakers would rather die than 
admit that kind of thing. ■ 

Pacho Lane is a Santa Fe filmmaker whose 
most recent film is Stoney Knows How. 



San Francisco 

After a long period of indecision and a 
series of turnarounds, the directors of the 
San Francisco International Film Festival 
have announced their decision to merge their 
festival with the Los Angeles Film Exposition 
(Filmex). The San Francisco International 
Festival will not be held this November as 
usual, but rather in March 1983 just prior to 
Filmex. 

The main reason for the reorganization is 
money. A nearly $100,000 deficit inherited by 
the new directors in 1980 has swollen to 
almost $200,000, forcing a number of cost- 
cutting strategies. Films will still be screened 
in San Francisco at two theatres for twelve 
days, but cooperation with Filmex, which is 
also heavily in debt, will enable both festivals 
to save money. The areas of cooperation will 
include scheduling some of the same films, 
thereby sharing the expenses of bringing 
those filmmakers to the West Coast; sharing 
the costs of previewing films; and prepara- 
tion of joint promotional materials. 

Furthermore, selections will be made by 
continuing directors Tom Luddy (program- 
mer for both the Telluride and New York 
Festivals) and Mel Novikoff (owner of the 
Surf Theater Chain), who both travel exten- 
sively in search of films anyway, and Gary 
Essert of Filmex. Noted film scholar Albert 
Johnson will be leaving the festival, and 
Peter Buchanan, a San Francisco attorney, 
will continue as Executive Director. 

An earlier plan announced at a press con- 
ference on July 16 called for holding the 
competitive section of the Festival, which 
reportedly pays for itself, without the added 
"luxury" of openings, retrospectives and 
special programs. This plan was abandoned 
less than a week later, however, when it was 
learned that the Academy of Motion Picture 
Arts & Sciences was pushing back its qualify- 
ing deadline for documentaries to October 
31.* Lacking is the incentive for producers to 
enter in order to qualify, and unable to put 
the festival on any sooner, among other 
reasons, the organizers decided to move the 
entire event back to March. 

Other events of the San Francisco Interna- 
tional Film Festival will be held as planned. 
18 



Alan Gadney's 

How to Enter and Win 
Film Contests 

and 

How to Enter and Win 
Video/Audio Contests 

are available for $6.95 plus tax 
and shipping fee from: 

Facts on File, Inc. 

460 Park Avenue South 

New York, New York 10016 



An Australian Film Festival will be held in 
San Francisco on November 9-13, and the 
third annual Bay Area Filmmakers 
Showcase, co-sponsored by the Film Arts 
Foundation, will be held from November 
14-17. 

*For more information on qualifying for an 
Academy Award, write AMPAS at 8949 
Wilshire Blvd., Beverly Hills C A 90211, or 
watch for details in the October Independent. 
— Wendy Lidell & Gail Silva 

New Directors/New Films 

New Directors/New Films, held in April, is 
a presentation of the Film Society of Lincoln 
Center, which also sponsors the New York 
Film Festival. According to Festival Director 
Wendy Keys, the event is a survey of world 
cinema stressing European and Third World 
films, rather than American work. She ex- 
plained that they look for "quality" films 
with little prior New York or US exposure, 
and prefer films over one hour in length. 
Most of the American documentaries screen- 
ed in the festival over the last three years, 
however, actually ran between 30 and 60 
minutes. These include: De Kooning On De 
Kooning by Charlotte Zwerin, Brooklyn 
Bridge by Ken Burns, Clotheslines by 
Roberta Cantow, The Willmar 8 by Lee 
Grant, Possum Living by Nancy Schreiber, 
Tapdancin'* by Christian Blackwood, 
Memories of Duke by Gary Keys, The Phans 
of Jersey City by Abbie Fink and Daughter 
Rite by Michelle Citron. 

Practically all foreign films shown at the 
festival have been dramatic features, while 
John Sayles' Return of the Secaucus Seven, 
Jerry Barrish's Dan's Motel and Wayne 
Wang's Chan is Missing have been the only 
American features selected since 1980. 
Although New Directors/New Films offers 
no competition or honorarium, it's a 
prestigious showcase that attracts top film 
critics as well as the public. To cite one exam- 
ple of the power of the press: after Vincent 
Canby's New York Times rave review, Chan 
is Missing immediately found a distributor 
and embarked on a successful New York 
theatrical run. "The festival people did 



everything they could to recommend my film 
to other people and places," said Jerry Bar- 
rish, noting that he was able to make exten- 
sive new contacts. 

Selections are made by Wendy Keys, 
Joanne Koch and Richard Roud of the Film 
Society of Lincoln Center and Larry Kardish 
and Adrienne Mancia of the Museum of 
Modern Art. The festival, previously held at 
the museum's auditorium, was moved in 1982 
to the larger Festival Theatre on 57th Street, yet 
it still sells out at many performances. 

The festival selections are now also shown 
at the Denver International Film Festival 
shortly after their New York run — sig- 
nificantly since Denver has become the head- 
quarters for the nation's cable TV industry. 

Films in 35 and 16mm may be entered from 
mid-October to the end of February by call- 
ing or writing any member of the selections 
committee at: The Film Society of Lincoln 
Center, 140 West 65 St., New York NY 
10023, (212) 877-1800 ext. 489; or Museum of 
Modern Art, 11 West 53 St., New York NY 
10019, (212) 956-7094/4206. 

— WL 



Festival Bureau Scores 

This year the Festival Bureau has been par- 
ticularly effective in supplying festival pro- 
grammers with information on newly com- 
pleted works. The payoff is that festival 
directors are responding by programming 
more and more independent work. For exam- 
ple, by the time this issue went to press in Ju- 
ly, the films listed below had been selected 
for screening in the 36th Edinburgh Interna- 
tional Film Festival. Director Jim Hickey was 
still looking at material sent in the FIVF 
group shipment and expected to choose 
several more. This year Edinburgh selected 
approximately one out of three American 
films sent by FIVF; and of those, all but four 
of the filmmakers are AIVF members. 

• Stoney Knows How, Pacho Lane; 

• The Last to Know, Bonnie Friedman; 

• The Curse of Fred Astaire, Mark Berger; 

• Open Line, Aleksander Zivanovich; 

• In Our Water, Meg Switzgable; 

• Clotheslines, Roberta Cantow; 

• A Crime to Fit the Punishment, Barbara 
Moss/Steve Mack; 

• D as in Dynamite & Louise Smells A Rat, 
Anne Flournoy; 

• The Woman Behind the Image: Judy 
Dater, John Stewart; 

• Miami is OK, Steven S. Weiss; 

• The Case of the Legless Veteran, Howard 
Petrick; 

• Between Rock and a Hard Place, Kenneth 
Fink; 

• An Acquired Taste, Ralph Arlyck; 

• Boccioni's Bike, Carl Battaglia; 

• Manifest Destiny, Joseph Yacoe; 

• Juggling, Elizabeth Sher; 

• Nick Mazucco: Biography of an Atomic 
Vet, Richard Schmiechen. ■ 

— Kathleen Hulser 
SEPTEMBER 1962 



THE INDEPENDENT 



MORE FESTIVALS 



MORE FESTIVALS has been compiled by Linda Ann Lopez and Wendy 
Lidell with the help of Gadney's Guides and the FIVF files. Listings do 
not constitute an endorsement, and since some details change faster 
than we do, we recommend that you contact the festival for further 
information before sending your prints or tapes. If your experience with a 
particular festival differs from our account, please let us know so we can 
improve our reliability. 



October; $5 fee. Contact: Joseph R. Murphy, Ap- 
palachian State University, Educational Media 
Department, Boone NC 28608, (704) 262-2243. 

• CHARLES GREEN CENTER FOR FILM 
ARTS extends invitation to filmmakers w/ 
30-min. maximum Super-8/16mm films to 12th 
Open Screen Film Festival, held in late Sept. Au- 
dience will select 3 best films. First prize winner 
eligible for J-'irst Grand Prize Film Festival in Oct. 
Send $1, prepaid postage & insurance w/ films to: 
Charles Green Center for Film Arts, 58 East 3 St., 
NY NY 10003, (212) 260-2123. 



Domestic 

• AMERICAN PERSONNEL AND 
GUIDANCE ASSOCIATION FILM FESTIVAL, 
Mar. 20-23, held in conjunction with the annual 
APGA conference attended by approximately 
9,000 professionals in such areas as counseling & 
guidance, rehabilitation, psychology, sociology, 
career education, human rights & human develop- 
ment. Descriptions & buying information on all 
selected films and tapes will be printed in the of- 
ficial convention program. Winners will be 
featured in the APGA newspaper, distributed to 
all 40,000 members. Four winners selected from 
25-30 films & tapes shown. $30 entry fee; addi- 
tional $30 projection fee if your film/tape is 
selected. Enter by Oct. 15. Contact: Lisa Block, 
APGA, 2 Skyline Place, ste. 400, 5203 Leesburg 
Pike, Falls Church VA 22041, (703) 820-4700. 

• BAY AREA FILMMAKERS SHOWCASE, 
Nov. 14-17, is co-sponsored by the San Francisco 
International Film Festival & the Film Arts Foun- 
dation (FAF). It's a non-competitive festival that 
accepts films in 16 and 35mm completed since May 
1981 & not previously entered in the festival. The 
filmmaker must have been living in the San Fran- 
cisco Bay Area during the time of the film's pro- 
duction. Selections are made by Gail Silva, direc- 
tor of FAF, John Webber, longtime coordinator 
of the Showcase, and Tom Luddy, special projects 
director for Francis Coppola. Additional curators 
are brought in to help formulate the several special 
programs held during the Showcase, such as the 
Animation Program. Seminars are held as well. 
Entry deadline: Sept. 17; no fee. For forms and in- 
fo contact: Gail Silva, Film Arts Foundation, 2940 
16 St. #105, San Francisco CA 94103, (415) 
552-870. 

• FILMFEST MIDWEST, Mar. 11-13, is the ma- 
jor educational film market in the Chicago & 
Midwest area. Patterned after the American Film 
Festival, it features categorically organized screen- 
ings & workshops with invited filmmakers; no 
competition. Approximately 170 shorts & 10 
features are selected for screening from 400-500 
entries. Over 1,100 teachers & film librarians at- 
tend, as do many of the major film distributors. 
All film gauges & videotape accepted. Entries due 
Oct. 15; fees range from $20 to $35 depending on 
length. Contact: Charles Boos, Midwest Film Con- 
ference, PO Box 1665, Evanston IL 60204, (312) 
869-0600. 

• FREEDOMS FOUNDATION NATIONAL 
AWARDS, February, recognize deeds that support 
America, contribute to citizenship & suggest solu- 
tions to problems. 400 awards presented to 
outstanding individuals in many cultural 
categories including motion pictures & TV pro- 
SKPTMMBER 19B2 



grams. Works should treat the theme that "we are 

fortunate to live in this country." Enter by Oc- FOFOIffft 
tober. Contact: Freedoms Foundation at Valley 
Forge, Valley Forge PA 19481, (215) 933-8825. 



• IN TER NA TIONAL UNDER WA TER 
PHOTOGRAPHIC COMPETITION, October, 
held to encourage excellence in underwater 
photography, both still & motion. At least 30% of 
each film in 16mm & Super-8 must be exposed 
underwater. Plaques & certificates are awarded by 
judges who screen the first twenty minutes of each 
submission. Fee: $5; enter by October. Contact: 
Steve Ioerger, Underwater Photographic Society, 
PO Box 7088, Van Nuys CA 91409, (213) 
367-7635. 

• NEW RIVER MIXED MEDIA GATHERING, 
Oct. 22-23, sponsored by the North Carolina In- 
dependent Film and Video Association (NCIFVA) 
& Appalachian State University. Its purpose is to 
encourage local students & independents to pro- 
duce media in Super-8 and 16mm. There is no 
competition, but screenings & workshops are at- 
tended by over 200 people including students, 
librarians & film users. This year's speakers will be 
Jim St. Lawrence from the New York Institute of 
Technology & filmmaker Jane Aaron. Enter by 



• BILBAO INTERNATIONAL FESTIVAL OF 
DOCUMENTARY & SHORT FILMS, Nov. 
29-Dec. 4, held annually in the Basque area of 
Spain. Established in 1959, the festival's motto is 
"Understanding between men through the image." 
Progressive films are welcome at Bilbao, & 
Americans took the grand prize of 300,000 pesetas 
in 1980 and 1981. They were Controlling Interest: 
The World of the Multinational Corporation by 
Larry Adelman & El Salvador: Another Vietnam? 
by Tete Vasconcellos and Glenn Silber. Silber 
reports that they have yet to receive their award or 
their film, but Adelman waited quite a long time 
the previous year & finally received both. His con- 
clusion is that such problems could be eliminated 
by attending the festival. Bilbao once enjoyed a 
good reputation, but because of political upheaval 
in the area has experienced some decline. Prints ac- 
cepted in 16 or 35mm in the categories of Fiction, 
Animation & Documentary. Fictional & animated 
shorts limited to 60 min., but no length require- 
ment for documentaries. No entry fee; entrant 
pays postage. Deadline: Sept. 15. (FIVF has re- 
quested an extension to Oct. 1.) Contact: Colon de 
Larreategui, 37-4° dcha, Bilbao, Espana. 



v, low budget 
/feature films 



Learn the basics of producing and investing in low-budget feature films for 
profit. Learn how to market movies ("product") to the evolving cable, 
network TV, video cassette/disk and movie theatre markets. Get in on the 
ground floor of the technological revolution. 

Our classes review the legal and technical aspects of acquiring properties; 
the screenplay, music and casting; budgeting and financing; shooting, 
camera, light and sound; editing, effects, mixing and cutting; and conven- 
tional and self-distribution. 

This is an ideal course for writers, directors, editors, actors, technicians, stage 
producers, production managers, attorneys, accountants, investors, agents, 
and any person looking to grow with today's technological revolution or 
participate in motion picture productions. 

Licensed by N.YS. Education Department. Qualified film instructors. Volunteer 
film production internships available. Start now. Days, evenings or Saturdays. 

For brochure and course descriptions, call or write 

NEW YORK FILM INSTITUTE 

132 Nassau Street, New York, NY 10038, (212) 964-4706 



19 



THE INDEPENDENT 



• FESTIVAL DEI POPOLI, Dec. 3-11. 
Translated as Festival of the People & established 
in 1959, dei Popoli mainly showcases social 
documentaries. For the first time this year, special 
projections will be organized in a market section 
for both public & private TV distribution as well as 
invited theatrical buyers. Dei Popoli is said to have 
been poorly organized in the past, but we have 
received no recent reports either way. Films can be 
any length in 16 & 35mm; a video section will be 
added this year. There are cash awards for Best 
Documentary. Best Documentary for TV & Best 
First Work. American work has always been 
welcomed by the festival. Last year, an estimated 
30,000 spectators attended. No entry fee. Enter by 
Oct. 25. Contact: Antonio Breschi or Mario 
Simondi, Via del Proconsolo 0-50122, Florence, 
Italy. 

• INTERNATIONAL AMATEUR SPORTS 
FILM COMPETITION, Nov. 5-6, held in 
Mulheim/Ruhr every two years, encourages an in- 
terest in moving pictures about sports in the widest 
sense. The competition is meant for amateurs on- 
ly. This year, for the first time, video will be ac- 
cepted. Films in Super-8, 16mm & all video for- 
mats will be admitted in the categories of 
Documentaries, Eyewitness Accounts, Current Af- 
fairs, Short Films, Cartoons, Light Entertainment, 
Educational, Instructive & Scientific. Silent films 
are accepted. Films should not exceed 20 min. in 
length. Substantial cash prizes awarded to win- 
ners. No entry fee; entrant pays postage. Deadline: 
Oct. 15. Contact: Heinrich-Thone- 
Volkshochschule, Bergstrasse 1-3, Postfach 12 20, 
D-4330 Mulheim/Ruhr, West Germany. 

• INTERNATIONAL FESTIVAL OF SUPERS 
FILM, November, sponsored by University of the 
Valley, Cinematica la Tertulia & the Chamber of 
Commerce, was established in 1980 with the inten- 
tion of improving independent filmmaking by 
bringing Super-8 filmmakers together to view each 



other's work. Annual festival is open to all, with 
an average of 64 entries from 6 countries & an at- 
tendance of 10,000. Super-8 entries accepted in 
any language with subtitles in Spanish, in 
categories of Amateur, Professional, Scientific & 
Experimental. Include a short synopsis of film. 
Silver plates awarded to each category for Best 
Director, Best Film, Photography, Editing & 
Sound, with judging by 5 international filmmakers 
and critics. Entry fee: $5. Deadline: October. Con- 
tact: University of the Valley, Rodrigo Vidal 
Medina, Unidad de Recursos Pedagogicos, Apar- 
tado Aereo 2188, Cali, Colombia. 

• NATURE, MAN & HIS ENVIRONMENT IN- 
TERNATIONAL FILM FESTIVAL, November- 
December, gives exposure to films that deal with 
ecology & preservation of cities & civilization. 
Films in 16 & 35mm may be submitted in 
categories of Basic Ecology, Popular Awareness of 
Nature-Natural Resource Preservation, Chemical- 
Physical-Noise Pollution of Soil- Water-Air, Flora- 
Natural Landscape Preservation, National Parks 
Reserves, Parks-Greenbelt Problems, Man-Made 
Landscapes & Historic Town Character Preserva- 
tion. All films receive certificate of participation. 
No entry fee. Deadline: Oct. 15. Contact: Ente 
Mostra Cinematografica, Internazionale Liborio 
Rao, Director, Via di Villa Patrizi 10 00161 Rome, 
Italy; tel: 421 901. 

• VICTORIAN INTERNATIONAL AMA- 
TEUR FESTIVAL, November, established in 1938 
& held annually. Entry restricted to amateurs. 
Submissions should be in Super-8, 8 & 16mm with 
maximum length of 30 min. Film should have been 
completed in the last 3 years in categories of Fic- 
tion, Documentary, Travel & General. Cash prizes 
awarded to the top 5 winners & the Golden Kanga 
trophy to the 10 Best Films. No entry fee; entrant 
pays postage. Deadline: October. Contact: Vic- 
torian Amateur Cine Society, Vic Guihenneuc, 
Director, 6 Orana Street, Blackburn, Victoria 
3131, Australia. 



NOTICES 



NOTICES are listed free of charge. AIVF members receive first priority; 
others included as space permits. Send notices to The Independent c/o 
FIVF, 625 Broadway, 9th Floor, New York NY 10012. For further info, call 
(212) 473-3400. Deadline: 8th of second preceding month (e.g. 
September 8 for November). Edited by Odessa Flores 



Buy •Rent •Soil 

• FOR SALE: Moviola 4-gang synchronizer, 
35mm, $100; Neumade 2-gang synchronizer, 
16mm, $80; Moviola amplifier/speaker, URS 
model, $65; Maier-Hancock hot splicer, 16mm, 
$125; Griswold cement splicer, 35mm, $25; 
Griswold cement splicer, 16mm, $10; fluid head 
tripod, wooden legs, $125; Dalite fast-fold front & 
rear projection screens 7 ' x 10.5 ' each, $400; Col- 
ortan 6x9's w/stands & gel holders, $175. Contact: 
Jones, (212) 392-7900 or 928-2407, eves. 

• FOR SALE: CP16-A 16mm sync camera w/ 
Angenieux 12-120 lens, single & double system 
capability, 2 400' Lexan magazines, 3 batteries, 
charger, cases & more. Excellent condition & 
recently overhauled, $2400. Contact: Jon Mostow, 

20 



CSRL, PO Box 19367, Washington DC 20036, 
(202) 387-8030. 

• FOR SALE: 35mm Arriflex 2B camera, mint 
condition w/ 3 motors, Angenieux zoom & 6 prime 
lenses including 14.5 Angenieux, 5 400-ft. 
magazines, 2 200-ft. magazines, filter Proxars, 
batteries, sync generator, carrying case, $4250. 
Also, 35mm editing equipment for sale. Contact: 
Leo Seltzer, (212) 879-0900. 

• FOR SALE: Bolex EBM w/ Angenieux 12-120 
zoom & Bolex body brace for steady hand-held. 
Recently serviced, $3500. Contact: Fred Easton, 
(202) 332-4042 or (202) 462-1177. 

• FOR SALE: Moviola flatbed 16mm 6-plate. 
Hollow prism. One owner, excellent condition, 
$9000. Contact: Joyce Chopra, (203) 927-4406. 



• FOR SALE: New Unidek. Animation studio 
expanding into computerized equipment & tape, 
must sacrifice. 6 plates, sync, rewind module. Also 
50% discount to AIVF members on sale price of 
1-hr. library of special effects, available in V* " tape 
w/ unlimited use, unlimited runs. Library includes 
special effects, visuals, daters, backgrounds; all 
computer-animated, ready to use. For info: 
Darino Films, 222 Park Ave. So., NY NY 10003, 
(212) 228-4024. 

• FOR RENT: 8 & 6-plate Steenbecks delivered 
to your place. Prices low & negotiable. Contact: 
Pat, (516) 754-1687, am or late eve. 

• FOR RENT: Complete production equipment 
& personnel for feature & documentary projects. 
W/ Aaton 16 or Super-16 camera, Nagra IV, 
Magna Tech transfers, 6-plate Steenbeck. Contact: 
Mike Hall, (212) 242-5217 or (203) 261-0615. 

• FOR SALE: Magnasync 2200 rec/rep, 2-602 
dubbers, mixer-selsyn interlock system, $3700; In- 
terlock projector, Magnasync 602 rec/rep, $1150; 
Canon 12-120 macrolens, Angenieux 12-120, $850; 
Kling timelapse animation system, Maier-Hancock 
splicer, $150; Uher 4000L recorder, $750; Arri BL 
1200 magazine. Contact: (512) 478-2971. 

• FOR RENT: Low rental rates for artist & indies 
on Ikegami & Sony cameras, V* " & 1 " recorders. 
Rates flexible enough to fit most budgets. Also, 
Panasonic WV-3300 video camera, excellent con- 
dition, for sale. $500 or best offer. Contact: David 
Rose, (716) 442-1793. 

• FOR SALE: Jenssen portable combination dol- 
ly. Steerable, converts to doorway dolly, runs on 
ABS track or wheels. Used once. Includes Anvil 
cases, insurance & freight, $750. Contact: Mark 
Willner, (804) 424-2223, before 11 pm. 

• FOR SALE: Bolex H-16 16mm movie camera 
w/case, Switar 25mm fl.4 lens & Elgeet 75mm fl.9 
lens, $325. Also Bell & Howell Filmo 240 w/ Super 
Comat 20mm fl.9 lens & Schneider-Xenar 75mm 
f2.8 lens, $150. Contact: Dan Klugherz, (212) 
595-0058. 

• FOR SALE: Portapak system w/ Sony AV3400 
(Vi" b/w reel-to-reel) recorder, AVC-3400 Sony 
camera, TV zoom fl2.5-50mm 1:1.8 lens, adaptor, 
Tamron TV lens 16/1.6; Sony videocorder AV3650 
(b/w); monitor MV 900 GBC-TV Corp (no 
sound); camera selector VOS-31; CMA-1 adaptor; 
Sony foot switch FS-6. Contact: J. Bak, Young 
Audiences, (212)831-8110. 

• FOR SALE: 117 1-hr. reel-to-reel Vi" tapes, us- 
ed once. Best offer. Contact: Janet, (212) 
598-3241. 

• FOR SALE: L Arri S Tripod & 1-17-85 Pan 
Cinor zoom w/ Arri S mount, $300 each. Will con- 
sider trading for Sennheiser 815, plus some $. Con- 
tact: Benjamin Goldstein, (212) 581-2365. 

• FOR SALE: Used reel-to-reel Vi " videotapes. 
'/2-hr. tapes, $4; 1-hr. tapes, $6. Contact: Jeff 
Byrd, (212)233-5851. 

• FOR SALE: 2 KEM 35mm juniors w/ Cinesync 
interlock. May be used independently as 2 4-plates 
or electronically locked as an 8-plate. Accessories 
included. $18,000 each, $30,000 for all. Contact: 
Johnny, (213) 893-0164. 

SEPTEMBER 1082 



THE INDEPENDENT 



DON'T FORGET TO TELL THEM 
I SAW IT IN 

• THE INDEPENDENT • 

WHEN YOU 

PATRONIZE 

OUR 

ADVERTISERS 



• FOR SALE: Angenieux 12- 120mm zoom lens 
w/ finder & auto-iris. Also, Auricon 16mm camera 
w/ Mitchell mag & body brace. Good condition. 
Contact: Mike, (212) 786-5001. 

• FOR RENT: Editing room, office & Moviola 
flatbed. Share projection-conference room, light 
secretarial messages & receptionist services. Con- 
tact: Bill Greaves, (212) 586-7710. 

• FOR RENT: Eclair ACL, 2 French mags. 200 
ft., crystal variable, constant CP motor, 
Angenieux 12-120 zoom lens, Nikon adaptor 
with/without camera operator. (Specialties: Ger- 
man/Dutch languages, press credentials & license 
plates.) Call: (212) 925-8810 or (607) 432-1687. 

• BUY/RENT/ SELL: Used time-base correc- 
tors; used video terminal gear (video & pulse 
distribution amplifiers, model 3200 series, 
Telemet); Crosspoint latch switcher, model 6104A; 
used wave-form monitors, Tektronix 529; Sony 
multistandard color monitor (PVM-1850PS); used 
Ikegami HL-77/79 video cameras; Philips Norelco 
studio cameras. Contact: Michael Temmer, (212) 
580-9551. 



Courses • Workshops 

• SUPER-8-TO-VIDEO TRANSFERS spon- 
sored by NEA offered at media centers, Fall '82: 
New Orleans, Oct. 23; Huntsville AL, Oct. 30; 
Columbia SC, week of Oct. 24; Boulder CO, 
Nov.l. Taught by Bob Brodsky & Toni Treadway, 
authors of the new book, Super-8 in the Video 
Age. Contact: Bob or Toni, (617) 666-3372. 

• BASIC VIDEO COURSES in studio, 
postproduction, in-field production & directing ac- 
tors. Beginning Oct.-Nov. For course descriptions, 
fees & dates contact: Young Filmakers (212) 
673-9361. 



Editing 

• SAGA VIDEO 3 A" editing facilities w/ JVC 
decks & controllers, Panasonic special effects 
generator, color title camera & TBC. Rates: 
$50/hr. w/o editor; $75/hr. w/editor, special ef- 
fects, title camera & TBC. Special day & weekly 
rates available. Contact: Debbe Heller or Izvi 
Cymerman, (212) 245-1350. 

e EDITING FACILITIES W/ 16mm, 6-plate 
Moviola & 3 A " video, 24-hr. access. $15/10 hrs. In- 
expensive housing also available. Contact: Ap- 
palachian Regional Media Center, PO Box 388, 
Athens OH 45701, (614) 594-6007. 
SEPTEMBER 1982 



• WOMEN'S INTERART CENTER offers 
editing facilities w/ Z6B system. Rates: hands-on 
editing, $10/hr.; editing w/editor, $15/hr.; dubb- 
ing, $7/hr. & screenings $5/hr. Postproduction 
Artists-in-Residencies program available for long- 
term-projects. Deadlines ongoing. Contact: WIC, 
549 West 52 St., NY NY 10019, (212) 246-1050. 



Films A Tapes Wanted 

• INDEPENDENT FILMMAKER seeks Super-8 
home movies, audiotapes, letters, slides & contacts 
w/all ex-Armed Services (especially Army) 
photographers, who can narrate the film they took 
for nonpolitical documentary. To protect privacy, 
no names will be used. Contact: David Miller, 
1311 No. Troy, Arlington VA 22201, (703) 
528-4806. 

• EL MUSEO DEL BARRIO looking for ex- 
perimental, narrative or documentary videotapes 
produced by Latinos or dealing with Latino issues 
for new series Video at ElMuseo. No film-to- video 
transfers will be programmed. Send 3 /4" cassette 
copy (b/w or color), short description of tape & 
list of credits to: John Narvaez, Video at El 
Museo, El Museo del Barrio, 1230 Fifth Ave., NY 
NY 10029. 

• FEMINIST FILM SOCIETY of the Yale Law 
Women's Association seeking interested film- 
makers (including animators) to participate in 
presentations during school year 1982-83. Primari- 
ly interested in films by women & films w/feminist 
view of life & art. Questions of stipends, rentals or 
honoraria must be worked out individually. Con- 
tact: Paula Bronski, Box 401A, Yale Station, New 
Haven CT 06520, (203) 562-6122 or Ann Dutl- 
inger, (203) 789-0229. 

• COE FILM ASSOCIATES, major TV 
distributor of independently produced films, seeks 
quality 1-20 min. shorts. All TV markets covered. 
Contact: Susan Eenigenburg/Beverly Freeman, 
Coe Film Associates, 65 East 96 St., NY NY 
10028, (212) 831-5355. 



A Special Thanks 

to the following members who have 

generously made donations to AIVF/FIVF. 

These much-needed contributions will 

enable us to continue serving the 

independent community better. 

Jane C. Bak 

Deborah Boldt 

Christopher Dixon 

Film Forum 
Debra Franco 
Peter Gessner 
Dirk Haraburd 
Lillian Jimenez 
Richard Kaplan 

Mary Lance 

New Deal Films 

Angela Maria Pol Ho 

Clement Pollio 

Still River Films 

Janet Weiss 

Marvin Weiss 
Philip Yow 



1983 'FOCUS' DEADLINE 

WNET/THIRTEEN's Independent Focus is 
accepting submissions for its 1983 season 
through October 15, 1982. Tape or film 
must be available to screen on 3 A " 
videocassette or 16mm film. Your air- 
quality master must be on 1" or 2" 
videotape or on 16mm film. Please do not 
send any material submitted to Independent 
Focus prior to 1980. 
For more information and a submission 
form, call Emily Eiten at (212) 560-2917, 
or write to her c/o Independent Focus, 
WNET/THIRTEEN, 356 West 58 ST., 
New York NY 10019. 



• ASIAN CINE-VISION looking for films, 
videotapes & artists interested in participating in 
Amerasia Media Service Project. Program 
established to encourage Asian & Asian-American 
media works. Contact: Leslie Gladsjo, Asian Cine- 
Vision, 32 East Broadway, NY NY 10002. 

• FILMMAKER & SUCCESSFUL DIS- 
TRIBUTOR seeks new titles for educational, TV & 
cable distribution. Special interest in health, 
language, arts, aging & cultural subjects. Proven 
sales w/ school districts, aging network, public 
libraries. Contact: Steve Raymen, NCF, 85895 
Lorane Highway, Eugene OR 97405, (503) 
484-7125. 

• FILM PULSE, weekly screening program at 
the Agee Room, looking for non-commercial 
distribution of independently produced films. 
Send resume concerning your film work & one- 
paragraph note about each film you would like to 
have considered. Contact: Film Pulse, Center for 
Public Cinema, 144 Bleecker St., NY NY 10012. 

• MUSEUM OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN 
presents Festival '82: Native Americans on Film & 
Video, Nov. 3-21. Program will consist of recent 
documentary & fictional films by & about Indians 
& Inuit. Film/videomakers interested in having 
work considered contact: Millie Seubert or 
Elizabeth Weatherford, MoAI, Film Dept., 155 St. 
& Broadway, NY NY 10032, (212) 283-2420. 

• CENTRE PRODUCTIONS seeks high-quality 
educational & doc. films for distribution to non- 
theatrical & TV markets. Prefer films under 30 
min. in social studies, art, language arts. Send 
brief description, reviews &/or awards to Centre 
Productions Inc., 1327 Spruce St., Ste. #3, 
Boulder CO 80302, (303) 444-1166. 



Funds • Resources 

• ALABAMA FILMMAKERS COOP offers 
grants of up to $5000 to audio, film/videomakers 
residing in AL, FL, GA, KY, LA, MS, NC, SC, 
TN & VA. Application deadline: Oct. 1. Contact: 
Alabama Filmmakers Coop, 200 White St., 
Huntsville AL 35801, (205) 534-3247. 

• COORDINATING COUNCIL OF 
LITERARY MAGAZINES awarded grants to six 
film magazines: Afterimage, Cineaste, Downtown 
Review, Film Folio, Film Library Quarterly & No 
Rose. Among the panelists was The Independent 
editor Kathleen Hulser. Next deadline, contact: 

21 



THE INDEPENDENT 



Lenora Champagne, (212) 675-8605. 

• AFI INDEPENDENT FILMMAKERS PRO- 
GRAM accepting applications for 1983 cycle. Pro- 
posed projects can be 16mm, 35mm or video; nar- 
rative, animation, experimental &/or documen- 
tary. Approximately $195,000 in grants will be 
awarded Feb. 1983. Submit all material Sept. 15. 
Contact: AFI, 2021 North Western Ave., PO Box 
27999, Los Angeles CA 90027, (213) 856-7696. 

• ARTS IN EDUCA TION GRANT PROGRAM 
provides matching grants for residencies of 1 week 
or more to public & private elementary & secon- 
dary schools. Deadline: Oct. 1. Interested schools 
should contact their local regional arts council. 
Contact: Cindy Olson, Minnesota State Arts 
Board, (612) 297-2603 or toll-free 1 (800) 652-9747. 



• ROSALIND RUSSELL FILMMAKING 
GRANT for film production sponsored by Filmex 
Society. 60 min. maximum, any sound, profes- 
sional or non-professional. Treatment or script for 
proposed film required. $5000, travel & hotel ac- 
commodations to attend Filmex. Sept. deadline. 
Contact: Rosalind Russell Filmmaking Grant, 
Filmex-LA International Film Exposition, 6230 
Sunset Blvd., Hollywood CA 90028, (213) 
469-9400. 

• GLOBAL VILLAGE 1982-83 Facilities Grants 
to video artists in Tri-state area now available. 
Grants from $500-3000 worth of equipment time 
will allow 3-5 artists to use Global Village's pro- 
duction & postproduction facilities to complete 
videotape projects aimed for broadcast or 
cablecast. Contact: (212) 966-7526. 



In & Out of Production 

• WATER BABY: An Experience of Underwater 
Birth in production. '/2-hr. video program focuses 
on birth of Merlinna Rodgers, 7th baby born 
underwater in the US. Produced and directed by 
Karil Daniels; associate producer/chief engineer, 
Andy Neddermeyer. For info contact: Point of 
View Prods., 2477 Folsom St., San Francisco CA 
94110, (415)821-0435. 

• SOME OF THE GIRLS, a 44-min. V* " color 
documentary about go-go dancers. Attitudes & ex- 
periences of 8 diverse women who work at the 
highest-paying legal job for unskilled women shed 
light on dynamics of sex & class roles in America. 
Contact: Laura Boylan, 226 West 108 St., NY NY 
10025, (212) 864-3698, eves. best. 

• JOE'S BED-STUY BARBERSHOP: We Cut 
Heads, 1-hr. drama, written & directed by Spike 
Lee & photographed by Ernest Dickerson, is out of 
production. Film is about a numbers joint in a 
barber shop in Bedford-Stuyvesant section of 
Brooklyn. Contact: Forty Acres & a Mule, 165 
Washington Pk., Brooklyn NY 11205, (212) 
773-4330. 

• LA MAMA: A Twentieth Anniversary Celebra- 
tion, produced by Anita Saewitz, directed by 
Robert McCarthy in association w/ Ellen Stewart 
& La Mama Theatre. Principal shooting is com- 
pleted. Documentary covers excerpts of 18 plays 
revived at the theatre during the year-long celebra- 
tion of La Mama's 20th anniversary. Contact: 
Anita Saewitz, 256 West 21 St., NY NY 10011, 
(212) 242-3900. 

22 



Opportunities •Gigs 

• HIGHLY EXPERIENCED feature filmmaker 
back in USA. Will do consultancy, camera, pro- 
duction managing work, short or long-term. CP 
GSMO, cassette sound, misc. equipment available. 
Fee a must. Contact: Jon Jost c/o Wille, 520 
Strand, #6, Santa Monica CA 90405. 

• COMPOSER AVAILABLE for work w/ 
film/video. Copies of existing work available for 
preview. All styles & situations. Contact: Adam 
Groden, (516) 796-3233. 

• WRITER /RESEARCHER/PUBLICIST 
available to assist film/video producer or 
organization. Good administrative skills, im- 
aginative. Contact: Tony Napoli, (212) 768-3526. 



GIFTS YOU CAN 
GIVE FOR FREE 

If you send us the names of three 

friends (plus addresses) we'll send 

them a complimentary copy of THE 

INDEPENDENT. . . along with a note 

telling them who this little surprise is 

from. Sound easy? It sure is . . . just 

choose people who aren't members 

but might be interested. Take us up on 

this offer today — it could solve your 

gift list problems. 



• INDEPENDENT PRODUCER seeks in- 
telligent, meaningful, contemporary stories of any 
length for Fall shooting. Prefer existentially- 
inclined material illustrating Angst & conflict in 
modern world. Some pay, good percentage & 
credit provided. Send synopsis to: Ramsey Najm, 
Gotham Filmworks, 425 Riverside Dr., NY NY 
10025, (212) 866-2522, leave message. 

• EXPERIENCED camera operator w/ own 
crystal CP-16 camera & car available for documen- 
taries/industrials. Excellent work at reasonable 
rates. Contact: Renato Tonelli, (212) 625-0394. 

• PRODUCTION TEAM, EXPERIENCED in 
video/film, available immediately. Specializing in 
camera, light, electronic effects. Reel available. 
Contact: Jon Heap or Trevor Odell, (212) 
222-6553 or 776-0725. 

• CAMERAPERSON WANTED for 
disarmament-related documentary. 10-15 days of 
work this Fall, little or no salary but will cover ex- 
penses & pay rental for your 16mm equipment. 
Contact: Zack, (212) 982-8545. 

Publications 

• HERESIES: A Feminist Publication on Art & 
Politics looking for articles, interviews, resource 
materials relating to women in film/video/media. 
Ideas & material welcome. Deadline: Oct. 1. Con- 
tact: Heresies #17, 225 Lafayette St., Rm. 1008, 
NY NY 10012, (212) 431-1399. 

• PRIVACY JOURNAL, a monthly newsletter 
reporting on protection of personal privacy in 
cable TV systems & other technology affecting in- 
dividuals. Fee: $25/yr. Contact: Privacy Journal, 
PO Box 8844, Washington 20003, (202) 547-2865. 

• MEDIA PREVIEW, published by Audiovisual 
Center of Catalyst's Library, an annotated 



bibliography w/ necessary info on women & work. 
$12 subscription for 4 issues & annual index. Con- 
tact: Laurie Norris, CAC, 14 East 60 St., NY NY 
10022. 



Screenings 



• FILM FORUM presents: Aug. 11-14, Dress 
Rehearsal by Werner Schroeter; Aug. 25-Sept. 7, 
The Judge & the Assassin by Bertrand Tavernier; 
Sept. 8-14, Decision to Win & El Salvador: 
Morazan both by Cero a la Izquierda Film Collec- 
tive; Sept. 15-28, Reporters by Raymond Depar- 
don; Sept 29-Oct. 5, Survivors: Lingo by Peter 
Garrity & Robert Kirk, Luthor Metke at 94 by 
Jorge Preloran & Steve Raymen and Survivor by 
John Hanson & Rob Nilsson; Oct. 6-19, Celesteby 
Percy Adion. For times & more info contact: Film 
Forum, (212)431-1590. 

• COLLECTIVE FOR LIVING CINEMA 
features a retrospective on the past 10 years of 
avant-garde filmmaking. 2-month festival opens 
Sept. 26 w/ a WNET 1-hr special. Retrospective 
held in conjunction w/the 10th Anniversary of The 
Collective, a major American showcase for in- 
dependent avant-garde film. For schedule & 
catalogue contact: Andrea Weiss, CLC, 52 White 
St., NY NY 10013, (212) 925-2111. 

• 4TH ANNUAL AMERICAN INDEPEN- 
DENT FEA TURE FILM MARKET 'will be held in 
NYC, Sept. 22-Oct. 1. Major trade fair for 
domestic & overseas sales of American indepen- 
dent films. Last year's market screened such films 
as: Soldier Girls, El Salvador: Another Viet Nam?, 
Journeys from Berlin, Garlic is as Good as Ten 
Mothers and many other known independent 
films. Screenings will be held at Cinema 3 
showcase theater. Contact: IFP, 80 East 11 St., 
NY NY 10003, (212) 674-6656. 



Trims 6 Glitches 

• MINNESOTA STATE ARTS BOARD elected 
Katherine Bye Murphy Chair & Leonard Nadasdy 
Vice-Chair. Both will serve 1-year terms. Contact: 
MSAB, 432 Summit Ave., St. Paul MN 55102. 

• CHANGE OF ADDRESS; Cooperative de 
Cineastes Independants Festival International du 
Nouveau Cinema, 3684 Boulevard St-Laurent, 
Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2X 2V4. 

• ERRATUM: June INDEPENDENT, p. 17: El 
Salvador: Another Vietnam? was erroneously at- 
tributed to Glenn Silber only. The film was co- 
directed by Tete Vasconcellos & edited by Deborah 
Shaffer. We apologize for the omission. 

• ARTIST AT WORK: A Film on the New Deal 
Art Projects, produced & directed by Mary Lance, 
was awarded a Blue Ribbon at 1982 American 
Film Festival June 19. Film is a survey of programs 
for support of visual artists during the Depression. 
Contact: New Deal Films, (212) 929-3661. 
Congratulations! 

• FIVF gratefully acknowledges the donation of 
over $1200 worth of 35mm stock, filler & metal 
reels from the Gloria Pineyro Film Service Corp., 
a complete editing service for feature films, 
documentaries & TV commercials. This material 
has been passed on to the El Salvador Film/Video 
Project to continue their important work in Latin 
American film production. ■ 

SEPTEMBER 1902 



35 




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CONTACT: AL GRECO and NORMAN LARS BEBELL 



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THE INDEPENDENT 



THE 

INDEPENDENT 

OCTOBER 1 982 • VOLUME 5, NUMBER 7 

• 

Publisher: Lawrence Sapadin 

Editor: Kathleen Hulser 

Assistant Editor: Frances M. Piatt 

Contributing Editors: Suyapa Odessa 

Flores, John Greyson, David Leitner, 

Wendy Lidell, Susan Linfield 

Contributors: Linda Ann Lopez, Paula 

Martinez, Tony Napoli, Will Roberts, 

Amanda M. Ross, Toni Treadway 

Art Director: John Greyson 

Art Assistant: Deborah Payne 

Advertising Director: Barbara Spence 

Staff Photographer: Sol Rubin 

Typesetting: Skeezo 

Printer: Expedi Printing 



THE INDEPENDENT is published 10 
times yearly by the Foundation for Indepen- 
dent Video and Film, Inc. (FIVF), 625 Broad- 
way, 9th Floor, New York NY 10012, a non- 
profit, tax-exempt service organization 
dedicated to the promotion of independent 
video and film. Publication of The Indepen- 
dent is made possible, in part, with public 
funds from the New York State Council on 
the Arts, and the National Endowment for 
the Arts, a Federal agency. 

Subscription is included with membership 
in the Association of Independent Video and 
Filmmakers, Inc. (AIVF), the trade 
association sister of FIVF. AIVF is a national 
association of independent producers and 
people involved in independent video and 
film. Together, FIVF and AIVF provide a 
broad range of educational and professional 
services and advocacy for independents and 
the general public. 

Articles in. The Independent are con- 
tributed by our members and supporters. If 
you have an idea for, or wish to contribute, 
an article to The Independent, contact the 
Editor at the above address. 

All contents are copyright of the authors 
and The Independent, except when otherwise 
noted, and reprints require written permis- 
sion from both. ISSN 0731-5198. 
• 

A1VF/FIVF STAFF MEMBERS: Lawrence 
Sapadin, Executive Director; Wendy Lidell, Assis- 
tant Director; John Greyson, Media Coordinator; 
Sol Horwitz, Short Film Showcase Project Ad- 
ministrator; Susan Linfield, Short Film Showcase 
Administrative Assistant; Fran Piatt, Membership 
Developer; Suyapa Odessa Flores, Administrative 
Assistant. 

AIVF/FIVF BOARD OF DIRECTORS: Robert 
Richter, President; William Greaves, Vice President; 
Lillian Jimenez, Chair, Kathy Kline, Secretary; Matt 
Clarke, Treasurer, Lawrence Sapadin (ex-officio); 
Daniel Edelman; Pablo Figueroa; Jane Morrison; 
Denise Oliver; Richard Schmiechen; Thomas 
Turley. 

• 

A PUBLICATION OF 

THE FOUNDATION FOR 
INDEPENDENT VI DEO & FILM 



CONTENTS 



Features 

German TV Workshop Welcomes Offbeat Filmmakers 

Interview with Eckart Stein of the ZDF Workshop • Kathleen Hulser 

The Culture Business at CBS Cable 

Indies Are Getting in on the Act — Just Barely • Paula Martinez 

Prices and Prospects in European TV Markets 

A Look at Who Is Buying What from Indies • Persheng Sadegh-Vaziri 



9 
13 
15 



Columns 

Media Clips • Cable Co-op May Come to Chicago 

Also, Updates on S. 2172 and HR. 5198 • John Greyson 

Super -8 • "Latino Superochistas" Meet 

Venezuela Fest Attracts All Kinds • Toni Treadway 

In Focus • Fastest Negative in the West 

Shooting Almost Anywhere with Speedy Emulsions • David Leitner 

AIVF Forum • Weary Finalist Curses Funders 

A Story of 10001 Declined Applications • Will Roberts 

Festivals • New Rules for Academy Awards 

How to Qualify for the Big Trophy Hunt • Wendy Lidell & Amanda Ross 

Notices 

Edited by Odessa Flores 



4 

5 

7 
18 

19 
21 



COVER: Bill Gunn and Seret Scott toast their ambiguous and potentially estranged futures in a scene from 'Losing 
Ground. ' This Kathleen Collins/Ronald Gray production has Scott take a break from her guest for ecstasy to act out 
the part of a 'tragic mulatto' in a student film, while her painter husband Gunn unsuccessfully pursues inspiration 
with an independently-minded Puerto Rican girl. Directed by Kathleen Collins. 'Losing Ground' is one of several re- 
cent US independent features to break new ground in Europe. See page 15. 



CORRESPONDENCE 



Block Claims Indies Share 
Goals of Lucas & Scorsese 



Dear Independent: 

A delayed response to IFP Executive 
Director Timothy Ney's and IFP/LA 
Seminar Director Peter Belsito's letter to The 
Independent, published in the September issue 
in response to Selling A Dream: The IFP/LA 
Seminar (July/ August Independent): 

The IFP Market for feature films and 
documentaries in New York should be moved 
to Los Angeles. Mr. Ney's and Mr. Belsito's 
comment that "a number of European 
buyers, festival scouts, domestic cable and 
theatrical distributors see the Market in New 
York as the main event in securing indepen- 
dent feature films," makes little sense con- 
sidering the following: 

/. Thousands of other buyers attend the 
American Feature Film Market, the Los 
Angeles International Film Festival and the 



OCTOBER 1982 



Academy Awards. Over $100 million in films 
were sold at last year's market. Most of the 
buyers represented at the IFP market attend 
Filmex and the AFM. London, for example, 
a few months later has a far better festival for 
independents to tie into New York, which 
programs few independent films. It is far 
closer to the buyers and is well covered by 
both distributors and television buyers. 

2. Most independent films sold to Europe, 
including films we represent, are sold directly 
via agents or personal contacts. The IFP 
market is both inefficient and expensive. Too 
few films have been shown and most of the 
films that have "sold" would have "sold" 
anyway without the Market. 

3. The IFP could run a market concur- 

Continued on page 12 

The Independent welcomes letters to the 
editor. Send them to The Independent, 
FIVF, 625 Broadway, 9th floor, New York 
NY 10012. Letters may be edited for length 
and clarity. ■ 

3 



THE INDEPENDENT 



MEDIA CLIPS 



Chicago Co-Op 
Bids On Franchise 



JOHN GREYSON 

The August 3 1 deadline for submit- 
ting bids for Chicago's five proposed 
cable franchises saw only two wholly 
locally-owned candidates. One stood 
out from this motley assortment of 
MSO's (multiple system operators) in 
particular — the Chicago Community 
Cable Cooperative. 

If awarded the franchise, it would 
operate as a not-for-profit subscriber- 
owned service, thus offering sub- 
cribers the lowest possible rates. Over 
eighty co-ops are currently operating 
in the US and Canada, including sys- 
tems in Davis, California and Regina, 
Saskatchewan. They are characterized 
by their support for local production 
and the quality and availability of 
their services. "One of the strengths of 
the cooperative structure," said 
CCCC President Sean Sarabia, "is its 
ability to assimilate a wide variety of 
inputs from the citizens and imple- 
ment them effectively, thereby giving 
the subscribers exactly what they 
want, with an emphasis on locally- 
originated programming." For in- 
dependents, the advantages include 
producer-ownership, thereby 
guaranteeing input into acquisition 
and use of facilities and funds. 

The odds against the co-op winning 
its bid are indisputedly high, however, 
given the corporate competition. 
Group W (formerly Teleprompter) is 
one of the main contenders, and its 
Chicago rep Guy Klopp has been very 
busy over the past few months curry- 
ing favor with local citizenry. CCCC's 
Claudia Crask repots that his rising 
star has had setbacks recently follow- 
ing concerted questioning at public 
meetings about Teleprompter/Group 
W's performance in Manhattan. Eight 
years ago they promised to build ten 
public access facilities, and the city has 
long since given up expecting even one 
to appear. Group W has ruffled 
feathers elsewhere as well, making 
Klopp's job harder — in early August 
Ed Asner joined picketers in LA pro- 
testing Group W's refusal to negotiate 
with IATSE, the union chosen by local 
workers at W-owned Channel Z. (The 
workers plan to make a tape about the 
strike and broadcast it over the Group 
W system, in accordance with local ac- 
cess rules.) 

Meanwhile, the CCOM (Citizens 
Committee on the Media), a Chicago 
coalition monitoring the franchising 
process, reports several victories that 
bode well for the future of cable in 
that city. Following extensive lobbying' 
at City Hall, a Universal Service re- 
quirement for the proposed 36-chan- 
nel system has been instituted. Fur- 



thermore, the city has adopted 'equali- 
ty of service' clauses, mandating that 
no areas or neighborhoods be dis- 
criminated against, and has embraced 
minority ownership as-a goal. Also, a 
non-profit Chicago access corporation 
will be created, controlling 20% of the 
channels on all cables free of charge. 
Companies must stipulate an ongoing 
funding comitment to the access cor- 
poration in their bids. 

Of course, we're all aware that even 
words on paper can be rewritten or ig- 
nored. When the franchises are award- 
ed this winter, the task of monitor- 
ing the companies will most likely 
dwarf the work already done by con- 
cerned Chicago citizens so far. Unless, 
of course, the franchise(s) go(es) to the 
Co-op — then the citizens will have to 
answer to themselves. A heady, in- 
vigorating, prospect, to say the least. 
Those interested can write: Sean 
Sarabia, Chicago Community Cable 
cooperative, Suite 1315, 400 East Ran- 
dolph, Chicago IL 60601, (312) 
565-29825. The CCOM publishes an 
excellent newsletter at: 407 S. Dear- 
born, Suite 355, Chicago IL 60605, 
(312)427-4064. • 




Birds on the Brain 

An FCC report recently revealed 
that nearly 40% of the transponders 
currently available on US Domestic 
C-Band satellites are not being used. 
Of the 216 transponders on COM- 
SAT, RCA AND Western Union 
birds, 81 were found to be inactive, 
Satcom-III-R, which is predominantly 
leased by the cable industry, is the only 
one in full use. 

The FCC made no comment beyond 
reporting the facts about all this dead 
air, and resisted suggestions to con- 
duct a follow-up study regarding the 
feasibility of convincing these com- 
munications landlords that deserving 
independents could 'squat' on those 
81 transponders for $1 a year. • 



CAPS Adopts 
Alternate Year Funding 

'Cutbacks' used to mean reduc- 
tions — now they engender a flurry of 
last wills and testaments. A linguistic 
analysis of economics jargon would 
probably reveal that 'depressions' 
(that wonderful dual-purpose word 
that identifies not only an economic 
circumstance but the predictable 
response of those affected) 
precipitates pessimist ic/paranoic 
readings of previously innocuous 
words. 

So when rumors that CAPS 
(Creative Artists Program Service), a 
New York State funding body for in- 
dividual artists, was being cut back by 
as much as 50%, artists now ac- 
climatized by Reagonomics spread the 
word like brush fire. The New York 
State Council on the Arts (from whom 
CAPS receives almost all its money) 
set the record straight on August 5th 
when it announced that the CAPS allo- 
cation for fiscal 82/83 would be slightly 
higher, topping $1 million. However, 
they imposed an administrative ceiling 
of 20% on that amount (CAPS 
previous overhead was approximately 
38%), so CAPS was forced to 
reorganize. The result: alternate-year 
funding for their twelve disciplines. 
Painting, graphics, photography, 
sculpture, music and poetry will be 
funded this year, while film, video, 
choreography, multi-media, fiction 
and playwriting will be held for 83/84. 

Media reps from NAMAC (Na- 
tional Association of Media Arts 
Centers), the Media Alliance and 
AIVF met with CAPS Executive 
Director Isabelle Fernandez to discuss 
what these changes will signify. Ms. 
Fernandez stated that her decision 
regarding which disciplines when was 
based in part on having to hold over as 
few artists as possible until next year. 
However, since the number and 
amount of fellowships per discipline is 
based on number of applications, 
those in the second year stand to 
benefit over and above the increase in 
available monies resulting from the 
administrative ceiling. This in turn 
could beneficially reflect the higher 
comparative costs of those disciplines, 
especially film and video. 

While this move by NYSCA in 
isolation seems to increase the level of 
artists' funding in New York State, 
both artists and CAPS personnel are 
concerned that this could play a part 
in a growing trend toward decen- 
tralization of artists' funding away 
from autonomous regranting agencies 
like CAPS and towards local arts 
councils. CAPS in particular would be 
sorely missed: of the media artists I 
have spoken with, most agree that its 
application procedure is the most 
straightforward of the various funding 
sources, and its support for lesser- 
established and especially experimen- 
tal producers is unparalleled. As Liz- 
zie Borden, a NY filmmaker stated: 
"You don't need any affiliations with 
other organizations — you apply by 
yourself for yourself, with no strings 
attached." • 



Program Fund Head Named 

On September 2, the Corporation 
for Public Broadcasting's Board of 
Directors announced that Ron Hull 
would replace Lewis Freedman as 
Director of CPB's Program Fund. Mr. 
Hull, former Program Manager of the 
Nebraska Educational Television Net- 
work since 1963, was pivotal in the 
development of such public TV pro- 
grams as Anyone for Tennyson?, Hid- 
den Places, and The Mark Twain 
Series. • 



Wirth His Weight in Gold 

As the 97th Congressional Session 
comes to a close, it will be 
remembered in telecommunications 
circles for years to come by eight 
digits: S. 2172 and HR. 5158. The 
former is still alive and kicking, its 
sponsor Senator Barry Goldwater 
having weathered the slings and ar- 
rows of the subcommittee and commit- 
tee process with typical pugnacity. 
Various amendments limiting or 
broadening its scope were defeated, 
and it remains essentially the same 
pro-industry/anti-citizen piece of 
legislation that it began as. 




Representative Tim Wirth 



The latter, proposed by Represen- 
tative Timothy Wirth has suffered a 
very different fate. At the end of July, 
following a $2 million lobbying assault 
launched by AT&T to defeat the bill, 
Wirth bitterly withdrew it, stating: "In 
my eight years in this body, I have seen 
nothing like the campaign of fear and 
distortion that AT&T has waged to 
fight this bill..." 

HR.5158 was a Herculean attempt 
to rewrite the 1934 Communications 
Act, and to, in part, put the beast Ma 
Bell on a leash. Since AT&T/ Justice 
Department settlement through 
AT&T's divestiture, the giant was free 
to gambol through vast new vistas like 
cable (despite its repeated insistence 
that it wasn't interested in that par- 
ticular horizon). Wirth pointed out: 
"Until the settlement, AT&T was the 
leader in advocating that Congress 
—not the FCC and not the courts 
— should set telecommunications 
policy. What has followed the settle- 
ment is an unprecedented attempt by 
AT&T to block Congress from setting 
that policy." • 



THE INDEPENDENT 



SUPERS 



Notes from 
Caracas Festival 



TONI TREADWAY 

"Filmmakers follow their poetic intuitions 
and are devoured by images. Sometimes an 
inspiration takes the form of a dragon; 
sometimes the form of a butterfly. For the 
dragon, use large format; for the butterfly, 
use Super-8." So said cineaste-poet Fernando 
Birri on the first day of the VII Festival Inter- 
national del Nuevo Cine Super-8 (Caracas, 
Venezuela Aug. 10-18). Birri set the tone for 
the festival, the "Cannes of Super-8," which 
explores new talent and new vision among 
filmmakers from around the world. 

For a North American attending this 
festival, meeting people like Birri creates a 
strong emotional connection. "Superochis- 
tas" working in the USA have very little sup- 
port, networking or exposure. We still labor 
underground, coping with residual prejudice 
from well-accepted large-format filmmakers. 
But in Latin America Super-8 work is ac- 
cepted; nay, encouraged. There is excite- 
ment, interest and status associated with our 
film work. 

With Birri as spiritual leader, Pierre Henri 
Deleau connected us to the large-format film 
world. Deleau is the organizer of the Direc- 



tor's Fortnight at Cannes and as a judge in 
Caracas would watch all the films and thus 
discover new talent. At Caracas Deleau met 
Diego Risquez, whose Bolivar, Sinfonia 
Tropical has been to Cannes twice: first in 
1981 when the festival inaugurated a Super-8 
section, then last year as a 35mm blow-up. 
Bolivar had its US 35mm premiere at the Mill 
Valley Film Festival on August 1 1 . The film 
has helped to establish Diego Risquez, 
Super-8 and the Super-8 to 35mm blow-up 
expert, Michael Hinton (of Interformat, San 
Francisco.) 

The French demonstrate an avid interest in 
the new Super-8 cinema in Latin America. 
Antenne 2 of French television sent Armand 
Ventre to Caracas this year offering a special 
prize: the winning film would be aired on 
their network. This year the honor went to 
Venezuelan Hugo Marquez Mallazi, whose 
film Canibel is a poetic recreation of the 
Adam and Eve story. Unfortunately, I found 
it three times too long. 

Another fine example of French support of 
Latin American cinema was the premiere of 




Fernando Birri inspires fellow 'butterflies' at Caracas. In background: Robert Malengrau. Belgium; 
Richard Clark, Quebec; Arnaud Ventre, France; and Atahualpa Lichy, Venezuela 

OCTOBER 1988 



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El Salvador: Another Vietnam 

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Taking Back Detroit 

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Tighten Your Belts, Bite the 
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THE INDEPENDENT 



the first three parts of the long 16mm work 
Claves (Keys) by Franco- Venezuelan director 
Atahualpa Lichy. In this important work, 
funded by the French government, director 
Lichy, organizer of both the Lille and Greno- 
ble festivals, uses cinema, filmmakers and 
film critics to examine, critique and broaden 
our knowledge of Latin American film. 

The first part of Claves deals with the 
growth of a continental consciousness, while 
the second explores shifts in the boundaries 
between fiction and documentary filmmak- 
ing, taking as "point du depart" a quote 
from Jean-Luc Godard. The third half-hour 
of the series explores the growing unification 
of Latin American cinema and includes a 
look at the important "Super-8 school" of 
Venezuela and Brazil — hence inclusion of 
Claves in this festival. A fourth part of the 
series, a study of Cuban cinema, is now in the 
works. 

FULL HOUSES, FAT PRIZES 

This film and the festival which followed 
acted as a magnet for the sophisticated Cara- 
quenos film audience. Each day in the late 
afternoon, a program of Nuevos 
Realizadores (new directors) was presented in 
the Cinemateca Nacional of the Museo de 
Bellas Artes. The 500-seat theatre was usually 
full. Magnificent arc projection and sound 
control were provided by German Carreno of 
the Cinemateca. 




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Many of the films were too long, as is often 
the case with young filmmakers in any for- 
mat. However, in the four years I have been 
attending festivals the films have steadily im- 
proved as Super-8's technical level has 
stabilized. The outstanding films in the na- 
tional category were: Tamunangue by Jose 
Luis Valensuela Fuentes, Piel Fiel Hiel by 
Gustavo Morales, El Pintor de Suenos by 
Giambattista Russo, Abburmiento by Oscar 
Borsten and Santos Inocentes by Victor 
Rodrigues C. 

Each evening there was an international 
competition — about 3 hours of films playing 
to standing-room-only audiences. The judges 
for the international competition were Pastor 
Vega of Cuba, filmmaker and organizer of 
the Festival of New Latin American Cinema; 
Pierre Henri Deleau; composer Ruben Blades 
of New York and Caracas; Venezuelan 
feature filmmaker Roman Chalbaud; Fer- 
nando Birri of Venezuela and Argentina, 
documentary filmmaker and creator of the 
cine-poetry lab at the Universidad de Los 
Andes; Donald Mayerston, Coordinator, 
Cinema Department of the ULA; and Aman- 
da Gutierrez, Venezuelan actress. They voted 
three best films, one from each of three con- 
tinents. The best films were: Waiting for my 
Rushes, a funny pixillation by Quebecois 
Benoit Meek; Saudaude by Sao Paolin direc- 
tor Leonardo Crescenti Neto; and the clay 
animation Mefiat by Aldo Vagnotti of 
France. The prizes are a hefty 6000 Bolivares 
(about $1500), which is often a Super-8 film's 
whole budget. 

Leonardo Crescenti Neto is a talent on the 
rise. He has won prizes with three films in 
three years at the Caracas and Sao Paolo 
festivals. His Saudaude is marked by strong 
cinematic visions occuring inside a woman's 
life/house/mind, including an extraordinary 
sequence of her taping down all the objects in 
her apartment as security against her 
tumultuous dream/nightmares. 

Sue Berkey, a guest from the US, was 
awarded a prized by the international jury for 
her "cinematic exploration." A sculptor- 
filmmaker, she works with multiple projec- 
tors on various materials like picket fences, 
quilts and laundry hanging on lines. Her 
work was well received, which might indicate 
that the international Super-8 festivals are a 
good outlet for some of the more avant-garde 
work that has existed for some time in the 
US. US participation in the festival was 
virtually non-existent, yet Super-8 work in 
the States is as serious as that in the rest of 
the world. 

WILD STAMPING AND CALLING 

The Caracas film audience was quite 
demonstrative, with reactions ranging from 
total silence to wild stamping and calling. 
The audience was largely young, but from 
what I saw so is most of the city. I left the 
festival twice, once to go to Bolivar Films, 
the oldest and largest film production com- 
pany/lab in the city. There I saw a newly sub- 



titled print of the new release La Boda that 
the film team was checking before jetting the 
print up to a Swiss screening. It was the 
cleanest print I have ever seen, as were many 
of the Latin American prints in the festival. 
In the swank screening room, the average age 
of the 30 people working on the film was 25. 

On another evening, I was taken to meet a 
remarkable young man at the commercial 
production house Cinemakit. Fernando 
Duprat has at the age of 21 risen to the top of 
the Caracas advertising world as an editor of 
1 " commercials. He sat in his state-of-the-art 
1 " editing suite and showed me some work. 
Watch for this young man! He plans to come 
to New York University to "expand his ar- 
tistic understanding and experience," a real 
compliment to that university. 

The Caracas festival also hosted people 
from three continents who held a meeting of 
the International Federation of Super-8. 
Director Richard Clark flew in from Mon- 
treal, and Europe was well represented. 
Clark, along with Deleau, coordinates the 
selection of Super-8 films which go to Cannes. 
Clark is also presenting Super-8 films as part 
of the World Film Festival in Montreal this 
August, some in 35mm blow-up. The Federa- 
tion now has members in 30 countries and 
last year was given the distinction of being 
seated on UNESCO's International Council 
of Cinema and Television. 

Sheila Hill, another guest from Canada, 
organizes the Toronto Super-8 Feastival. She 
announced that next year her festival will 
relocate to Florida and will include more 
video. Julio Neri, former Caracas festival 
coordinator, will help with the Florida fest. 
Last year, Hill scheduled a Super-8 panel at 
the Festival of Festivals in Toronto. Each 
year the small format makes some strides 
towards acceptance and visibility around the 
world. 

The Caracas festival was exquisitely 
organized by Carlos and Lisette Castillo, in- 
cluding beautiful parties at villas on the 
mountainsides each night that began at mid- 
night and always featured live local music. 
Each morning about 40 to 50 people would 
find their way to the workshops. I was invited 
to give one on Super-8-to-video transfer, a 
specialty of mine and my partner Bob Brod- 
sky in Boston. Robert Malengrau and Jean 
Claude Bronckart of the Super-8 Center in 
Belgium gave a workshop on cinema as an in- 
strument of personal creativity and another 
on single-system cutting. Bronckart acted as 
the chronicler of the festival, each night 
showing us newsreels of that day's activities. 
There was plenty of interplay among the 
festival participants; the time allowed for 
conversation was a strength of this festival. 
International Super-8 festivals like this one 
provide needed access to the Super-8 family: 
networking is a real shot in the arm. ■ 

Toni Treadway is co-author with Bob 
Brodsky of the new manual Super 8 in the 
video Age. She is also President of the 
Boston Film /Video Foundation. 

OCTOBER 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



IN FOCUS 



Less Is Mote 
With Fast Negative 



DAVID LEITNER 

As cinematographers, we organize light. 
We add it, subtract it, frame it onto film. We 
carry it around with us, pouring it onto sub- 
ject matter as if flooding a proscenium with 
limelight. But each time the photosensitivity 
of our camera raw stock improves, less 
becomes more: shadows unfold as natural 
levels of illumination serve up sufficient 
photographic exposures. With the fast color 
negatives introduced over the past year, the 
hurdle of shooting with available light has 
been cleared. The new challenge is to explore 
available light as a fresh creative resource. 

Evidently, when God made light and saw 
that it was good, He (She? It?) neglected to 
compare notes with George Eastman. 
Eastman's creation — a photographic emul- 
sion on a flexible cellulose nitrate sup- 
port — was so insensitive that only the 
brilliant, bluish light of day would effect an 
exposure at the 16 frames-per-second 
necessary minimum. Thomas Edison, ever 
one to accept a technical challenge and in- 
spired by the promise (read: profits) of mo- 
tion pictures, found a solution. He con- 
structed his West Orange, New Jersey studio 
in 1892 with one wall which folded back to 
expose the stage, while an electric motor 
drew the entire studio around a circular 



railroad track in order to follow the prevail- 
ing sunlight. 

Ironically, insofar as Edison was con- 
cerned, incandescent lighting was of no use. 
Incandescents are rich in red wavelengths, 
and the "orthochromatic" black-and-white 
negatives preponderant until 1927 were sen- 
sitive to blue and green only. Funny-colored 
makeup and hot, noxious, noisy arc lights, 
called Klieg lights, prevailed on every set. 
During this era the diagnosis "Klieg eyes" 
was invented: per Webster's, "a condition 
marked by conjunctivitis and watering of the 
eyes resulting from excessive exposure to in- 
tense light." Happily, such a quaint occupa- 
tional hazard has become an anachronism. 
Today's lighting is portable and efficient, 
lenses are fast, and camera raw stock — hav- 
ing advanced from black-and-white or- 
thochromatic to panchromatic (full spectrum 
sensitivity) to full color— is superb with 
regard to speed and exposure latitude. 

FAST, FASTER AND FASTEST 

The current 250 tungsten exposure index (EI) 
of "fast" color negative represents the latest 
accomplishment in an ongoing campaign to 
achieve photosensitivity to rival the human 




EMMO 

BUSINESS 



Raising, Spending & 
Recouping Your 
Independent Dollars 

A Series of Professional Business 
Seminars for Independent Producers 
presented by The Foundation for 
Independent Video & Film and 
Young Filmmakers/Video Arts 

Wednesday, October 13 •7:30pm 

Alternative Fundraising 

Grassroots & Community Options 

Co-Sponsored by the Film Fund 
A panel discussion concerning non- 
traditional and grassroots methods of fund- 
raising— direct mailings, community benefits 
and events, fundraising parties, speaking 
tours. Featuring moderator Lillian Jimenez 
{independent producer, Program Director 
for the Film Fund) with Richard 
Schmiechen (independent producer, Nick 
Mazucco: Biography of an Atomic Veteran), 
Kavery Dutta (independent producer, With 
Cuban Eyes), and Anna Maria Garcia (in- 
dependent producer, La Operacion) 

Wednesday, October 20 • 7:30pm 

Balancin g Bucks 

Budgeting for Film & Video 

Network and independent film/video pro- 
ducer J. Philip Miller will offer a practical 
orientation to budget preparation, covering 
all aspects of above and below line costs 
for productions. Sample budgets will be 
provided. 

Wednesday, October 27* 7:30pm 

Distribution for Cable 

An Evening With Paul Klein 

Sometimes called "the father of pay TV," 
Paul Klein initiated the concept which 
eventually became HBO. Formerly an ex- 
ecutive at NBC, and now head of his own 
production company PKO Productions, Mr. 
Klein will present a frank, insider's history 
of the cable marketplace, and assess what 
its future holds for independent producers 

Wednesday, November 10* 7:30pm 

Public Relations 

Self-Promotion or Self-Destruction? 

A tutorial in media savvy for independents. 
This workshop will cover different strategies 
for working with print and electronic 
media; how to write a press-release, make 
an 'event' out of a screening, get free 
coverage, do cost-efficient promotional 
mailings. With Eric Breitbart (independent 
producer, Time and Motion), who is cur- 
rently researching public relations for pro- 
gressive organizations. 

All seminars will include question and 
answer sessions. 

FIVF & YF /VA at Dramatis Personae 

25 East 4th St., New York 
Series: $20 

Single Per Evening: $6/members, 

$10/non-members 

For more information: (212) 473-3400 



OCTOBER 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



retina. The photosensitivity of motion pic- 
ture negative has doubled six times since the 
turn of the century (when ASA-type ratings, 
had they existed, could have been displayed 
on one hand). Over the past 30 years, Kodak 
has publicly introduced an improved color 
negative product every 4.4 years on the 
average; EI has leapt from 16 to 250. If this 
keeps up, we'll have two major im- 
provements by 1990 — and what of the 
following decade? 

With this in mind, last June's FIVF 
seminar, Location Lighting for Independent 
Video and Film, was an unexpected letdown. 
Neither of the experts invited, Ross Lowell 
and Roger Dean, addressed the issue of fast 
negative. Their attitude seemed to be: Fast 
negative is faster, but doesn't alter a conven- 
tional approach to lighting. Perhaps. But 
both optical design and photochemistry aim 
to improve speed and fidelity (less lens aber- 
ration, less graininess) to overcome 
dependence on artificial lighting. In light of 
this, the awarding of the 1981 Oscar for 
technical achievement to the Fuji Photo Film 
Company for their introduction of 250 EI 
color negative marks another advance. 

ARTFUL ILLUSIONS 

Lighting affords much of the visual expres- 
sion in film, and no naturally occurring light 
could satisfy all tastes and styles of lighting. 
"Natural lighting" is a grab bag that contains 
daylight, incandescent (tungsten), sodium 
vapor and fluorescent lights of assorted in- 
compatible color temperatures. It follows 
that natural lighting often requires improve- 
ment. Frequently, we wish to manipulate 
lighting towards specific narrative or ex- 
pressive ends. Common sources of illumina- 
tion won't always supply the quantity, quali- 
ty or directionality of light that a scripted 
scene calls for. Sometimes in an effort to sug- 
gest heightened realism, we resort to greater 
illusion: mannered lighting that appears to be 
naturally motivated. However, careful on- 
screen inspection might reveal artful hair 
lights, unlikely key lights, and spurious 
shadows — underscoring a favorite axiom of 
lighting directors: the better the lighting, the 
less conspicuous. 

Fast negatives of today and of the future 
will not so much eclipse the art of lighting as 
extend its possibilities. Breaking down all 
lighting situations into exterior day, exterior 
night and interior, we see that fast negatives 
are best exploited in the latter two categories. 

Not so long ago, "day-for-night" was an 
operative expression on movie sets, and 
although color negatives of 100 EI paved the 
way for routine "night-for-night" 
cinematography, substantial quantities of 
lighting are still utilized on night exteriors. 
This type of supplementary lighting looks 
particularly artificial — even when gelled 
blue — since its intensity is usually exag- 
gerated in relation to surrounding areas of 
shadow detail. At the same time, depth of 
field is restricted by lenses that are used at or 





CLEANING 



HOUSE 

FIVF is spring-cleaning a little early this 
year. The following items are available to 
members on a first-come, first-served 
basis, at the prices listed. For an appoint- 
ment to look at this used equipment, call: 
John Greyson, FIVF (212) 473-3400. 

• Electrovoice Omni-Directional Microphne, 
Model 625- A... $50 

• Sennheiser Microphone K3U, includes: power 
modual, ME40 Super Cad Head, 
windscreen. ..$350 

• Miller professional fluid head LPS 1 70 tripod, 
with legs and spreader, #6537.. .$500 

• Star-D light-weight professional tripod 
#1059. ..$70 

• 2 Sony B/W reel-to-reel '/? " porta-paks with 
recorder, camera, AC adaptor, battery pack & 
charger, with cases. $300 each 

• Panasonic 19" B/W TV (#2234)... $40 

• Sony 6" PVM-8000 Trinitron color field 
monitor, with 2 power cords, 1 UHF to BNC, like 
new... $600 

• Sony CMA-5 camera adapter. ..$100 

• Sony CMA-1 camera adapter. ..$35 

• Sony AV-8650 Vi " reel-to-reel editing deck (no 
forward drive, needs minor repairs)... $50 



close to full aperture. Fast negatives are 
responsible for a growing look in night-for- 
night: available gloom with depth. No more 
fat, blurry red taillights as a passing car slips 
down a dark avenue and into soft focus; 
details in the night can be as crystalline on the 
screen as they are to the eye. 

DEPTH AND CLARITY 

A look at the exposure rating demonstrates 
why. A 250 EI negative at T 2.8 requires 40 
footcandles of light. Since many 
cinematographers in practice rate fast 
negatives at 400, let's rate it at 500 (with a 
slight push, if desired). Along Broadway 
above 42nd Street in Manhattan after dusk, a 
light meter will fluctuate from 4 to 40 foot- 
candles, depending upon the proximity of 
marquees and lighted display windows. Full 
exposure at EI 500 requires 20 footcandles at 
T 2.8. Shooting 16mm and using a 16mm 
focal-length lens stopped down to T 2.8, we 
can focus at 12 feet for a medium shot of a 
nocturnal tourist, and everything from ap- 
proximately 6 feet to infinity will be in focus. 

Admittedly, a T 2.8 doesn't guarantee 
depth of field with longer lenses. Also, the 
Times Square area is unnaturally garish at 
night; most night-for-night filming will re- 
quire some additional lighting. But the mere 
possibility of shooting in such an environ- 
ment with a stopped-down lens already 
marks progress. Lens aberrations that impair 
sharpness, rob contrast and desaturate color 
are evident in full force when a lens is opened 
to its maximum aperture. Stopping down 
automatically renders an image that is 



sharper and cleaner; delicate shadow detail is 
preserved while lens flare is contained (less 
glass forms the image). Overall performance 
is improved as optimum apertures are 
neared, bringing a new, clearer look to night- 
for-night. 

Indoors, fast negatives also exploit conven- 
tional levels of "found" lighting as never 
before. A fluorescent-lit business office with 
80 footcandles of light provides plenty of ex- 
posure at T 4 (no filters, 250 tungsten rating). 
And it also provides natural shadows: dif- 
fuse, realistically motivated, full of familiar 
detail, and with ordinary contrasts to or- 
dinary highlights. For verite filmmakers, the 
good news is that harsh, intimidating halogen 
lamps can be left in their cases. 

COOLING HOT TEMPERS 

Contrived interior lighting can be scaled back 
in wattage with tangible economies in power 
requirements and lighting rentals. A rated EI 
of 250 represents a 133% increase in speed 
over 100 EI; or put another way, each light 
unit becomes more than twice as powerful 
photographically. This is especially welcome 
where 20-amp household circuits are the 
main power supply, and "practicals" (or- 
dinary lamps used as props) are the only 
practical sources of light. 

A fifty percent lighting cutback means a 
corresponding decrease in degrees 
Fahrenheit. This helps to deter not so much 
the dread "Klieg eyes," but inflamed tempers 
and temperaments, whose likelihood seems 
to vary in direct proportion to the quantity of 
perspiration on the set. As the dolly crew is 
rehearsing yet another variation on a com- 
plex technical shot, those who labor under 
the lights can be spared at least some glare 
and dehydration, not to mention the ex- 
asperation of their makeup artists. 

David Samuelson makes the point in a July 
American Cinematographer column on the 
subject of fast negatives that the bonus in 
speed means merely fewer footcandles, not 
fewer lights. As long as key, fill, kickers etc. 
are required, he reasons, a competently lit 
subject will be circled by the same number of 
lighting units. This is undoubtedly true in 
many cases, but not universally. As the 
threshold of natural levels of lighting is ap- 
proached, walls begin to supply sufficient 
bounce fill, and spill from key lighting 
deflected by white show-cards goes a lot fur- 
ther. Interior sources such as daylight from 
nearby windows become more significant. 
What this suggests, perhaps, is the emergence 
of a lighting sensibility that will favor or- 
dinary lighting levels, seasoned only as 
necessary with tastefully controlled artificial 
sources. 

P.S. Don't be surprised if Kodak an- 
nounces an improved '47 negative at some 
propitious moment in the future. ■ 

David Leitner is an independent film pro- 
ducer who works at DuArt Film Labs in New 
York. 

OCTOBER 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



German TV Workshop 
Tunes in to New Talent 



"I feel very lost when I get these 

American proposals. Why should we support alternative 

filmmaking if it is not wanted by America?" 



The last several issues of The Independent 
have expended a lot of energy on the ex- 
amination of American public TV. Despite 
its shortcomings and perpetual financial 
woes, PTVis still usually the only place, out- 
side of a few cinemas, which shows work by 
independents. However, for historical 
reasons, American PTV with few exceptions 
is in the habit of acquiring work rather than 
commissioning it, thus passing up a valuable 
opportunity to stimulate original work. 
Often the arts councils, who are a major fun- 
ding source for film and video in the US, 
wonder why they, instead of the public TV 
system, are supporting work which ends up 
on TV. 

The following interview with Eckart Stein, 
key member of the ZDF Television 
Workshop (Das Kleines Fernsehspiel), points 
out how talent — documentary, narrative and 
avant-garde — is fostered in a German setting. 
While the German situation clearly differs 
from conditions in the US, the Workshop's 
record of commissioning widely divergent 
pieces from a bevy of emerging filmmakers 
of all nationalities makes it worth studying. 
What contributes to its success? A stable 
prime-time slot, staff continuity, numerous 
yearly projects, active pursuit of new talent 
and editorial control by the filmmakers are a 
few unusual aspects of the Workshop's 
modus operandi. Also noteworthy is its 
refusal to employ hosts, introductions, wrap- 
arounds, series concepts and rigid program 
categories to soft-sell "difficult" work to the 
general public. 

KATHLEEN HULSER: How does the 
Workshop programming committee func- 
tion? Do you use panels? 

ECKART STEIN: We work together as a 
group of friends, because we have known 
each other so long. We are different but very 
much agree on independent filmmaking. 
That's the common element. We don't have 
panel-like decision-making. We discuss every 
project together — not everyone sees 
everything but everyone definitely reads 
every proposal. We get together once a 
month, meet and decide. 

KH: Do you take votes? What if five of you 
support it and five don't? 
OCTOBER 1982 



KATHLEEN HULSER 

ES: We don't take a vote. Sometimes two or 
one are so convinced, so adamant, the rest go 
along. It's rare that only one of the eight 
could detect something of value. But our 
decision doesn't mean that ZDF at this point 
actually proceeds: we then have to present 
every project to a hierarchy. 

KH: Have they ever not funded something 
you strongly recommended? 




Bette Gordon's 'Empty Suitcases' led to ZDF 
commission for her next film 

ES: No. Our budget now is about 12 million 
DM (some $7 million), and with that we 
make about 48 to 50 programs a year, we lose 
maybe one or two dates a year to a football 
game or something. And we are affected by 
cutbacks like all German TV. In 1983 we 
have seven programs less than last year. Of 
course, the number of programs allows us to 
take more risks than if we had only 12 or 15. 
Not all of the 48 are good but we have 
enough. Even the not-so-good ones are enter- 
prises with their own value, a good try or an 
important subject. Even if someone found 
himself in a cul de sac, he proved that it is a 



cul de sac. That's sometimes the point: the 
power of opportunity. And we show 
everything, everything. 

Also, once in a while we buy something, 
say, to counteract the general tendency of the 
programming we have bought, for example, 
one by a group from Soweto; women who 
founded a cooperative, so we could show 
what they were doing. Sometimes we buy 
when we want to get to know a filmmaker, 
like the American Charles Burnett. We saw 
Killer of Sheep and bought it. Now we are 
doing his next film, My Brother's Wedding. 
Buying a film can be a way to initiate work 
with someone: buying one, then commission- 
ing the next. 

KH: Do you have a deliberate policy of 
working with young, first or second-time 
filmmakers? 

ES: Yes. Very much so. It's the most impor- 
tant point. We do first films, second 
films — then try to analyze the film for other 
contexts and working conditions. We don't 
want to follow someone through all their 
career. We have a very low budget and we 
don't believe we can totally finance a career. 
We try to get them independent of us. 

We usually give a completion date within a 
year but it's seldom respected. I have been 
waiting two years for the new Jean-Pierre 
Gorin film about toy trains and the people 
who run them. It deals with how people iden- 
tify with the trains, a metaphor for America 
through the images. 

Other American projects in the works in- 
clude Robert Wilson's Stations, about how a 
little boy's fantasies invade his parents' 
house. We are now trying to agree to do a 
film with Bette Gordon — a very beautiful 
and intelligent dialectic about a man involved 
in a voyeuristic situation, a reversed 
voyeuristic situation. She's very stringent. 
And there's a piece called Graffiti [title now 
Wildstyle] by Charlie Ahearn about graffiti 
artists and kids from the South Bronx. We 
have a lot of American projects — too many. 

KH: How did it happen that you commis- 
sioned films from people in the US? And 
how is public television here different? 

ES: There are different historical rules. 



THE INDEPENDENT 




'Lee' Quinones and Sandra 'Pink' Fabara cool 
out above while Patti Astor loosens up and Chief 
Rocker Busy Bee raps in Charlie Ahearn's street- 
America has a pioneer, private interest 
culture with no sense of the European public 
responsibility for non-commercial culture. In 
my opinion, PBS didn't do the job it should 
have done, though some people do things at 
WNET; Kathy Kline does a good job. We 
(WNET TV Lab/ZDF) went together on Er- 
rol Morris' Vernon, Florida. 

KH: Was this your first joint film venture 
with them? 

£5: The only one. 

KH: Will it be the first and last? 

KH: I am afraid. Nobody in the US is in- 
terested in Jean-Pierre Gorin's Poto and 
Cabengo [his previous ZDF-financed pro- 
ject, filmed in Southern California]. Finally 
the Fourth Channel in Britain bought it. We 
have dorte films in Britain without any British 
participation, it's not only in America. But 
with our low budget it's strange to have films 
made in America. 

KH: When did you begin doing American 
films, foreign films? 

ES: We always did. There was Steve 
Dwoskin early on, an American living in Bri- 
tain. We did Greek films, Polish films, 
Belgian films. It was always a tradition not to 
be chauvinistic. 

KH: You have no pressure from other peo- 
ple in ZDF hierarchy, if for example you 
have 10 films by foreigners? 

ES: We have even had sometimes half of our 
programs by foreigners, and nobody ob- 
jected. Fortunately, we have been successful, 
and run for a long time. The Workshop is 
one of the rare bridges between filmmaking 
and TV. Mostly the two are partners only on 
a very, very businesslike level — hating each 
other. But we collaborate. And then we have 
critical approval, not only from Germany but 
from all over — international prizes and all 
different kinds of festivals. 

KH: Were you there from the beginning? 

How was it started? 

10 



ES: Yes. It started (and this may be one of 
the secrets) some 20 years ago, with a pro- 
gram called Kleines Fernsehspiel ("Little TV 
Play"). We began with little films, 25 minutes 
long, mostly bought. And then it became 
more and more difficult to find those 25- 
minute films, since everybody was making 
longer films. So we began to make the films 
ourselves rather than buying them and we 
managed to keep the slot filled. Then 12 
years ago we got the evening for open-ended 
shows. 

KH: Before then, were you on during the 
day or the late evenings? 

ES: We were on early at 7 pm, a prime-time 
25-minute slot inside the advertising period 



Cuban Films Corns to NYC 

A DECADE OF CUBAN FILMS, 1972-1982, 
presented by Young Filmakers Foundation 
and the Cuban Film Institute, Habana 
(ICAIC), Nov. 3-9 at Film Forum. 19 films, 
revealing aspects of Cuban society rarely 
seen by the American public, will be screen- 
ed. The series begins with a premiere of 
"Polvo Rojo" (Red Dust), Oct. 31 at 8 pm at 
the Communications Dept. of Hunter Col- 
lege. A highlight of the series will be "An 
Evening with Santiago Alvarez, " interna- 
tionally acclaimed documentarian, Nov. 8 
(time & place to be announced). Festival 
posters & a catalogue documenting the pro- 
gram, filmmakers & work of ICAIC will also 
be available. For tickets & info, contact: 
YFF, (212) 673-9361. 



[German television clusters ads during one 
period]. 

KH: How do you define an independent? 

ES: We would define it otherwise than as 
defined here. We mean the filmmaker 
himself: he or she is our partner in the deal. 
We are not working with any company, part- 
ner, firm, station: we always deal with the 
filmmaker. 

KH: Is this part of the reason you have been 
able to get such interesting work, work with 
personality? 

ES: I am convinced that it is so. For the film- 
makers gain confidence in what we are doing, 
and we gain confidence in what they are do- 
ing: they know they have total editorial con- 
trol. 

KH: You make no cuts? 

ES: No cuts, no re-edits. Or very rarely, 
perhaps once a year when there are political 
or other reasons, sexual taboos or such. We 
haven't had that kind but once when we had 
a political problem we had to make such a 
cut. We agreed, the filmmaker and us, that it 
was an institutional cut, not ours (i.e., the 
Workshop's or the filmmaker's) and the film 
was shown theatrically without the cut. The 
best example is Rosa von Praunheim's .Dea/A 
Magazine [about the necrophiliac publication 
of the same name]. All our hierarchy im- 
mediately agreed they would not show the 
film on our program but it could be shown 
everywhere else — wherever the filmmaker 
wanted it to be shown. It was totally ZDF- 
financed. It has not been broadcast because 
of the death and brutality scenes but it has 
been shown everywhere else. It may be cen- 
sorship but it's not censorship of the pro- 
duct. 

KH: Do you organize series within the 
general program? 

ES: We do have something we loosely call a 
series, called "Third World Friends." We are 
more and more trying to deal with Third 
World filmmakers. We did ten films last year 

OCTOBER 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



from India, North Africa and South 
America. 

KH: So you don't have to deal with under- 
writers or marketing people? 

ES: Right. Though we do have ratings, we 
are not competing. We are not asked to reach 
a certain standard of ratings; we absolutely 
don't have to consider them. If we did, we 
couldn't do the Third World films, because 
nobody really wants to see those films. But 
the strange thing, too, is that the public is 
very easily won. There is interest in that kind 
of program if you just continue. We are very 
comfortable with our public. 

KH: Do you have any introduction to the 
films or a host, or do they simply run? 

ES: No, they just run. No host. I think it's 
very patronizing. Don't forget all of these 
films run in cinemas, too, so there are two 
levels of response, and we are widely review- 
ed in newspapers. Of course, in Germany, 
people accept that film is commissioned by 
TV, film wouldn't exist without TV. 

KH: Do you give a film a theatrical release 
before broadcast? 

ES: Without exception we ask to have rex 
prima noces because we need those films. We 
don't want to become a showcase: we show 
them first. But we don't interfere with other 
releases. In most cases festivals can be ar- 
ranged. The Berlin, Cannes people ask us 
and we usually agree. The festival prizes of 
ZDF-supported films are very important. We 
probably wouldn't have been allowed to go 
on with such crazy films without this outside 
support. 

KH: What are the other factors in your suc- 
cess? 

ES: The slow growth of the institution, con- 
tintuity, and the fact that every Thursday 
night it runs: we have a status. I don't have to 
ask a board, I simply show the film. 

KH: In other words, you are visible on the 
broadcast spectrum. Do you still do your 
"Kamarafilm" series, the filmmaker's 
notebook pieces? 

ES: I believe that this is the best of what we 
are doing because there is no administration 
hovering: it allows a filmmaker without any 
proposal to work without asking if he is some- 
one with a bank card. We just advance the 
money for the project to be done and it 
works very well. Up till now we have no film- 
maker not coming up with a product. Not 
one in the last 12 years. It's my favorite mode 
of production. These Kamarafilms in many 
cases win an international reputation. It's a 
kind of very personal introduction to the 
public, to the cineastic public. We now 
budget up to 100,000 DM. for these 
Kamarafilms, and very often once they have 
our approval they get other money. 

KH: Are you changing your attitudes 
towards supporting American filmmakers? 
OCTOBER 1982 



I've heard you are getting frustrated with the 
response here. 

ES: Well, I am getting frustrated. All of the 
cultural trash, from Dallas to who knows 
what, is being bought by us, by European TV 
stations. Then I feel very lost when I get these 
American proposals — twenty a month. It's a 
paradoxical situation. I wonder if we are not 
exaggerating this kind of absurd support of 
American filmmaking over here. Why should 
we support alternative filmmaking if it is not 
wanted by America? One Michael Cimino 
budget would help us do ten years of our 
work. I had hoped that the TV stations in 
America would respond but there's no reac- 
tion — they just don't seem to notice what we 
are doing. We make five, six, seven American 
films a year without a dollar in them. There's 
just a kind of darkness here. 

Input [a project to get international TV 
programmers together to see and discuss 
unusual programming in the hopes of foster- 
ing exchanges] should help. But Input has 
become a little hydrocephalic. The 
American/European relationship doesn't 
work well because the American indies con- 
sider Input a marketplace for selling their 
products, and the Europeans consider it a 
useless and unsuccessful showcase. They are 
waiting, without any hope, for American 
reactions. The Americans say the programs 
are beautiful, but there's no breakthrough to 
broader outlets. The Rockefeller Foundation 
[supporters of project] originally hoped it 
would open the media to each other but it has 
been totally blocked on the American side. 
They accept the BBC programs because of 
the language, but everything else has been 
very chauvinistically managed. 

Another example is the ZDF Workshop 
retrospective in Berkeley. KQED, the San 
Francisco station, agreed — more out of 
politeness than conviction — to show three 
ZDF-supported American films from the 
retrospective and were quite astonished that 
they were good and approved by the public. 
But this demonstrates the attitude: American 
films they could get for nothing, and they 
were flabbergasted when the public accepted 
them! 

I feel the American contribution to alter- 
native filmmaking is very, very good, some 
of the best. Which is worse because it's just 
incomprehensible that there is no feeling over 
here that this is important. 

KH: So your frustration is that, beyond just 
trying to get one film of a filmmaker before 
the public, your aim of getting a filmmaker 
started hasn't been achieved? You've sup- 
ported one or two excellent films, and then 
the filmmakers are still stuck? 

ES: Take Mark Rappaport. We have done 
two films with him, and we must stop, yet I 
feel that he continues to be at the same 
point — and not because of lack of talent. So 
why did we do it, why did we give help? Is it a 
kind of strange missionarism over the Atlan- 
tic, why didn't we leave them alone? ■ 



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(2 blocks north of Canal at 6th Ave) 



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tional Film Guide, "in the forefront 
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Cineaste always has something 
worth reading, and it permits its 
writers more space to develop ideas 
than most magazines." 

Published quarterly, Cineaste 
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ii 




THE INDEPENDENT 



INDEPENDENT 

UNITED 

AT THE SAME TIME ? 



As an independent video or filmmaker, you've 
decided to work "outside the system"— which 
means you need a community of peers even more. 
The Association of Independent Video & Filmmakers 
(AIVF) is such a community. As the national trade 
association for independent producers, AIVF 
represents your needs and goals to government, 
industry and the general public. After eight years of 
testifying before Congress, lobbying the public TV 
system, and working through media coalitions to 
preserve and strengthen cable access, we've 
proven that together we have a voice people must & 
do listen to. 

Along with our sister organization, the Foundation 
for Independent Video & Film (FIVF), we also offer 
you a wealth of concrete services: 
* Comprehensive health insurance at affordable 
rates * The Independent Magazine, our film & 
video monthly * FIVF's Festival Bureau, providing 
foreign & domestic liaison * Comprehensive 
information services * National Membership 
Directory listing * Professional Screenings & 
Seminars 



r. 



INDEPENDENT 



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offices or call (212) 473-3400. 
I J 

12 



I etters, continued from page 3 

rently with the AFM and Filmex in Los 
Angeles and attract key buyers with a modest 
budget. This was done by this author in con- 
cert with Filmex in 1981. Over 42 hours of 
films were screened for US distributors over a 
five-day period. Shorts and documentaries 
programmed by Filmex were screened for 
both distributors and press. Had the screen- 
ing committee wished, all of the independent 
features could have been screened too. 

The IFP seems to take the position that 
filmmakers such as Martin Scorsese and 
George Lucas have little in common with 
IFP's stated goals. Both filmmakers started 
as "independents"; Who's That Knocking at 
My Door? and THX-1138 have a great deal 
in common with current IFP-represented 
films. Is the IFP saying that once an "in- 
dependent" feature director succeeds, he/she 
is no longer considered an IFP-type "in- 
dependent?" The IFP has failed to differen- 
tiate its films and struggling directors from 
the hundreds of individuals trying to make 
personal cinema within the industry. What 
IFP member would refuse the support or in- 
dependence that filmmakers like Woody 
Allen, Steven Spielberg and Francis Coppola 
have managed to receive? 

Mitchell W. Block 



Tunnel Vision in Wichita 

Dear Independent: 

The article in the July/August issue con- 
cerning the plight of independent filmmakers 
and public television brings up some issues 
that have been discussed here in Wichita at 
this public television station. As a member of 
AIVF and an ardent supporter of in- 
dependently produced television and film, I 
often go to my Program Director with sug- 
gestions for programs to air on KPTS. The 
response is similar in almost every case: 

/. Who are independents to think that 
they have any particular rights of access to 
PBS or public television? 

2. Why should I air a program made by 
people who are biased and pass themselves 
off as journalists when they really aren't? 

3. The programs are generally from one 
perspective (read: leftist or liberal), and make 
no attempt to be even-handed. 

4. They generally aren't that good... or in- 
teresting. And, too, they are always so 
downbeat. People these days want -to be 
entertained, not to be told about their prob- 
lems, or those of some place they aren't in- 
terested in (or even know about). 

As a result of this attitude, we are now run- 
ning The Bob Newhart Show, Twilight Zone 
and other programs that are of a strict enter- 
tainment value — and not running other pro- 
grams that (I believe) should be on public 
television. Specifically, we have not run any 
of the independent documentaries offered 
this year other than Key West Picture Show. 
Titles like Burden of Dreams by Les Blank 



and Soldier Girls by Broomfield and Chur- 
chill come to mind as ones passed up by 
KPTS. 

This dilemma is compounded by more 
than simple politics. Admittedly, Kansas is a 
conservative state. However, the program- 
ming decisions are not made on that basis 
alone, or so it seems. The overriding concern, 
both here in the small markets and the larger 
ones too, is money. With the financial cut- 
backs as large as they are, public television 
stations must scramble for every dollar possi- 
ble. The segment of the viewing audience — at 
least here in Kansas — simply doesn't want to 
give money for "that type of programming," 
or so I am told. They want (in order, at this 
station): wildlife programs, Doctor Who, 
Masterpiece Theatre and the Friday night 
public affairs block (Wall Street Week, 
Washington Week, et al.). 

How to fight this attitude is a problem for 
all of us concerned with the future of public 
television and independent production. As 
Production Manager here at KPTS, I find 
myself writing endless numbers of program 
proposals for the type of programs we are 
presently not running. Sometimes I get lucky, 
as in the case of From the Beginning, a 
documentary done on the Wichita Ballet and 
its collaboration with some members of the 
American Ballet Theater. In other instances, 
I have been turned down without hesitation. 
Unemployment, the economy (locally) and 
other "down" subjects seem to be taboo. 

In the meantime, we must fight the trend 
of public television and force the program 
directors to take a hard look at what they are 
doing. We must convince them that public 
television is not and should not be competi- 
tion for the commercial networks by pro- 
gramming "what the people want to see." 

At KPTS I am called a "Liberal Fascist." 
By liberal, I mean anything that isn't praising 
business and the "American way." Liberal 
programs, or so it seems from the Kansas 
perspective, are ones that question the values 
we are taught in school and face in our day to 
day life. I like liberal programs and am a 
fascist because I want people to see those 
programs. More power to the liberal 
fascists!! 
Eric Rosenberg, Production Manager, KPTS 



BULLETIN BOARD 

BULLETIN 

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posting from AIVF members. Please con- 
tinue to keep us aware of available ser- 
vices, screenings, festivals, job openings, 
and miscellaneous information! In order to 
keep the bulletin boards neat and all notices 
visible, we will remove posted material after 
two months unless otherwise noted. If you 
wish to keep a notice posted continuously, 
please send us a periodic reminder. 



OCTOBER 1982 



THE INDEPENDENT 



The Culture Biz: 
Indies at CBS Cable 



Though CBS is still financially shaky.a few 
indies have managed to get in on the act. New Orleans video- 
maker Stevenson Palfi talks about his happy experience. 

PAULA MARTINEZ 



As it celebrates its first birthday this 
month, CBS Cable is barely toddling towards 
solvency. Despite its potentially lucrative 
advertising — the arts channel offers free pro- 
gramming to approximately five million 
viewers nationally, who must tolerate up to 
five minutes of ads per hour — many ob- 
servers think the basic service may soon col- 
lapse. Recently, it received a kick in the 
diaper when Twentieth Century-Fox declined 
to become a partner in the venture, thereby 
avoiding a share in CBS' losses (estimated at 
$30 million annually until "break -even day," 
a mythical rendezvous with profitability now 
postponed from 1984 to 1985). 

CBS Cable nevertheless continues to pro- 
duce 60 percent of its programming, a higher 
proportion than its competitors. This means 
that, although CBS (like the other culture 
services) is far from the Garden of Eden envi- 
sioned a few years ago, some indies have been 
able to connect with it. Now that the CBS 
financial picture is causing an abrupt 
shrinkage in the number of productions, the 
fate of the few slots hospitable to indies has 
been put in doubt. Will CBS Cable make a 
concerted effort to schedule mass-appeal 
programs attractive to the advertisers it 
desperately needs? Or will it switch over to a 
subscription format with monthly fees? One 
possible solution under consideration, accord- 
ing to the New York Times, is a merger with 
Bravo, a pay cable culture service which spe- 
cializes in low-budget performing arts pro- 
gramming and is owned by Cablevision, one 
of the largest multiple system operators. 

"MIXED BAG, " NIXED BAG 

CBS' Mixed Bag series, which recruited 
freelance producers to work in tandem with 
executive producer Greg Jackson, "has def- 
initely been discontinued because it's too ex- 
pensive — although I'm sure indies don't 
think we paid too much," says Jack Willis, 
vice president for programming. Greg 
Jackson is leaving for ABC. 

Ellen Hovde and Muffie Meyer of Mid- 
dlemarch Films, who contributed two 
segments to Mixed Bag, comment: "Jackson 
was wonderful to work with — he understood 

OCTOBER 1082 



our ideas. We found that, in terms of subject 
matter and people, cable and American pub- 
lic television are much the same, although the 
business and corporate world tends to make 
decisions much faster. On the other hand, as 
a small company, it was hard for us to wait 
three to five months for payment. We had 
cash flow problems." They went on to 




Allen Toussaint in CBS Cable's 'Piano Players 
Rarely Ever Play Together' 

observe that the many repeats characteristic 
of cable programming helped give their 
Nichols and Dimes plenty of exposure, 
although the scarcity of TV listings in 
newspapers was a drawback. 

On the September CBS Cable schedule is a 
Mixed Bag show devoted to video art, featur- 
ing many of the best-known video names 
(Sanborn/Fitzgerald, Bill Viola, Nam June 
Paik, Davidson Gigliotti) with excerpts from 
existing works and interviews with the artists. 
Meanwhile, on the acquisitions front, the 
American Film Institute's distribution 
department is on the brink of concluding a 
deal to sell CBS Cable six half-hour dramas 



produced at the Los Angeles campus by 
second-year students at the AFI's Advanced 
Film Workshop. "We have about 80 films on 
the shelf which have rarely been seen," says 
Martha Carrel, AFI Director of Distribution 
and Production. "Cable is opening up the 
market for short films. It took time to 
negotiate agreements with the SAG actors 
who play in these productions, but this year 
we sold ten films to HBO, and are now deal- 
ing with CBS Cable." The six films range 
from Jeffrey Lengyel's Just for a Laugh, 
with comic Robin Williams, to Seth Pinsker's 
Strange Fruit, from Lillian Smith's Southern 
novel, to Shelly Levinson's Violet, which 
won a 1981 Oscar for Best Short Subject. 

Willis notes that "We will be spending less, 
and concentrating, as before, on material 
about the performing arts." According to 
him, the only indie project in the works for 
the upcoming season is Mark Brugnoni'a 
Two Poets, a documentary about Robert 
Penn Warren and James Dickey. "We are of 
course open to ideas from indies for commis- 
sions and acquisitions — but within our 
budgetary constraints," observed Willis. 
Some sources in the distribution business 
think CBS Cable's acquisition prices are 
ridiculously low— $5,000 to $10,000 for a 
half hour, and $25,000 for an hour. Says one 
experienced salesman: "At the end of 1981, 
CBS told the Independent Feature Project it 
was buying. But nothing was bought, and 
CBS wanted to retain the right to recut the 
material." The salesman concluded that CBS 
Cable wasn't a viable market. Hovde and 
Meyer, who have worked almost exclusively 
for the various cable services for the last cou- 
ple of years, point out that CBS' acquisition 
fees, in their experience, run double that of 
the best offers from national public TV. 



HOT LINE, COOL KEYS 

Stevenson Palfi, longtime Southern video 
activist and ex-head of the New Orleans 
Video Access center, had an upbeat cable ex- 
perience. Just before CBS Cable debuted in 
October 1981, Palfi showed up on its door- 
step with a twelve-minute sample reel of 

13 



THE INDEPENDENT 



Media Savvy For Mmmbats 

In these days of diminishing resources, 
most members will agree that public rela- 
tions strategies must maximize effec- 
tiveness and minimize costs. Use your 
media wisely... and what better place to 
start than your own magazine, The Indepen- 
dent? We want to start a special section in 
the Notices called New Releases, which will 
feature brief descriptions and distribution 
info, as well as stills from productions. If 
you want national exposure for the price of 
a postage stamp, send info and stills to: 
New Releases, The Independent, FIVF, 625 
Broadway, 9th floor, New York NY 10012. 
We'll keep all materials on file for 
reference. 



IDLE HANDS? 

We need them. For however many hours 
or days you like. The jobs are varied... 
answering phones, filing, selling tickets, 
doing research, contributing to the pro- 
jects that make AIVF serve the indepen- 
dent community better. We need you more 
than ever before, and in return we pro- 
mise you congenial working conditions, 
loads of info, free coffee, and a place to 
work at the center of the independent 
community. Call John Greyson at (212) 
473-3400, and put your hands to work on 
something worthwhile. 



INSURANCE 

FOR FILM 
PRODUCERS 

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ASSOCIATES 

INSURANCE BROKERS 
41 W. 8 3rd, NYC 10024 

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(212) 877-1099 



Piano Players Rarely Ever Play Together. 
Because he had a hot line to Jack Willis 
through then-AIVF director Alan Jacobs, his 
story of the cable game is probably atypical. 
Nevertheless, the saga of how Tuts Wash- 
ington, Professor Longhair and Allen Tous- 
saint — representatives of three generations of 
New Orleans keyboard wizardry — came to 
play for five million cable viewers reveals a 
bit about how the newly-born system 
operates, how it benefits from traditional 
non-profit sector cultural support and how it 
compares with its proximate inspiration, 
public TV. 

Piano Players was acquired near comple- 
tion, but CBS hiked its bid to cover finishing 
costs and to compensate the producer for the 
unexpected additional length of the program. 
Originally designated for an hour slot, Piano 
Players ran 75 minutes when finished. "Jack 
Willis looked at the 78 minutes I turned in 
and declined to cut it," recounts Palfi. 
"Then, to my amazement, he suggested we 
move it into a 90-minute special slot. When I 
asked to be paid more for the extra length, he 
agreed. It was a real treat to talk as fellow 
producers about the subject and forget about 
the business." 

As every indie knows, producing entails a 
lot of business dealing. Palfi decided he 
didn't have the time or energy to go it alone, 
so he persuaded his lawyer to be his agent. 
"My lawyer didn't know much about cable at 
first, but ICAP and AIVF fed him informa- 
tion about the range of market prices and 
terms," explained Palfi. In his case, it was 
easy because Willis already wanted the 
program — and, more surprisingly, still 
wanted it even when the production couldn't 
be wrapped up immediately. 

Palfi's biggest problem, in fact, didn't 
spring from sales or business, but from the 
main character in his documentary. Professor 
Longhair, virtuoso of the barrelhouse and 
rhythm-and-blues piano style, died just 
before the big group shoot which was to 
feature Allen Toussaint, Tuts Washington 
and the venerable 'Fess playing as a trio. For- 
tunately, Palfi already had footage from a 
rehearsal, and managed to integrate the Pro- 
fessor's funeral procession into his completed 
video piece, a forlorn finale to his dream of 
uniting musicians who had never played 
together. 

MAD DASH TO MARDIGROPOLIS 

Most of the editing was accomplished at 
Mississippi Educational TV in Jackson, 
which offered free facilities after WYES, the 
New Orleans PBS affiliate (notorious for 
preferring Avengers reruns to local 
products), turned the piece down. 
"Mississippi ETV supplied $50,000 worth of 
free editing time plus tech crews, in the hope 
of pinning its logo on the wished-for national 
PBS broadcast," says Palfi. "For the shoot, 
the techies would just fly from Jackson to 
New Orleans at 80 miles per hour, the fuzz- 
buster on and a six-pack on the dash. 



14 



Although the station and I had our dif- 
ferences, we learned to work together." 

Piano Players, begun long before any 
cable culture service existed, had $34,500 
worth of grant money in it from arts councils 
and the Rockefeller Foundation, but, as Palfi 
soon discovered, the musicians' fees gobbled 
that up fast. Is it legal — and acceptable — to 
sell grant-funded projects to cable? 
"Marketing to cable is not a problem 
because, after all, they are now putting com- 
mercials on PBS. Erica Jong's Fear of Flying 
became a best-seller, and it was written on an 
NEA grant. Indies over the long haul con- 
tribute so much of their own time, they sub- 
sidize the system. I'm all for selling where 
you can," concludes Palfi. 

Actually, a cable first-run, or rather a 
year's worth of multiple plays, doesn't 
preclude a subsequent run on PBS, although 
the public system "frowns" upon it. How did 
working with cable culture compare with the 
public television route? "PBS has always 
been frustrating for small indies: nothing is 
agreed, the personnel changes, there's confu- 
sion, there's no publicity, and it even used to 
demand exclusive rights for three years," 
grumbled Palfi. "CBS Cable was clearer and 
more efficient: when they decided to do 
something, they did it. On the other hand, 
it's hard to get a national review on cable. 
And cable's subscribers and potential viewer 
share are far less than that of PBS." 

In sum, few indies are going to find work 
for the cable culture services, and the desired 
subjects are far more restricted than on PTV. 
However most producers questioned agree 
that the simpler lines of authority in the cor- 
porate world encourage rapid decisions based 
on short proposals, and the producer never 
has to spend years hunting for grant money 
to fund a good idea. Cable prices do vary 
widely, depending on market forces. But as 
Muffie Meyer remarked, "Who but indies 
will produce a half-hour program for 
$30,000?" 

The future of documentary on cable 
doesn't seem bright. But for dramatic pro-